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 Copyright
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Results and discussion
 Literature cited






Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1980-7
Title: Preliminary studies on soil-water movement from trickle irrigation lines on a myakka fine sand
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067735/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preliminary studies on soil-water movement from trickle irrigation lines on a myakka fine sand
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 2, 1 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stanley, Craig D
Harbaugh, B. K ( Brent Kalen )
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Soil infiltration rate -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil percolation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 2).
Statement of Responsibility: C.D. Stanley and B.K. Harbaugh.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July 1980."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067735
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73504546

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Literature cited
        Page 2
        Page 3
Full Text





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Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
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site maintained by the Florida
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Agricultural Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida
Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1980-7 July 1980
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON SOIL-WATER MOVEMENT FROM TRICKLE
IRRIGATION LINES ON A MYAKKA FINE SAND
C. D. Stanley and B. K. Harbaugh,

INTRODUCTION
The use of water conserving irrigation systems is receiving more attention at
present than it has in the past because of Florida's current water and energy situ-
ation. The use of one of these systems, the trickle irrigation system, is limited
at best, partially because pertineht information concerned with management of the
system is lacking. Of major interest is the distribution pattern of water movement
from the trickle line in soils in southwest Florida. If the soil-water movement
characteristics of these soils can be understood, progress can be made toward im-
proving water application efficiency.
Previous studies (1, 2) on various bsil types in Florida indicate that the
finer the soil texture, the more lateral water movement occurs. Koo and Tucker
(2) investigated several soils and measured lateral water movement out as far as
30 in. (76 cm) or more from the emitter down to the 18 in. (46 cm) depth. The
authors discuss, however, that ground water table influence may have affected
measurements in soils where the water table level was high.
The preliminary studies reported here are part of major water use studies for
trickle-irrigated floricultural crops. Investigations were designed to determine
the extent of lateral water movement from 1- and 3-line trickle irrigation systems
on a Myakka fine sand (Aeric Haplaquod). The major objective was to determine if
lateral water movement occurred from a 3 ft. (.9 m) unmulched bed to another bed
3 ft. (.9 m) away. These basic studies did not attempt to take into account the
effect of water uptake by growing plant roots interacting with the water movement.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Investigations were conducted in a sawtooth greenhouse structure covering
undisturbed Myakka fine sand. This covered structure allowed measurements to be
taken without interaction of undesired natural precipitation. The structure also
was equipped with a subsurface tile drainage system which allowed elimination of
the natural water table and any influence that it may have had on the results of
this study.
Similar plot areas of 36 ft. (11.0 m) x 9 ft. (2.7 m) were used for each
separate trickle system. Each trickle system was placed along the edge of its
plot (the 36 ft. long side) so that 1 line of tubing, 36 ft. long, was used for
the 1-line system and 3 lines of tubing 36 ft. long were used for the 3-line system.
In the 3-line system, each line was separated by a distance of 1 ft. (.9 m).
Initial gravimetric soil moisture determinations were made at six 6 ft. (1.8 m)
intervals along the trickle line (the middle line in the 3-line system) and at three
3 ft. (.9 m) intervals away from each sampling point along the trickle line. Three
soil depths were sampled at each site. The depths were 0-6 in. (0-15 cm), 6-12 in.
(15-30 cm), and 12-18 in. (30-45 cm). This grid sampling system provided six repli-
cations of each sampling depth at each distance away from the irrigation source.





Agricultural Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida
Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1980-7 July 1980
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON SOIL-WATER MOVEMENT FROM TRICKLE
IRRIGATION LINES ON A MYAKKA FINE SAND
C. D. Stanley and B. K. Harbaugh,

INTRODUCTION
The use of water conserving irrigation systems is receiving more attention at
present than it has in the past because of Florida's current water and energy situ-
ation. The use of one of these systems, the trickle irrigation system, is limited
at best, partially because pertineht information concerned with management of the
system is lacking. Of major interest is the distribution pattern of water movement
from the trickle line in soils in southwest Florida. If the soil-water movement
characteristics of these soils can be understood, progress can be made toward im-
proving water application efficiency.
Previous studies (1, 2) on various bsil types in Florida indicate that the
finer the soil texture, the more lateral water movement occurs. Koo and Tucker
(2) investigated several soils and measured lateral water movement out as far as
30 in. (76 cm) or more from the emitter down to the 18 in. (46 cm) depth. The
authors discuss, however, that ground water table influence may have affected
measurements in soils where the water table level was high.
The preliminary studies reported here are part of major water use studies for
trickle-irrigated floricultural crops. Investigations were designed to determine
the extent of lateral water movement from 1- and 3-line trickle irrigation systems
on a Myakka fine sand (Aeric Haplaquod). The major objective was to determine if
lateral water movement occurred from a 3 ft. (.9 m) unmulched bed to another bed
3 ft. (.9 m) away. These basic studies did not attempt to take into account the
effect of water uptake by growing plant roots interacting with the water movement.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Investigations were conducted in a sawtooth greenhouse structure covering
undisturbed Myakka fine sand. This covered structure allowed measurements to be
taken without interaction of undesired natural precipitation. The structure also
was equipped with a subsurface tile drainage system which allowed elimination of
the natural water table and any influence that it may have had on the results of
this study.
Similar plot areas of 36 ft. (11.0 m) x 9 ft. (2.7 m) were used for each
separate trickle system. Each trickle system was placed along the edge of its
plot (the 36 ft. long side) so that 1 line of tubing, 36 ft. long, was used for
the 1-line system and 3 lines of tubing 36 ft. long were used for the 3-line system.
In the 3-line system, each line was separated by a distance of 1 ft. (.9 m).
Initial gravimetric soil moisture determinations were made at six 6 ft. (1.8 m)
intervals along the trickle line (the middle line in the 3-line system) and at three
3 ft. (.9 m) intervals away from each sampling point along the trickle line. Three
soil depths were sampled at each site. The depths were 0-6 in. (0-15 cm), 6-12 in.
(15-30 cm), and 12-18 in. (30-45 cm). This grid sampling system provided six repli-
cations of each sampling depth at each distance away from the irrigation source.








The amount of water applied differed between the two systems. Water applied
equalled 12 in. (30.5 cm) with the 1-line system and 18 in. (45.7 cm) for the 3-line
system. Water was applied over a 50day period with the 1-line system and a 10-day
period with the 3-line system. The length of time per hour that water was applied
varied with each system depending on the total water desired and total application
time period.

After the last application of water, soil moisture determinr-ions were made from
samples taken in the same grid pattern as used initially. St-tistical comparisons of
soil moisture changes were made to determine any.iateral water movement occurring as
a result of the applied water,

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Mean soil moisture determinations, before and after irrigation for the 0-6 in.,
6-12 in., and 12-18 in. soil depths at different distances away from the water source
are shown in Figure 1 for the 1-line system. Statistical analysis of the data indi-
cated no significant soil moisture changes occurred at any sampling site or at any
depth except for directly beneath the trickle line itself where significant changes
occurred at all sampled depths, This analysis indicated that if lateral movement of
the applied water did occur, it was cohfied to within 3 ft. (.9 m) of the trickle
line.

Results with the 3-line trickle system are sho'n in Figure 2. With this system,
as with the 1-line system, no statistically significant soil moisture changes were
detected except directly below the trickle lines. Since the sampling was initiated
under the center trickle line, the samples taken 3 ft. (.9 m) -'.:ay were actually 2 ft.
(.6 m) from the outside line. Since no Soil moisture changes were detected at any
depth at this sampling point, this indicates that if lateral movement of water applied
through the lines did occur, it occurred within 2 ft. of the outside line.

Results from these preliminary studies indicate that when a substantial amount
of water is applied in a relatively short period of time from 1-3 trickle lines on
a Myakka fine sand without a high water table, this water will not move laterally to
affect the soil water regime of the rooting zone of another bed 3 ft. away. As to
the extent of actual lateral water movement, additional studies are needed to monitor
water movement within a few inches of a trickle line in the presence of an actively
growing crop. These studies would allow optimization of water application amounts
and frequencies, as well as fertilizer placement, according to plant and soil needs.


LITERATURE CITED
1. Graetz, D. A., J. G. A. Fiskell, S. J. Locascio, B. Zur, and J. M. Moyers. 1978.
Chloride and bromide movement with trickle irrigation of bell peppers.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 91:319-322.

2. Koo, R. C. J., and D. P. H. Tucker. 1974. Soil moisture distribution in citrus
groves under drip irrigation.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 87:61-65.








The amount of water applied differed between the two systems. Water applied
equalled 12 in. (30.5 cm) with the 1-line system and 18 in. (45.7 cm) for the 3-line
system. Water was applied over a 50day period with the 1-line system and a 10-day
period with the 3-line system. The length of time per hour that water was applied
varied with each system depending on the total water desired and total application
time period.

After the last application of water, soil moisture determinr-ions were made from
samples taken in the same grid pattern as used initially. St-tistical comparisons of
soil moisture changes were made to determine any.iateral water movement occurring as
a result of the applied water,

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Mean soil moisture determinations, before and after irrigation for the 0-6 in.,
6-12 in., and 12-18 in. soil depths at different distances away from the water source
are shown in Figure 1 for the 1-line system. Statistical analysis of the data indi-
cated no significant soil moisture changes occurred at any sampling site or at any
depth except for directly beneath the trickle line itself where significant changes
occurred at all sampled depths, This analysis indicated that if lateral movement of
the applied water did occur, it was cohfied to within 3 ft. (.9 m) of the trickle
line.

Results with the 3-line trickle system are sho'n in Figure 2. With this system,
as with the 1-line system, no statistically significant soil moisture changes were
detected except directly below the trickle lines. Since the sampling was initiated
under the center trickle line, the samples taken 3 ft. (.9 m) -'.:ay were actually 2 ft.
(.6 m) from the outside line. Since no Soil moisture changes were detected at any
depth at this sampling point, this indicates that if lateral movement of water applied
through the lines did occur, it occurred within 2 ft. of the outside line.

Results from these preliminary studies indicate that when a substantial amount
of water is applied in a relatively short period of time from 1-3 trickle lines on
a Myakka fine sand without a high water table, this water will not move laterally to
affect the soil water regime of the rooting zone of another bed 3 ft. away. As to
the extent of actual lateral water movement, additional studies are needed to monitor
water movement within a few inches of a trickle line in the presence of an actively
growing crop. These studies would allow optimization of water application amounts
and frequencies, as well as fertilizer placement, according to plant and soil needs.


LITERATURE CITED
1. Graetz, D. A., J. G. A. Fiskell, S. J. Locascio, B. Zur, and J. M. Moyers. 1978.
Chloride and bromide movement with trickle irrigation of bell peppers.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 91:319-322.

2. Koo, R. C. J., and D. P. H. Tucker. 1974. Soil moisture distribution in citrus
groves under drip irrigation.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 87:61-65.









Mean soil moisture determinations before and after
application of water for the 1-line trickle study.


SBefore Irrigation
------ After Irrigation


30 --


20 --


10 --


0--


30 --


20 --


10 --


0 --


30 --


20 --


10 --


0 -


Distance From Trickle Line (ft.)


Figure 1.


0-6" Depth

I ..-. ^ ^ ^ __ ^ ^ __-



,
I ) I I
0 3 6 9



6-12" Depth





I I I I
1--.D




0 3 6 9



12-18" Depth


T- -




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