• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Contents
 Tables






Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1974-1
Title: Populations of arthropod pests on commodities grown on the west coast of Florida in 1973
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067746/00001
 Material Information
Title: Populations of arthropod pests on commodities grown on the west coast of Florida in 1973
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 3, 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poe, S. L ( Sidney LaMarr ), 1949-
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Arthropod pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.L. Poe.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February, 1974."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067746
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73486964

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




*7

C-C-S ~AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
r/// IAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida Rf

Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1974-1 February, 1974

POPULATIONS OF ARTHROPOD PESTS ON COMIODITIES TEOLL LITEST COAST OF FLORIDA Il ~49

I I.U LIBRARY

Each year, populations of inse ts andS2e a oonomi importance must be con-
trolled on plants grown in Florida. Management trttgies re formed based on know-
ledge of species present, crops attacked, and numbers of pe ts that affect yield.
Cumulative data of populations over Isevral years will aid n planning future manage-
ment strategies. Presence of natural eneiei'eWlaQ4FP jd edators or disease path-
ogens) and knowledge of when these populat~5 at ient size and density
to affect the pest are valuable data to use for making control recommendations.
Selective chemicals can be applied to conserve these natural enemies and favor their
effectiveness; whereas, indiscriminately applied toxicants deprive the grower of
natural regulating forces.

This report is a summary of insect and mite species encountered on plants grown
on the west coast of Florida from Hillsborough to Lee County during 1973. It is
compiled from records and notes taken during visits to experimental plots, fields,
commercial enterprises, packing houses, greenhouses, saran houses, nurseries and
landscape plantings. Included are data from observations of host relationships,
distribution, economic significance, natural enemies, biology and control. Species
found are listed in Table 1. Several species are economically significant and
deserve special consideration.

(1) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) the southern armyworm, appeared later in the
spring than usual and some crops had been partially harvested. Damage became appar-
ent in late April in the Immokalee-Ft. Myers area and in Hay in the Tradenton-Ruskin
area. Fall populations were higher in the Immokalee area and followed the same late
development pattern as in 1972 becoming prevalent in November and December. Although
few parasites have been reared from these field populations and predators are scarce
the time of occurence and size of the population appears to be regulated by some
environmental component.

(2) Spodoptera exigua (Hub) the beet armyworm, is probably the most versatile
and adaptable species of armyworm attacking west coast crops. Spring populations
were sparse in all areas but present throughout the season. Light trap catches
were highest in the spring, April to June, and a secondary high in July in the
Ft. flyers area. Populations were found in all stages of development on chrysanthe-
mum grown under saran shade: eggs, early and late instars on foliage, pupae in the
soil beds 1/2-1" deep, and adults both in the beds and in light traps.

The fall population began with flights of moths which deposited egg masses
on both surfaces of tomato leaves in Palma Sola-Cortez fields of Ifanatee County.
From these masses an average of 129 eggs were obtained for every 10 plants. This
observation of a fall flight with eggs deposited on upper leaf surfaces was also
noted in 1972. About 98% of eggs collected hatched. The potential of this species
as an economic pest is almost unlimited since it feeds on a wide range of plants,
is difficult to control with chemicals, and possesses high fecundity and fertility
levels.

The beet armyworm apparently does not survive over winter in the more northern
areas of Florida but each spring migrates northward with the crop season. Extensive





-2-


damage to chrysanthemum flowers in the field under saran and in the open was ob-
served for the first time in 1973. Attacks on pepper grown in the west coast area
was slight but was apparently heavier oh the edst coast.

Natural population regulating forces are largely unknown but this pest is
heavily preyed upon while in the early instars and is also parasitized by several
species of wasps. In spite of these agents, sufficient numbers escape to cause
concern to the grower. Older instars appear to have few natural enemies and con-
trols with currently labeled materials are suboptimum.

(3) Trichoplusi ni (Hub) and Heliothis zea (Boddie), the cabbage looper and
corn earworm, which feed on a range of host crops, were not numerous in any situa-
tion. The crops surveyed are utilized as secondary hosts by both species and some
seasons very little damage is observed.

(4) Keiferia lycopersicella (Ualsh.), the tomato pinworm, was cause for much
concern in 1973. Populations began on seedlings produced in greenhouses and were
distributed into fields. Numbers and incidence were higher than ever noted before.
Although the chief host was tomato, large populations were also found on eggplant
with a few specimens collected from potato. Severely infested fields were encoun-
tered in the Naples and Dade County growing areas in early February. Fall popula-
tions were less but numbers in Ianatee-Hillsborough County fields were sufficient
to cause some fruit loss.

The spring population became heavily (60%) parasitized by Apanteles sp. by the
end of June. Significant control for home gardens was realized as a result of this
parasite buildup and also a lower fall population was evident. Pinworm development
is relatively slow, about 2 months are necessary, and the leaf-folding and mining
behavior of larvae cause chemical control of a population to be long term since
lethal residues need to be present at all times to protect the fruit.

Fruit is damaged primarily by the larvae which bore into or under the calyx
and enter the center core. From this site feeding tunnels are made into other areas
of the fruit. Secondary infection often results when pathogens enter the wounded
fruit either in the field or in the packinghouse causing a loss to fruit rot.

(5) Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll), pickleworm, continued to attack cucurbits
from late spring until winter. Foliar damage to honeydew seedlings was severe in
the fall and, where not closely sprayed, attacks on fruit were common. This pest,
although easily controlled with residual chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds, is
persistent, therefore difficult and expensive to control with the acutely toxic
organic materials.

(6) Anthonomus engenii Cano, the pepper weevil, continued to be a problem on
sweet pepper. Host currently recommended chemicals used in growing pepper are
inefficient for control of this insect. Populations appeared in Naples area
fields in mid-April. The first generation caused few fruit to abort but by
Hay 3 up to 50% of young peppers in some fields were infested. The weevil apparent-
ly over-wintered in the Tampa area since early fruits were infested at Plant City
in April.

(7) Tetranychus urticae (Koch), the two spotted spidermite, perennially has
been the most serious uncontrolled pest on strawberry, cut flowers chrysanthemum,
snapdragon, statice, gypsophila and on pot grown chrysanthemum. lore efficient









use of some old and some new acaricides in conjunction with fungicides with a mite
suppressive effect led to the best control of the spider mite that has been ob-
served in many years. Further understanding of the relationships between this
species and its host will add substantial potential for better population regulation.

This species has shown field resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon (dicofol),
organophosphates (Trithion, ethion), and carbamates but is susceptible to sulfite
(Omite), cyclic carbonates (Morestan), and organotins (Plictran).

(8) Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), lesser cornstalk borer appeared in heavy
populations on field peas and beans during late spring. Up to 50% of a 6 acre
field of southern peas were attacked. Many plants were destroyed by the girdling
of small stems by larval feeding.

(9) Mocis sp., grass worms or grass loopers, severely damaged lawns and pasture
grasses in Plant City, Ona, Bradenton and Immokalee. These larvae were observed
feeding in bands across lawns leaving brown, dead or dying plants behind. Only
grasses were consumed.

(10) Taeniothrips simplex (Miorrison), the gladiolus thrips, was again present
in sufficient numbers to cause concern. These thrips attack stalk, floret and
corm and may persist through storage on corms. Old abandoned fields with volunteer
plants provide excellent quarters for populations to develop before invading commer-
cial fields. Controls, while not complete, are sufficient.

(11) Feltia subterranea (Fab), the granulate cutworm, has recently become one
of the more devastating pests of ground tomatoes. Once thought to be a pest pri-
marily of seedlings or early plant growth stages, it now attacks primarily the fruit
lying on or near the soil or mulch surface. It is rarely observed in stake tomatoes
but is common on unstaked plants. Attacks on fruit are similar to those of southern
armyworm any size or age fruit or any site on the fruit. This pest can be con-
trolled with currently recommended materials applied in thorough coverage.

(12) Nezara viridula (L.), the southern green stink bug,was especially populus
during the spring at Bradenton. Many crops are attacked but damage to tomatoes
and peppers was severe and most noticeable as fruit injury-pitting and discolora-
tion. The uneven ripening results in reduced marketability of produce.

(13) Platynota., sp., leaf tier, attack on chrysanthemum was more severe in the
1973 fall than in previous years. Leaves in buds of young rooted cuttings are tied
together with silken webbing and inside this shelter the larvae feed. Damage re-
sulting from this action includes defoliation, disbudding and resultant breaks,
partially consumed leaves or complete plant destruction.

(14) Lirionyza munda (Frick), a serpentine vegetable leafminer, remained a
common nuisance on ornamental plants where mines are unsightly and value of the
flower is reduced. Populations build up under speedling greenhouse conditions and
damage rapidly becomes intolerable on field tomatoes. These pests provide a means
for pathogen entry and secondary problems often develop.

Late fall populations increased rapidly on cultivated crops especially where
controls were irregular or, in the case of ornamentals, Aldicarb treatment was neg-
lected. Natural enemies (braconid parasites) are effective under non-sprayed condi-
tions in reducing numbers of leafniners.






Table 1. Test populations of economic significaice cn the Trest coast of peninsular Florida during 1973.

Nature of
Species Source Crops Season. Population Abundance Corments


Spodoptera eriLania (Craii.)
Southern arniwormn


Spodootera e::igua (Eub.)
Beet arnyworm


Tomato
Tomato
PTeeds

Toaato
Tomato


Gladiolus
Gypsophila
Chrysanthesa.u


Watermelon


Ealiothis zea (Boddie)
Corn earwora




Tricaopiusia ai (Eub.)
Cabbage looper and other
loopers


I
B
B
5
-4

B;I
3,I
E
3


I


Frankliniella spp


Tomato
Tomato & pepper
Chrysanthemum
Gladiolus
Corn

Tomato
Tomato
Chrysanthenun
Snapdragon

Gerbera
Watermelon

Tomato
Pepper
Chrysanthemrum
Carnation
Gypsophila
Gladiolus


Heavy
Heavy
Light


Light
Very heavy

Light
Moderate
Heavy

Light


Light
Light
Light
Light
Light


S
F
S
S

S
S

S,F
S
S,F
S,F
S
S


Light
Light
Light
Light

Light
Light

Moderate
Moderate
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy


10-20/20 plants
10-20/20 plants
0-1/20 plants

0-1/20 plants
10-20/plant


0-1/20
2-3/20
3-5/20


plants
plants
plants


0-1/20 plants

0-1/20 plants
0-1/20 plants
0-1/10 ft bed
0-1/20 plants
0-1/ear

0-1/10 plants
0-1/10 plants
0-1/10 ft bed
0-1/10 ft bed

0-1/10 plants
0-1/plant

3-5/blosson
3-5/blossom
10-30/blossom
5-10/blossom
5-10/radicle
5-10/spike


Damaged fruit
H'oved to crops


Foliar injury to early
non-fruit bearing vines


In some plantings, attacked
late open flower


In stalk & ears


Late season foliage
Persistent all season
Cause damage by defol-
iation

rarly season only

Thrips appear to be mi-
grating to flowers from
other crops
Probably weeds or citrus







Table 1. (continued page 2)


ilature of
Species Sourcel Crops Season2 Population Abundance Comments


Taeniothries simplex; (lori-
son). Gladiolus thrips

L :h7."' .3 frugiperda (Smith)
fall armiywor

ian-duca sexta (Joh.)
Tobacco hornwor's

Scapteriscus spp.
*;olecrickets



Faltia subterranea (7ab.)
sranulate cutwort.


Southern green andc brown
stiikbu.;s


Tetranychus urticaa Koch
2-spotted spiderrite


gZlcdiolus


Sweet corn


Tom-ato
Tomato


Tonato
Pepper
Corn
Sod (turf)

Tomato
Haternelon
To.ato


IB
I
D,I


Moderate


Moderate


Light
Light


S,F
S,F
SF
F.S

S
S
1


Tonato
Tonato
Tomato


Strawberry

Chrysanthemum'

Carnation
Snapdragon
Gypsophila
Statice
1gaplant


S

S
S
S

S
S


Heavy
.Ioderate
moderate
Heavy

Heavy
Heavy
Meavy
Light

Moderate
Light
Heavy


Light
Heavy
Light
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy


5-10/plant


0-1/plant


0-1/10 plants
0-1/10 plants

10-20/100 ft row
5-10/100 ft row
5-10/100 ft row
Numerous tunnels

10-15/20 ft row
10-15/20 ft row
0-1/20 ft row

5-10/10 plants
0-1/10 plants
10-20/10 plants


0-1/leaf
50-100/leaf
0-1/leaf
20-30/leaf
10-30/leaf
20-30/leaf
30-50/leaf
20-50/leaf
50-75/leaf


Large populations develop-
ed on unsprayed plants

In ears & stalks


Foliage of small plants
consumed

Consumed roots of newly
set plants under mulch

Impossible to remove sod

Feed on unstaked fruit
"Rindworr" damage


On unstaked tomatoes
On staked plants after
legume cover crop was
harvested

Populations build
gradually from Jan. to
June and cause severe
foliar damage







Table 1. (Coltinued page 3)


Nature of
3pacies Sourcea Croas Season2 Population Abundance Comments


. ;yzus iersicae (Sulzer)
green peach aphid


Pachybrachius sp>
Pameras


Disphania nitidalis (Stoll)
-elont.orm


LirioTmiyza sp
Veo lesafrinar


Keiferia lycopersicella
('elsh.). Tocato pinworn


-eliothis virescens (Fab.)
Tobacco budworm


Anthonoh.us sugenii Cano
Pepper weevil


Pepper
Chrysanthemum


Snapdragon
Carnation

Strawberry
To:ato

Squash
Cucumber
.oneydewt


Toato
Totato

Pepper
Chrysanthemum
Snapdragon


Tomato
Potato
Eggplant
Eggplant


S
S,F

S,F
3


S



S
s-




7


S
S,F
S,F


Snapdragon
Tomato


Pepper
Pepper


Light
Heavy

Heavy
Light

Heavy
Light


Heavy
Hloderate
Heavy


Heavy
Heavy

Light
Light
Light


Heavy
Light
moderate
Heavy


Heavy
Light


Heavy
Light


5-10/leaf
10-20/plant

10-20/plant
1-3/plant


30-50/10 plants
1-5/10 ft row


5-10/plant
1-5/plant
5-10/plant


20-30/plant
20-30/plant

1-5/plant
0-1/plant
1-2/plant

10-15/plant
1-5/plant
5-10/plant
10-15/leaf


1-3/flower
0-1/10 okabts


1-3/fruit in
late harvest


Populations persistent and
reached large proportions
on most crops


On mulched beds
In ground tomatoes, weeds

Feed on leaf and fruit

Hay defoliate early seed-
lings or sport fruit


Late fall population
buildup

Heavy in late fall


Seedling infestation in
greenhouse led to field
plant damage. Attack in
greenhouse and fruit.
Tomatoes most severely
injured.

Varietal preference evi-
dent. One flight of
moths only

Population slightly less
than in 1972.


3;I
B,I


,I
T
D3,B
I







Table 1. (continued pa-e 4)


Nature of
Species Sourcel Croos Season2 Population Abundance Comments


Schizura
Red-hupsed oahwor-n

Automeris io (Fab.)
Io roth


Sibins stitulae (Clen-n)
Saddleback caterpillar


Platynota sp.
Leaf tier


Taylorilygus pallidulus
(3lancl.), a green plant


Phytoseiulus macropilis
(3an?!s). A predator

.otetranychus lewisi
a spidernite

ElasrLopal.ous liinosellus
(Zalier) Lesser cornstalks
borer


0iocis so,
Grass loopar

Labidurs sp.
an ear,7ig


Oal shade
trees

Lorood carissa
Paln


.3 Palms


3 Chrysanthemaum


Chrysanther-mum
Chrysanthemum


D Strawberries


B3 poinsettia


i So. peas


Grass


Tomato


Heavy


Moderate
Light

Moderate


Light
Heavy

moderate
Heavy


Light


leavy


Heavy


Heavy


Moderate


1-2 broods/tree


2-5/plant
0-1/plant

2-5/plant


1/10 ft bed
3-5/10 ft bed

1-5/10 ft bed
10-15/10 ft bed
in untreated area

0-1/plant


50-100/leaf


0-1/plant


3-5/ft2


3-5/10 ft plot


Larvae defoliated several
ornamental shade oak trees

Portions of plant
defoliated

NTo significant damage
Late population parasitized

Destroys growing tip and
expanding leaves

Cause bud distortion and
blind growth and shoot
breaks

Observed in late April
or early Hay

Home landscape plants de-
foliated, pale, discolored

Young peas heavily damaged
by girdling of stalk


Local larms up to 1.5 A
infested and defoliated

Preys on larvae in toma-
toes


1-ources indicated = I Isokals D Dover, B 3radenton
S = Sprrin crop season, 5 = "Jr-: crop season




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs