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 Methods
 Annual fixed costs
 Operating costs
 Discussion
 Tables






Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1980-1
Title: Irrigation systems for pot-plant production in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067731/00001
 Material Information
Title: Irrigation systems for pot-plant production in Florida economic and horticultural implications
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 11 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harbaugh, B. K ( Brent Kalen )
Prevatt, J. Walter ( James Walter ), 1953-
Otte, John A
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Potted -- Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: B.K. Harbaugh, J.W. Prevatt, and J.A. Otte.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 1980."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067731
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73144951

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Methods
        Page 1
    Annual fixed costs
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Operating costs
        Page 2
    Discussion
        Page 2
    Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Agricultural Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
jCs 5Bradenton, Florida
qn/ Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1980-1 January 1980

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS FOR POT-PLANT PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA ECONOMIC
AND HORTICULTURAL IMPLICATIONS J 01 1K ic

B. K. Harbaugh, J. W. Prevatt, and J..A.-Otte

Floricultural production systems developed in Florida have historically
included irrigation systems designed to uniformly and inexpensively distribute
water without regard to the quantity of water used. Mounting pressures from
urban sprawl, industry and the resulting impending water regulations have
forced growers to now consider water conservation.

Several low volume systems are commercially available. This report estimates
the initial investment, annual fixed costs and operating costs for a hypothetical
3.9 acre structure for a capillary mat, weighted tube, overhead sprinkler, or
hand-water irrigation system used in potted chrysanthemum production. The follow-
ing information discusses relevant economic and horticultural implications of
choosing an irrigation system for a new structure or the replacement of an
existing irrigation system. Irrigation costs among producers will vary according
to the structure's size and design, quantity of water utilized and material used
for construction of the irrigation system.

Methods
A hypothetical 3.9 acre structure 400 x 425 ft (122 x 1l0 m) was used for
all estimates. Total covered area was 170,000 ft (15,793 m ) with 16 bays 25 ft
wide (7.6 m). A 12 ft (3.7 m) road down the middle provided for 128-4 ft by 206
ft beds (1.2 x 63 m), 4 beds/bay, or 105,472 ft (9,798 m ) of bed space.

Pot mums grown in 6 inch (15 cm) pots on 18 inch (46 cm) centers were used
for spacing and water estimates. Other crops would differ with respect to
spacing and water requirements; therefore, this must be considered when interpreting
the data presented. Assuming four 90-day crops per year, approximately 187,504
mums could be grown yearly (46,876 mums per crop). Water use was based on
supplying each pot 1 pint (470 ml) of water a day. Estimates using municipal
and well water were included for each irrigation system. Designs, equipment,
parts, and labor for each system were estimated from consultations with commercial
suppliers, growers with existing operations, and research personnel. Price
estimates were based on 1978 figures.

Initial Investment and Depreciation
Materials, prices, total initial investment and annual depreciation for
each system using municipal water are shown in Tables 1-4. The capillary mat
system had the highest initial investment at $19,253. Weighted tube, overhead
sprinkler, and hand-water investments were $14,132, $6,407, and $5,127, respec-
tively.
Investments for using well water were figured by adding well and pump costs
to municipal water investment as shown in Table 5. Where municipal water required
booster pumps, well and pump costs were substituted for booster pump costs.
Initial investments using well water were $21,353, $16,233, $13,282, and
$6,102 for capillary mat, weighted tube, overhead sprinkler and hand-water
irrigation, respectively.





Annual Fixed Costs

Annual fixed costs such as depreciation, interest, repairs, taxes and
insurance are shown in Table 6. Interest was calculated as initial investment
plus zero salvage value divided by 2, times 10%. Repairs, taxes and insurance
were estimated at 4% of initial investment. Annual fixed costs using municipal
water were $11,152, $4,808, $1,854, and $1,872 for capillary mat, weighted tube,
overhead sprinkler, and hand watering, respectively (Table 6-1).
Using well water, the annual fixed costs were increased by the costs of
the 8" well and pump for the overhead.system, and by the costs of The 4" well
and pump for the other three systems. The booster pump costs necessary for
municipal water systems for overhead and hand watering were subtracted before
adding well and pump costs (Table 6). Annual fixed costs using well water were
$11,456, $5,112, $2,861, and $2,000 for capillary mat, weighted tube, overhead,
and hand watering, respectively (Table 6-11).
Operating Costs

Operating costs included water, labor and electricity when municipal water
was used (Table 7-1), but only labor and electricity when well water was used
(Table 7-11). Since overhead systems irrigate the entire area (cropped and
noncropped), it would take 38,703,663 gallons per year to provide 1 pint (473 ml)
of water/pot/day for this 3.9 acre structure (146,493 kl/year). The capillary
mat and weighted tube systems deliver 1 pint of water per day directly to the
pot, or only 5.4 percent of that utilized by overhead. One pint/day/plant
plus a 15% loss of water between pots was attributed to hand-watering. Thus,
with municipal water, water costs were $25,196 per year for overhead sprinkler
while capillary mat, weighted tube, and hand-water systems were only $1,362,
$1,362, and $1,569, respectively. Cost of water plays a significant role in
differentiating operating costs among irrigation systems.
The same labor requirements were used for both municipal and well water
sources. The hand-water system naturally requires the greatest amount of labor.
Estimates used for hand-watering were 20.5 mins/100 linear feet (30.5 m), or
90 man-hours per day for this structure. Even though the capillary mat and
weighted tube systems were automated to allow for several waterings/day, 1 hr/day
was allocated to see that the systems were functioning properly. The overhead
sprinkler system was operated manually once per day as the plants were checked
for any problems due to water distribution.
Electricity costs were not great for any of the 4 systems using municipal
water as the time clocks and booster pumps use little power. Even though more
electricity was used to pump well water, power costs were still not great for
well water in comparison to other operating costs, except for the overhead
sprinkler system.
Discussion

Several conclusions may be drawn from this evaluation that may help growers
choose any one particular irrigation system over the other. Total operating
and annual fixed costs using municipal water are presented in Table 8-1.
Capillary mat and weighted tube systems are cost competitive with overhead
systems, while the hand water system would appear impractical due to extremely
high labor costs.
Using well water (Table 8-11), the differences in total operating and
annual fixed costs between the weighted tube and overhead sprinkler systems
are not great ($132), and would probably not affect irrigation system choice
for a new structure. However, if a grower is already in business with an






overhead system, then the annual operating cost of $3,854 would be less than
the operating and annual fixed costs of $6,583 for the weighted tube system,
leaving no cost incentive to abandon his existing system for a new one. The
capillary mat system costs $12,967, nearly double the weighted tube or overhead
system. This difference might be offset by horticultural characteristics
associated with the production of various crops and pot sizes.

Factors besides cost differentials influence the grower's irrigation
system choice. One factor is that the chosen system must grow a marketable
plant. For instance, if the grower chooses a crop other than mums (mums are
currently being grown with all systems), is there information available to
him to assure a good crop could be grown? The extreme case would be the crop
he chooses is not suited to the irrigation system. Variations between this
extreme and subtle differences in crop quality, time of production and the
grower's unfamiliarity with the new system causing some loss during a change to
a new system must be considered.

Poor quality water, such as water high in soluble salts, makes some systems
impractical. Low volume systems are subject to clogging so they need proper
filtering or high quality water. Using poor quality water increases maintenance
and repair costs. Partial crop losses caused by irrigation system failure could
erase profits.

Irrigation systems are the key to many horticultural practices. For
example, most overhead irrigation operations use soluble fertilizers injected
through irrigation lines. Changing to a capillary mat system requires switching
to mat feeding or using slow release fertilizers incorporated in the soil. The
former can lead to algae problems and the latter may result in higher fertilizer
costs. Another example, a weighted tube system, cannot be used for crops grown
in 4 inch (10 cm) or smaller pots because leader tubes get tangled. The point
is, successful floriculture crop production involves an intricate series of
intermeshed management and horticultural practices. To consider changing one
aspect of production without realizing effects on other production aspects can
be disastrous. Growers may be reluctant to switch to new systems for fear of
losing the experience they have gained with production systems they have developed
over the years.
In summary, annual fixed and operating costs are only one factor in choosing
an irrigation system. Other considerations are: water quality, compatibility
with production practices, and ability to grow good quality crops with minimum
plant losses. If costs estimates were available for these intangible factors,
the choice of irrigation systems would become simpler. On the other hand,
if water becomes a limiting factor to the grower due to water shortages,
the low volume systems will be more rapidly accepted. Economic and horticultural
information will then be more aggressively sought for management decisions to
determine grower survival, not just a management decision on choice of an irri-
gation system.





Annual Fixed Costs

Annual fixed costs such as depreciation, interest, repairs, taxes and
insurance are shown in Table 6. Interest was calculated as initial investment
plus zero salvage value divided by 2, times 10%. Repairs, taxes and insurance
were estimated at 4% of initial investment. Annual fixed costs using municipal
water were $11,152, $4,808, $1,854, and $1,872 for capillary mat, weighted tube,
overhead sprinkler, and hand watering, respectively (Table 6-1).
Using well water, the annual fixed costs were increased by the costs of
the 8" well and pump for the overhead.system, and by the costs of The 4" well
and pump for the other three systems. The booster pump costs necessary for
municipal water systems for overhead and hand watering were subtracted before
adding well and pump costs (Table 6). Annual fixed costs using well water were
$11,456, $5,112, $2,861, and $2,000 for capillary mat, weighted tube, overhead,
and hand watering, respectively (Table 6-11).
Operating Costs

Operating costs included water, labor and electricity when municipal water
was used (Table 7-1), but only labor and electricity when well water was used
(Table 7-11). Since overhead systems irrigate the entire area (cropped and
noncropped), it would take 38,703,663 gallons per year to provide 1 pint (473 ml)
of water/pot/day for this 3.9 acre structure (146,493 kl/year). The capillary
mat and weighted tube systems deliver 1 pint of water per day directly to the
pot, or only 5.4 percent of that utilized by overhead. One pint/day/plant
plus a 15% loss of water between pots was attributed to hand-watering. Thus,
with municipal water, water costs were $25,196 per year for overhead sprinkler
while capillary mat, weighted tube, and hand-water systems were only $1,362,
$1,362, and $1,569, respectively. Cost of water plays a significant role in
differentiating operating costs among irrigation systems.
The same labor requirements were used for both municipal and well water
sources. The hand-water system naturally requires the greatest amount of labor.
Estimates used for hand-watering were 20.5 mins/100 linear feet (30.5 m), or
90 man-hours per day for this structure. Even though the capillary mat and
weighted tube systems were automated to allow for several waterings/day, 1 hr/day
was allocated to see that the systems were functioning properly. The overhead
sprinkler system was operated manually once per day as the plants were checked
for any problems due to water distribution.
Electricity costs were not great for any of the 4 systems using municipal
water as the time clocks and booster pumps use little power. Even though more
electricity was used to pump well water, power costs were still not great for
well water in comparison to other operating costs, except for the overhead
sprinkler system.
Discussion

Several conclusions may be drawn from this evaluation that may help growers
choose any one particular irrigation system over the other. Total operating
and annual fixed costs using municipal water are presented in Table 8-1.
Capillary mat and weighted tube systems are cost competitive with overhead
systems, while the hand water system would appear impractical due to extremely
high labor costs.
Using well water (Table 8-11), the differences in total operating and
annual fixed costs between the weighted tube and overhead sprinkler systems
are not great ($132), and would probably not affect irrigation system choice
for a new structure. However, if a grower is already in business with an





Annual Fixed Costs

Annual fixed costs such as depreciation, interest, repairs, taxes and
insurance are shown in Table 6. Interest was calculated as initial investment
plus zero salvage value divided by 2, times 10%. Repairs, taxes and insurance
were estimated at 4% of initial investment. Annual fixed costs using municipal
water were $11,152, $4,808, $1,854, and $1,872 for capillary mat, weighted tube,
overhead sprinkler, and hand watering, respectively (Table 6-1).
Using well water, the annual fixed costs were increased by the costs of
the 8" well and pump for the overhead.system, and by the costs of The 4" well
and pump for the other three systems. The booster pump costs necessary for
municipal water systems for overhead and hand watering were subtracted before
adding well and pump costs (Table 6). Annual fixed costs using well water were
$11,456, $5,112, $2,861, and $2,000 for capillary mat, weighted tube, overhead,
and hand watering, respectively (Table 6-11).
Operating Costs

Operating costs included water, labor and electricity when municipal water
was used (Table 7-1), but only labor and electricity when well water was used
(Table 7-11). Since overhead systems irrigate the entire area (cropped and
noncropped), it would take 38,703,663 gallons per year to provide 1 pint (473 ml)
of water/pot/day for this 3.9 acre structure (146,493 kl/year). The capillary
mat and weighted tube systems deliver 1 pint of water per day directly to the
pot, or only 5.4 percent of that utilized by overhead. One pint/day/plant
plus a 15% loss of water between pots was attributed to hand-watering. Thus,
with municipal water, water costs were $25,196 per year for overhead sprinkler
while capillary mat, weighted tube, and hand-water systems were only $1,362,
$1,362, and $1,569, respectively. Cost of water plays a significant role in
differentiating operating costs among irrigation systems.
The same labor requirements were used for both municipal and well water
sources. The hand-water system naturally requires the greatest amount of labor.
Estimates used for hand-watering were 20.5 mins/100 linear feet (30.5 m), or
90 man-hours per day for this structure. Even though the capillary mat and
weighted tube systems were automated to allow for several waterings/day, 1 hr/day
was allocated to see that the systems were functioning properly. The overhead
sprinkler system was operated manually once per day as the plants were checked
for any problems due to water distribution.
Electricity costs were not great for any of the 4 systems using municipal
water as the time clocks and booster pumps use little power. Even though more
electricity was used to pump well water, power costs were still not great for
well water in comparison to other operating costs, except for the overhead
sprinkler system.
Discussion

Several conclusions may be drawn from this evaluation that may help growers
choose any one particular irrigation system over the other. Total operating
and annual fixed costs using municipal water are presented in Table 8-1.
Capillary mat and weighted tube systems are cost competitive with overhead
systems, while the hand water system would appear impractical due to extremely
high labor costs.
Using well water (Table 8-11), the differences in total operating and
annual fixed costs between the weighted tube and overhead sprinkler systems
are not great ($132), and would probably not affect irrigation system choice
for a new structure. However, if a grower is already in business with an





Table 1. Estimated investment and annual depreciation for
structure with 105,472 square feet of bed space, 1978.


capillary mat irrigation in a 3.9 acre


LIFE ANNUAL
ITEM QUANTITY PRICE COSTS YEARS DEPRECIATION


Pressure regulator 8
Pressure gauge 8
Solenoid 8
Clock 8
2" PVC 500 ft.
2" couplings 25
1-1/4" PVC 1,000 ft.
1-1/4" couplings 50
1-1/4" elbows 32
1/2" plastic pipe 640 ft.
3/4" nipple 256
1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x
3/4" tee 128
3/4" insert adapter 256
1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 2" tee 8
1/2" x 1/2" x 1/2" tee 128
Electrical components
Miscellaneous fittings
Glue and cleaner
Labor to install pipe and
electrical wiring 70 hrs.
4' capillary mat 26,368 ft.
Labor to install mats 25 hrs.
Viaflo tubing 52,736 ft.
Labor to install Viaflo 35 hrs.
150 gal. pressure tank 1
Filter 1


21.82
8.50
23.50
63.00
35.80/100 ft.
1.40
14,85/100 ft.
0.75
0.60
5.08/100 ft.
0.12

0.65
0.49
0.85
0.24



4.25/hr.
$60/4' x 115'
4.25/hr.
$31/1000 ft.
4.25/hr.
175.00
950.00


Total $19,252.70 $9,418.93


174.56
68.00
188.00
504.00
179.00
35.00
148.50
37.50
19.20
32.52
30.72

83.20
125.44
6.80
30.72
300.00
200.00
20.00

297.50
13,757.22
106.25
1,634.82
148.75
175.00
950.00


34.91
13.60
37.60
100.80
35.80
7.00
29.70
7.50
3.84
6.50
6.14

16.64
25.09
1.36
6.14
60.00
40.00
4.00

59.50
6,878.61
53.13
1,634.82
148.75
17.50
190.00






Table 2. Estimated investment and annual depreciation for weighted tube
structure with 105,472 square feet of bed space, 1978.


irrigation in a 3.9 acre


LIFE ANNUAL
ITEM QUANTITY PRICE COST YEARS DEPRECIATION


3" PVC 500 ft 43.45/100 ft 217.25 5 43.45
3" couplings 25 1.70 42.50 5 8.50
3" x 3" x 3/4" tee 128 3.87 495.36 5 99.07
3/4" PVC 35,600 ft 9.00/100 ft 3,204.00 5 640.80
Tee 3P4 0.50 192.00 5 38.40
Elbow 256 0.50 128.00 5 25.60
Plug 256 0.38 97.28 5 19.46
Elbow (CME) 128 0.70 89.60 5 17.92
Nale Adapter 128 0.23 29.44 5 5.89
1/2" 1" clamps 2,176 0.40 870.40 5 174.08
Globe valves 128 3.00 384.00 2 192.00
Tube plugs 2 pkg. 2.90 5.80 5 1.16
Quick punch 1 12.95 12.95 5 2.59
30" Chapin tubes 46,876 0.11 5,156.36 5 1,031.27
Labor to install main
lines 10 hrs. 4.25/hr 42.50 5 8.50
Labor to install tubes
and feeders 480 hrs. 4.25/hr 2,040.00 2 1,020.00
150 gallon pressure tank 1 175.00 175.00 10 17.50
Filter 1 950.00 950.00 5 190.00

Total $14,132.44 $3,536.19





Table 3. Estimated investment and annual depreciation for
structure with 105,472 square feet of bed space,


overhead sprinklers
1978.


in a 3.9 acre


ANNUAL
DEPRECIATION


6" PVC
4" PVC
2-1/2" PVC
1-1/2" PVC
1" PVC
l" gate valves
1" PVC elbows
1" x 1" x 1" tee
Sprinkler heads1
1" x 1/2" x RB2
6" coupling
6" x 4" RB
4" coupling
4" x 2-1/2" RB2
2-1/2" coupling
2-1/2" x 1-1/2" RB2
6" x 6" x 1" tee
4" x 4" x 1" tee
2-1/2" x 2-1/2" x 1" tee
1-1/2" coupling
1-1/2" x 1" x 1" tee
1" couplings
Miscellaneous fittings
Cleaner & glue
Labor to install
Booster pump & electri-
cal connections
500 gallon pressure tank
Filter


200 f
100 f
50 f
50 f
12,750 f
30
60
196
196
196
10
1
10
1
2
1
8
16
4
2
4
638


90 hrs.


205.35/100
94.69/100
39.45/100
18.12/100
11,24/100
4.50
0.25
1.17
5.64
0.45
8.61
8.50
2.85
3.53
1.60
1.06
15.00
8.48
3.57
0.90
1.21
0.67

30.00
4.25/hr


675.00
450.00
200.00


Total $6,407.38 $1,276.99


ITEM


QUANTITY


PRICE


COST


LIFE
YEARS


410.70
189.38
19.73
9.06
1,433.10
135.00
15.00
229.32
1,105.44
88.20
86.10
8.50
28.50
3.53
3.20
1.06
120.00
135.68
14.28
1.80
4.84
427.46
200.00
30.00
382.50

675.00
450.00
200.00


82.14
37.88
3.95
1.81
286.62
67.50
3.00
45.86
221.09
17.64
17.22
1.70
5.70
0.71
0.64
0.21
24.00
27.14
2.86
0.36
0.97
85.49
40.00
6.00
76.50

135.00
45.00
40.00


2Reducing Cushing


130 TNT






Table 4. Estimated investment and annual
with 105,472 square feet of bed


depreciation for hand watering a
space, 1978.


3.9 acre structure


LIFE ANNUAL
ITEM QUANTITY PRICE COST YEARS DEPRECIATION


2-1/2" PVC
2-1/2" couplings
2-1/2" x 2-1/2"
x 2-1/2" tee
2-1/2" x 2-1/2" x 1" tee
1" x 3/4" valves
1" PVC
1" x 1" x 1" tee
Quick Connectors
50 ft 3/4" hoses
Water wands
Water breakers
Labor to install permanent
pipe
Labor to install semi-
permanent pipe
Glue and cleaner
Booster pump & electrical
connections
500 gallon pressure tant
Filter


2,000 ft
100

5
72
128
1,800 ft
128
128
22
22
22

60 hrs

75 hrs

1
1
1


39.45/100 ft
1.60

3.89
3.57
4.25
11.24/100 ft
1.17
2.50
29.00
3.85
2.45

4.25

4.25
10.00

675.00
450.00
200.00


Total $5,126.92 $1,430.61


789.00
160.00

19.45
257.04
544.00
202.32
149.76
320.00
638.00
84.70
53.90

255.00

318.75
10.00

675.00
450.00
200.00


157.80
32.00

3.89
51.41
272.00
40.46
29.95
64.00
319.00
16.94
10.78

51.00

159.38
2.00

135.00
45.00
40.00







Table 5. Well and pump initial investment and annual fixed costs, 1978.


4" WELL 8" WELL
ITEM WELL PUMP WELL PUMP


Output capacity 50 gal/pm 50 gal/pm 500-600 gal/pm 500-600 gal/pm
Initial investment $1,500 $ 600 $5,000 $3,000
Life years 15 10 15 10
Salvage value 0 0 0 0
Annual depreciation $ 100 $ 60 $ 333 $ 300
Interest on investment1 $ 75 $ 30 $ 250 $ 150
Other fixed costs2 $ 15 $ 24 $ 50 $ 120


Total annual fixed costs $ 190.00 $ 114.00 $ 633.00 $ 570.00

110% on initial investment + salvage value
2
2Repairs, taxes, insurance 1% of initial investment on wells, 4% of initial investment
on pumps





Table 6. Annual fixed costs for 4 irrigation systems in
(3.9 acre) using municipal or well water, 1978


a 400 ft x 425 ft structure


Capillary Overhead Hand
Cost item mat Tube/Weight sprinkler watering

I. Annual fixed cost to use municipal water supply
Depreciation1 9,418.93 $ 3,536.19 $ 1,276.99 $ 1,430.61
Interest2 962.64 706.62 320.37 256.35
Other fixed costs3 770.11 565.30 256.30 205.08
Total annual fixed
costs 11,151.68 $ 4,808.11 $ 1,853.66 $ 1,892.04

II. Annual fixed cost to use well water
Above fixed costs $11,151.68 $ 4,808.11 $ 1,853.66 $ 1,892.04
Less booster.pump4 --- -195.75 -195.75
Well & pump fixed
costs 304.005 304.005 1,203.006 304.005
Annual fixed costs I11,455.68 $ 5,112.11 $ 2,860.91 $ 2,000.19

]Tables 1-4
2
10% on initial investment + salvage value 2 2
3
Repairs, taxes, insurance 4% of initial investment
Depreciation $135.00. Otter fixed costs $60.75
54" well Table 5
68" well Table 5






Table 7. Annual operating costs for 4 irrigation systems for potted mum production in a
400 ft x 425 ft structure (3.9 acres) using a municipal water supply or well
water, 1978

(apillary Overhead Hand
mat Weighted tube sprinklers watering

I. Municipal water

Labor (hrs/day) 1 1 2 90
Labor1 1,260 1,260 2,520 113,400
Electricity 40 -40 600 80
lIunicipal water cost2 1,362 1,362 25,196 1,569
Total op. cost $ 2,3e $ ,-6f $ 28,316 $ 115,049

II. Well water

Labor (hrs/day) 1 1 2 90
Labor1 1,250 1,260 2,520 113,400
Electricity 251 211 1,224 230
Total op. cost 151 $ 1,471 $ 3,854 $113,630

$3.50/hr.
2$o.651/1000 gal






Table 8. Annual fixed and operating costs for 4 irrigation systems for potted mum production
in a 400 x 42E ft structure (3.9 acres) using a municipal water supply or well
water, 1978


Capillary Overhead Hand
mat Weighted tube sprinkler watering

I. Municipal water
Annual fixed costs
(Table 6-1) $11,152 $ 4,808 $ 1,854 $ 1,892
Annual op. costs
(Table 7-I) 2,662 2,662 28,316 115,049
Total $13,813 770 $30,170 $TT6,941

II. Hell water
Annual fixed costs
(Table 6-II) $11,456 $ 5,112 $ 2,861 $ 2,000
Annual op. costs
(Table 7-II) 1,511 1,471 3,854 113,630
Total $12,967 $ 6,583 $ 6,715 $115,630




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