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 Results
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 Results
 Conclusions






Group Title: Research report - AREC-Bradenton - GC-1979-20
Title: Evaluation of commercial field corn varieties in Dade County, FL, 1979
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067773/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of commercial field corn varieties in Dade County, FL, 1979
Series Title: AREC-Bradenton research report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chambliss, C. G ( Carrol Gene )
Champagne, Roy J
Horner, Earl Stewart, 1918-
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Varieties -- Florida -- Dade County   ( lcsh )
Corn hybrids -- Florida -- Dade County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.G. Chambliss, Roy J. Champagne, and E.S. Horner.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December 1979."
Funding: Bradenton AREC research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067773
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73714473

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    AREC- Bradenton research report GC - 1979-20
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Procedure
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Results
        Page 5
    Conclusions
        Page 5
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Agricultural Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida /
/
EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL FIELD CORN VARIETIES
IN DADE COUNTY, FL 1979


C. G. Chambliss, Roy J. Chi

AREC-Bradenton Research Report GC-1979-20


^77^ /
'


E.~' /1 A i%


t an E. !I80
impagne, and E. S.iHorrer

bDcembe 9 J
.....~~-L ~ ii~r:' ; -


Dade County Florida has a sub-tropical climate and a 12-month growing
season. Irish potatoes, tomatoes and other vegetable crops are grown during
the "winter season". After harvest of these crops the land is, for the most
part, unused during the remainder of the year. The normal practice has been
to plant a non-grain type of sorghum or sorghum-sudan cross at a heavy seeding
rate to serve as a cover crop after the vegetable crop is finished.

Producers have expressed interest in utilizing the land for the production
of a second cash crop. Feed grains such as grain sorghum or field corn may be
suitable second crops. These crops will utilize the land for 3.5 to 4 months
and can also make use of residual fertility left in the soil by the preceding
vegetable crop.

At.the present time, there is a limited market for high moisture grain in
the beef cattle feed lots in south Florida. Feed lots can utilize both grain
sorghum or corn, but usually prefer corn. The dairy and poultry industries in
south Florida can also use locally grown feed grains, but the grain may need
to be dried before being utilized by these industries.


The purpose
grain production
as a second crop


of this study was to evaluate commercial field corn hybrids for
on marl soil in Dade County with the intention of using corn
following vegetables.


Two tests were planted, one in March and one in May. Each will be
reported separately.

TEST I:


Procedure


Thirty-seven field corn hybrids were planted March 7, 1979 on a marl soil
in the Homestead area. Each variety was planted in plots consisting of four
36 inch rows 20 feet long, replicated four times. The insecticide-nematicide
Furadan G, 10%, was applied over the row in front of the press wheel at 10 Ibs.
per acre formulation. Plots were thinned to a stand of 20,000 plants per acre
after plant emergence.



1Carrol G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist, AREC-Bradenton; Roy J. Champagne,
County Extension Agent, Dade County Cooperative Extension Service; E. S.
Horner, Professor Corn Genet. and Brdg., Agronomy Department.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of F. G. Martin, Statis-
tics Department; Roberto Poey, Cauto Farm Corporation, Coral Gables; Robert
L. Woods and J. Borek, Homestead, Florida.


i








The previous crop on this field was Irish potatoes. A soil test indicated
that an adequate to high level of residual fertility was present at planting
time, therefore, no additional fertilizer was added before or at planting.
Following heavy rains on April 24, 29, and May 1, soil tests indicated a low
level of fertility; therefore, on May 6, 200 pounds of 13-0-44 fertilizer was
applied by air. No herbicide was used nor any cultivations made to control
weeds. Weeds were not a serious problem.

During March the corn was sprayed four times for armyworms at a rate of 1/2
pint per acre of parathion + methyl parathion 6-3E. Another application of 1 1/2
pints of lannate per acre was made when corn was at the tasseling stage to con-
trol armyworms.

A rain gauge was located near the plot area. No rain occurred from planting
(March 7) until April 24 when eight inches was recorded that day (see Table 1
for rainfall information). The plot area was not irrigated.

Test plots were harvested on July 19, 1979. Each plot was cut back to a
15-foot length, and the two center rows were harvested for rain yield.

Results

Grain yield and other data are presented in Table 2. Yields ranged from 43
to 146 bushels per acre, Northrup King CS 2829 was the highest yielding variety.
There were striking differences in percentage of damaged ears. Ear damage was
most likely caused by corn ear worm, fall armyworm, and an accompanying infestation
of ear rotting fungi. In general, the tropical and subtropical varieties were
higher yielding and had fewer damaged ears than the temperate varieties. Also,
the husk covering tended to rate higher on the tropical varieties. Hard-textured
kernels and long, tight-fitting husks over the tip of the ear are needed to in-
crease a corn variety's resistance to corn earworm and other insects. The re-
sults of this test strongly indicate that only the tropical varieties with their
hard flint type kernels and tighter husk covering are adapted to this area.
Table 1. First Planting Rainfall Record in 10-day periods
from date of planting

Time Period (1979) Inches/Precipitation

Farch 7-16 0
March 17-26 0
March 27-April 5 0
April 6-15 0
April 16-25 8.0
April 26-May 5 5.9
May 6-15 0.4
May 16-25 0.4
May 26-June 4 1.4
June 5-14 1.7
June 15-24 1.2
June 25-July 4 2.4
July 5-14 5.5
July (15-19)* 0.4

*5 day period






Table 2. Summary of results from Test I for
in Dade County, 1979.


several traits of commercial corn varieties grown


Percent Percent Relative
Company or Hybrid Bu/A @ 15.5% Percent Husk Barren Lodged 2
Brand Number Moisture Damaged Ears Score Stalks Stalks Maturity2/ & Height


Northrup King
Pioneer
DeKalb
DeKalb
Northrup King
Pioneer
Semillas Flor/'
Northrup King
Semillas Flor
Northrup King
Northrup King
Pioneer
Northrup King
Pioneer
Pioneer
Semillas Flor
Pioneer
Northrup King
Funks
Semillas Flor
DeKalb
Asgrow
Northrup King
Northrup King
Ring Around
Golden Harvest
Coker
McNair
DeKalb
fcNair


CS 2829
X 304C
8-670
B-666
.BS .104
X .304A
Arichuna
BS 89
Baraure
BS 109
BS 108
X 5802
CS 274
5065
X4816Z
Obregon
6874
CS 97
G 4999-11
Venezuela 1
1295*
RX-450A*
PX-715*
CS 144
RA-2601*
H 2775*
22*
S-338*
XL 80*
508*


146
130
117
115
114
113
111
109
106
104
103
99
98
98
98
93
90
78
75
74
71
67
60
57
57
56
56
47
46
43


b-d
b-e
b-e
b-f
b-f
c-g
c-g
c-g
c-g
c-h
d-i
e-i
e-j
f-k
g-1
h-I
i-m
i-m
i-m
i-m
i-n
i-n
j-n


Continued...


6.7
7.7
7.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
4.3
6.7
7.0
6.7
5.0
6.3
8.0
6.3
6.0
6.3
5.7
6.3
5.7
6.7
5.7
5.3
2.0
6.3
4.3
4.0
4.0
4.3
3.3
5.7


2.4
5.4
3.3
7.2
5.0
10.3
9.6
8.3
9.3
8.0
12.4
6.7
11.9
4.5
11.1
7.3
5.8
6.7
13.0
3.9
12.4
7.8
5.9
9.8
13.2
8.6
4.7
7.2
5.5
7.5


1.4
0
0.6
1.4
3.9
0.9
0
0.5
0.9
3.0
2.8
1.9
3.6
1.1
0.5
0.9
0
0
0.5
5.6
0
2.1
2.4
3.1
1.9
1.4
1.6
1.2
1.5
0


Tall
Med.
Tall
Tall
Tall
Med.
Tall
Tall
Tall
Tall
Tall
F[ed.
Tall
Med.
Med.
Tall
ifed.
Tall
Med.
Tall
[led.
Fled.
Short
Tall
Short
Short
Short
Short
Short
Fled.





Table 2. Continued
P-ercent Percent Relative
Company or Hybrid Bu/A @ 15.5% Percent Husk 1/ Barren Lodged 2
Brand Number Moisture Damaged Ears Score Stalks Stalks Maturity/- & Height
Northrup King PX 95* 43 k-n3/ 70 4.0 10.7 5.8 E Short
McCurdy 75-200* 40 k-n 85 4.0 9.2 3.3 E Short
Pioneer XA730C* 37 1-n 90 3.7 5.7 1.9 E Short
Northrup King PX 707* 36 1-n 92 3.0 11.9 0.9 E Short
Asgrow RX-114* 35 1-n 87 3.7 15.3 2.9 E Short
Northrup King CS1518-/ 27 m-n 7 6.3 2.0 0 -
Northrup King PX 79* 17 n 99 2.0 5.3 0.9 E Short


1-Based on a 1 to 9 scale with 1 = very poor and 9 = superior

2/-aturity E = early and L = late

3-Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the .05 level of probability
according to Duncan's multiple range test.


-1Full name is:


Semillas Flor de Argua


5/Very poor stand.
*Temperate hybrids (other hybrids listed are tropical or subtropical).







TEST II:

Procedure

The second field corn variety test was planted on May 4, 1979 on a marl
soil following potatoes in the Homestead area. This test contained 48 entries.
Each variety was planted in four row plots (36" row width), 20 feet long, repli-
cated four times. Plots were thinned to a stand of 20,000 plants per acre shortly
after plant emergence.

A soil test at planting indicated a low level of residual fertility. Six
hundred pounds of a 10-10-10 liquid fertilizer was applied two weeks after
planting. A soil test taken on June 13 indicated a high level of nitrogen was
still available.

Atrazine was applied at 1.75 pounds active ingredient per acre for pre-emer-
gence weed control. Lannate L was applied at 1 1/2 pints per acre on June 6, 8,
and 20 to control armyworms.

Results

A strong wind and heavy rain caused severe lodging in several varieties. A
reading of this damage (Table 3) was taken on July 11. The harvest date was
September 13. Only 73 plots were harvested; the remaining 119 plots were aban-
doned due to poorly developed ears and/or severe lodging. Average yield per
acre is reported only for those varieties where all four replications were har-
vested (Table 3). No statistical analysis of the data was made.

Only the tropical varieties produced grain and only one of those, Pioneer
X304C, produced a "respectable" average yield of 116 bushels per acre. The other
varieties that were harvested yielded much lower. Low yields were most likely
due to either severe lodging or poor adaptation of a particular hybrid to the
summer environment.

Conclusions

The results of these initial tests indicate that tropical, subtropical or
varieties similar to Pioneer Hybrid X304C should be chosen for planting in
Dade County. These results are for one year only and additional testing is
needed to measure the response of these field corn varieties over several years.





Table 3. Lodging and Grain Yield Results from Test II (Late-Planted) Field
Corn Variety Test; Homestead, Florida 1979.


Hybrid (Variety)


Bu/A at 15.5%
% Lodaed Moisture Content


Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Semillas Flor <
Semillas Flor <
Semillas Flor (
Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Northrup King
Semillas Flor
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Coker
DeKalb
DeKalb
Funks
Golden Harvest
McCurdy
Asgrow
Asgrow
Northrup King
McNair
McNair
DeKalb
DeKalb
Ring Around
El Salvador
El Salvador
NK Mexico
NK Mexico
NK Mexico
MK Mexico
NK Mexico
NK Mexico
NK Mexico
INK Mexico
NK Mexico


Aragua
Aragua
Aragua


ie Aragua


CS 97
BS 89
BS 109
BS 104
CS 2829
La Maquina
CS 274
CS 144
Arichuna
Venezuela I
Obregon
PX 79
PX 707
PX 95
BS 108
Baraure
X 304C
X 304A
X 4816 A
X 5802
6874
5065
X A730C
22
XL 80
1295
G4999-H
H 2775
75-200
RX-114
RX-450A
PX-715
S-338
508
B-670
B-666
RA-2601
H-3
H-5
T-80
TC-69
Tuxpeno Tallo Corto
T-61
T-59
T-47
T-41
T-101
B-1


Brand


-

-


47
-
-







116


55
61
67
-













33






43

51
48
42
30


_I_ _







TEST II:

Procedure

The second field corn variety test was planted on May 4, 1979 on a marl
soil following potatoes in the Homestead area. This test contained 48 entries.
Each variety was planted in four row plots (36" row width), 20 feet long, repli-
cated four times. Plots were thinned to a stand of 20,000 plants per acre shortly
after plant emergence.

A soil test at planting indicated a low level of residual fertility. Six
hundred pounds of a 10-10-10 liquid fertilizer was applied two weeks after
planting. A soil test taken on June 13 indicated a high level of nitrogen was
still available.

Atrazine was applied at 1.75 pounds active ingredient per acre for pre-emer-
gence weed control. Lannate L was applied at 1 1/2 pints per acre on June 6, 8,
and 20 to control armyworms.

Results

A strong wind and heavy rain caused severe lodging in several varieties. A
reading of this damage (Table 3) was taken on July 11. The harvest date was
September 13. Only 73 plots were harvested; the remaining 119 plots were aban-
doned due to poorly developed ears and/or severe lodging. Average yield per
acre is reported only for those varieties where all four replications were har-
vested (Table 3). No statistical analysis of the data was made.

Only the tropical varieties produced grain and only one of those, Pioneer
X304C, produced a "respectable" average yield of 116 bushels per acre. The other
varieties that were harvested yielded much lower. Low yields were most likely
due to either severe lodging or poor adaptation of a particular hybrid to the
summer environment.

Conclusions

The results of these initial tests indicate that tropical, subtropical or
varieties similar to Pioneer Hybrid X304C should be chosen for planting in
Dade County. These results are for one year only and additional testing is
needed to measure the response of these field corn varieties over several years.







TEST II:

Procedure

The second field corn variety test was planted on May 4, 1979 on a marl
soil following potatoes in the Homestead area. This test contained 48 entries.
Each variety was planted in four row plots (36" row width), 20 feet long, repli-
cated four times. Plots were thinned to a stand of 20,000 plants per acre shortly
after plant emergence.

A soil test at planting indicated a low level of residual fertility. Six
hundred pounds of a 10-10-10 liquid fertilizer was applied two weeks after
planting. A soil test taken on June 13 indicated a high level of nitrogen was
still available.

Atrazine was applied at 1.75 pounds active ingredient per acre for pre-emer-
gence weed control. Lannate L was applied at 1 1/2 pints per acre on June 6, 8,
and 20 to control armyworms.

Results

A strong wind and heavy rain caused severe lodging in several varieties. A
reading of this damage (Table 3) was taken on July 11. The harvest date was
September 13. Only 73 plots were harvested; the remaining 119 plots were aban-
doned due to poorly developed ears and/or severe lodging. Average yield per
acre is reported only for those varieties where all four replications were har-
vested (Table 3). No statistical analysis of the data was made.

Only the tropical varieties produced grain and only one of those, Pioneer
X304C, produced a "respectable" average yield of 116 bushels per acre. The other
varieties that were harvested yielded much lower. Low yields were most likely
due to either severe lodging or poor adaptation of a particular hybrid to the
summer environment.

Conclusions

The results of these initial tests indicate that tropical, subtropical or
varieties similar to Pioneer Hybrid X304C should be chosen for planting in
Dade County. These results are for one year only and additional testing is
needed to measure the response of these field corn varieties over several years.




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