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Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1979-14
Title: Comparison of yield and water use of broccoli, sweet corn, and zucchini squash with seep and drip irrigation methods
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067727/00001
 Material Information
Title: Comparison of yield and water use of broccoli, sweet corn, and zucchini squash with seep and drip irrigation methods
Series Title: Bradenton AREC res. rept.
Physical Description: 4, 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Csizinszky, Alexander Anthony, 1933-
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 4).
Statement of Responsibility: Alexander A. Csizinszky.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August 1979."
Funding: Bradenton AREC research report
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067727
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73147527

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 3
    Reference
        Page 4
    Tables
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


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Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
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S7q9-/ Agricultural Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida
Bradenton AREC Res. Rept. GC1979-14 August 1979
COMPARISON OF YIELD AND WATER USE OF BROCCOLI, SWEET CORN, AND ZUCCHINI
SQUASH WITH SEEP AND DRIP IRRIGATION METHODS
Alexander A. Csizinszky
Production of several vegetable crops in southwest (SW) Florida is based
upon the use of full bed plastic much, large amounts of high analysis fertilizers
and irrigation water.
In recent years, regulatory agencies increased pressure on the agricultural
industry to reduce the amount of water used in the production of various crops
in order to prevent the excessive depletion of underground water which, at present
is used as the main source of irrigation.
To reduce the water consumption by the agricultural industry, drip or trickle
irrigation, instead of the traditional seep irrigation, was tried by researchers
and growers. However, there are no references available to compare the efficiency
of the seep and drip irrigation systems under SW Florida conditions for the produc-
tion of various vegetable crops. Investigations were started, therefore, at the
AREC-Bradenton to compare the yield and the amount of water used to produce
vegetables with the seep and drip irrigation methods. In this report the results
of the experiments conducted in the spring of 1978 are summarized.
Materials and Methods
In February 1978, five-week old seedlings of broccoli (Green Comet Hybrid)
and two-week old seedlings of zucchini squash (Fordhook) were transplanted, and
seeds of sweet corn (Silver Queen) were sown in a field of Myakka fine sandy soil
with a hardpan at approximately 32 in. Beds were formed with 4.5 ft centers.






-2-


8 in. high, and 2.5 ft. across the top. In both the seep and drip irrigated

lands, lateral ditches were formed after every 7th row; thus a total of 7,350

row ft. per acre (A) were used for production and the area under plastic mulch

.was 18,369-sq. ft./A. In this report the nutrients applied are expressed on a
100 row ft., instead of the per acre basis, since it more precisely describes

the amount of fertilizer used. Both lands were fumigated with MC-33, at a rate

of 3.6 Ibs per 100 row ft., applied with 3 chisels 14 days before transplanting.

At the same time mole cricket and cutworm bait (Difonate) at a rate of 2 lbs/1000

sq. ft. and fertilizers were applied. Superphosphate (20%) with fritted micro-

nutrients at a rate of 3.9 lbs/100 row ft. was broadcast and 18-0-25 + 2 at a

rate of 10.3 lbs/100 row ft. was applied in 2 bands. In the seep irrigated land

the fertilizer bands were applied 12 in., and in the drip irrigated land 8 in.,

from the bed.center. Water in the drip irrigated land was applied through a

duPont Viaflo, Typ- 2(R) single seam tape and was placed 2 in. from the center

and 2 in. below the soil surface. Black polyethylene film, 1.25 mil thickness,

was laid over the entire bed in both lands. Hater in the seep irrigated land

was applied at a rate of 0.524 acre inches (A in.) per day (14,231 gal/A)

throughout the season and irrigation started 2 days before planting the crop.

In the drip irrigated land, the flow rate was 9.6 gallons per minute (gpm) per

tube for a 300 ft. long row at 3.5 Ib/sq. in. pressure, regulated by a Dole flow

control valve. Amount of water applied was adjusted at 10 day intervals to

provide adequate soil moisture as plant size, air temperature, day length and

daily evaporation changed, according to the recommendations of G. A. Marlowe,

Jr. and J. S. Rogers (1). Water was turned off in both fields when daily

precipitation exceeded 0.75 in. Within row planting distances in the 25 ft

long replicated plots were 18 in. for broccoli and 30 in. for zucchini.









Sweet corn was seeded 8 in. apart in double rows. Plants were sprayed weekly

with approved pesticides. At harvest, weight of marketable yield was taken.
Results and Discussion

Irrigation water applied and rainfall received during the season for seep

and drip irrigated lands are presented in Table 1 and Table 2.

With seep irrigation, the rate of water application was uniform throughout

the season (Table 1) affected only by the number of rainy days during which the

irrigation water was turned off. With drip irrigation, the quantity of water

applied was increased gradually as the season progressed, then reduced as plant

growth decreased for the sweet corn and zucchini. Under weather conditions in

the spring season in SW Florida, such a reduction of irrigation water may not

always be feasible for certain vegetables.

S The amount of water applied by irrigation for the crops in the seep method

was much higher than in the drip system (Table 3). Broccoli received 3.48,

sweet corn 2.75, and zucchini 3.13 times more irrigation water with the seep

than with the drip method.

Yield of broccoli per plant and per acre was higher with seep irrigation

(Table 4). Weight of individual broccoli sprouts in the seep irrigated plots

was 11 oz and in the drip irrigated plots 7 oz. Sweet corn in the drip irrigated

plots did not germinate uniformly. Plant stand was only 88% compared to seep

irrigated plots. However, there were no differences in yield per plant between

the two irrigation systems. Zucchini yields per plant and per acre were almost

identical in both irrigation systems.

Water used per lb. of marketable yield declined as yield of vegetable crops

increased (Table 5). Broccoli used the highest amount of water per lb. of yield,

followed by sweet corn and zucchini. If water supply in Florida in the future








becomes critically short in some areas, we may have to select vegetable crops

on the basis of the nutritional value produced per acre relative to water used.

In the experiments the flow of water in the seep irrigated plots was not

regulated. Large amounts of water ran off at the end of the lateral irrigation

ditches. At the AREC-Bradenton, experiments are under way to regulate the

amount of water applied by seep irrigation in the production of vegetable crops,

without reducing the quality and quantity of their yield.

Drip irrigation systems have a higher equipment and installation cost than

the seep system. Also, the yields of certain vegetable crops are lower with

the drip system under the experimental conditions described in this report.

These disadvantages of the drip system have to be taken into consideration when

comparing costs with 1he amount of water saved when selecting an irrigation

mehtod for vegetable crop production.






References
1. Marlowe, G. A., Jr., and J. S. Rogers. 1976. Water use by Florida vegetable

crops. Vegetable Crop Extension Report No. 16-1976. IFAS, University of

Florida.









schedule for broccoli, sweet corn, and zucchini. Spring 1978.


Feb. 23-
_Mar. 4

No. of irri-
gation days 8

A-in./day 0.524

A-in. for
period 4.193

Rain (in.) 1.13


Table 2. Drip irrigation


Mar.
5-14


8

0.524


4.193

1.95


schedule


Pa
15


1

0.


5.

0


and


Period
ir. Mar. 25- Apr. Apr.
i-25 Apr. 3 4-13 14-23


0 10 10 10

524 0.524 0.524 0.524


241 5.241 5.241 5.241

0 0.12 0.04


rainfall received for broccoli,


Apr. 24-
May 3


10

0.524


5.241

0.04


sweet corn,


n-ay May
4-13 14-23


6 6

0.524 0.524


3.144 3.144

3.70 4.96


and zucchini. Spring


No. of irri-
gation days

A-in./day

A-in. for
period

Rain (in.)


lay 24-
June 1


6

0.524


4.717

0.71


1978.


Period


Feb. 27-
Mar. 10


10

0.022


0.220

3.08


biar.
11-20


10

0.034


0.340

0


Nlar.
21-30


10

0.126


1.260

0


flar. 31-
Apr. 9


10

0.2C3


2.630

0


Apr.
10-19


10

0.281


2.810

0.12


Apr.
20-29


10

0.275


2.750

0.08


Apr. 30-
May 9


7

0.252


2.520

3.70


May
10-19


8

0.252


2.520

3.62


nay
20-29


7

0.154


1.540

2.05


Table 1. Seep irrigation


Period


---









Table 3. Water applied for broccoli, sweet corn, and zucchini with seep and
drip irrigation. Spring 1978.


Growing season, days

Irrigation water,
A-in.

Rain, in.

Total water,
A-in.1


Broccoli

Seep Drip

61 58

29.61 8.50
(3.48)
3.27 3.27

32.88 11.77
(2.79)


Sweet Corn
Irrigation Method
Seep Drip

81 85

38.50 13.98
(2.75)

11.93 11.93

50.43 25.91
(1.95)


Zucchini

Seep Drip

95 86

44.25 14.13
(3.13)
12.65 12.65

56.90 26.78
(2.12)


The ratios of the quantity of water received in seep vs. drip irrigation are
in parentheses.


Table 4. Yield of broccoli, sweet corn, and zucchini with seep and drip
irrigation, Spring 1978.


Broccoli Sweet corn Zucchini
Irrigation Method
Seep Drip Seep Drip Seep Drip
Number of plants I
per acre 4,900 4,900 22,050 19,404 2,940 2,940

Yield per plant
lb2 0.68 0.44 0.42 0.42 13.50 13.92

Yield per acre,
ton2 1.67 1.08 4.63 4.07 19.85 20.46

88% of seeds germinated

2Average of 4 replications for seep and 3 replications for drip irrigated plots.









Table 5. Water applied per plant with seep and drip irrigation and to
produce 1 lb of marketable yield. Spring 1978.

Broccoli Sweet Corn Zucchini
Irrigation Method
Seep Drip Seep Drip Seep Drip
Irrigation water,
gal per plant 164 47 47 20 409 131

Rain, gal per plant 18 18 15 17 116 116

Total water,
gal per plant 182 65 62 37 525 247

Irrigation water,
gal per lb of yield 241 107 112 48 30 9

Total water, gal268 148 148 88 39 18
per lb of yield 268 148 148




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