• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Winter annual grasses
 Soil selection
 Liming
 Fertilization
 Planting
 Harvesting
 Winter legumes
 Liming
 Fertilization
 Planting






Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1977-9
Title: Winter annual forage production
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067713/00001
 Material Information
Title: Winter annual forage production
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chambliss, C. G ( Carrol Gene )
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.G. Chambliss.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 1977."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067713
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73173760

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Winter annual grasses
        Page 1
    Soil selection
        Page 2
    Liming
        Page 2
    Fertilization
        Page 2
    Planting
        Page 3
    Harvesting
        Page 3
    Winter legumes
        Page 3
    Liming
        Page 4
    Fertilization
        Page 4
    Planting
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Agricultural Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida

SBradenton AREC Research Report GC1977-9 -September 1977

VINTEP ANNUAL FORAGE PRODUTIOPM LI

C. G. Chambliss SEP 2 1977
Extension Agronomist S 1 977


The growth of the perennial grasses is generalF d ace iwJ he winter
months. Supplemental sources of livestock feed are usu3iay-neecrfi igis
period. Hay, accumulated growth on native range, accumulated pangoZl"'digit rass,
fortified molasses, citrus pulp and other supplements can be used to carry cattle
through the winter period. Winter annual forages may also be used.

Winter annuals such as small grains, ryegrasses and clovers have the ability
to produce 2 to 4 tons of highly digestible dry matter over a 5-month period. These
species, like most other annual crops, grow rapidly and will provide forage in 40
to 60 days following seeding, under good fertilization, irrigation and superior
management.

Irrigation is needed to grow cool season grasses and legumes in south Florida.
These species include ryegrass, rye, wheat, oats, white clover, red clover, sweet-
clover, and berseem clover. The cereal rye can grow under drier conditions than
the others. Ryegrass requires lots of water.

Most cool season grasses and legumes have to be reseeded each year. Unless
there is a severe summer drought, white clover will reseed itself and some plants
will live over each year.

All of these improved pasture species must be well fertilized to obtain pro-
duction. One might want to consider using a particular area of the ranch for these
plantings year after year. This will allow one to build up the soil pH and soil
phosphorus content to a level that is suitable for the growth of these species.


Winter Annual Grasses

The small grains are rye, wheat, and oats. Rye grows at lower temperatures
and may produce more forage than oats or wheat. Rye is not as palatable as oats
or wheat; thus, feed intake and daily gains maybe slightly less for rye. Oats
may be planted and grazed earlier than rye. Oats are very palatable but may be
susceptible to frost injury. Wheat is similar to oats in yield and palatibility,
but is less susceptible to frost injury. The small grains can furnish good quality
grazing from mid-December through March when managed carefully.

Ryegrass, another winter annual grass, is productive later in the winter and
furnishes grazing through April. Ryegrass may be seeded alone or with a small grain
on prepared seedbed or overseeded onto permanent grass pastures. Seeding ryegrass
with a small grain crop lengthens the grazing season.

Current variety recommendations for grazing are:

Rye: Frens Abruzzi, Gator, Florida Black, Weser for late fall and early winter
grazing; TcNair Vitagraze, Pennington Vintergrazer 70, ACCO UP-811,
Gurley Grazer, Explorer, Athens Abruzzi, Elbon for winter and early
spring grazing.









Oats: Florida 501 and Elan for fall and winter grazing. Coker 227 for winter
and spring forage.

Wheat: Hakeland.

Ryegrass: Florida Rust Resistant, Gulf, Magnolia, Northrup King, Tetrablend
444, Pennington Pintergreen.


Soil Selection

Small grains will not tolerate flooding or waterlogged conditions, therefore,
select soils that are naturally well drained or can be drained economically. Rye-
grass on the other hand has a much higher moisture requirement than small grains.
Ryegrass has done well on flatwoods soils that are too wet for rye, wheat, or oats.
In south Florida to increase chances of successful establishment and production,
irrigation is needed. With irrigation the Water table should be maintained at
about ten inches below the surface on sand soils.


Liming

Annual grasses grow best in soils with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Depending on the
liming needs determined by a soil test, broadcast the recommended kind and amount
of limestone at least three to four weeks prior to planting. The limestone should
be incorporated into the upper six inches of soil with a disk harrow to be effective
in increasing the soil pH.


Fertilization

Fertilization is essential for successful production of cool season forages.
If soil test results are not available, the recommendation in Table 1 may be used
as a rough guide.

Table 1. Recommended Fertilization of Small Grains Tithout Benefit of Soil
Teat Results.


Texture of Pasic Fertilization Recommendations
Surface Soil Lbs/Acre
N P205 K20
Sand 64 96
Loamy Sand or Sandy Loam 96 96
Peat or Muck 0 72 96

*On plantings for forage or a combination of forage and grain, apoly 35-50
pounds of nitrogen just after the stand is established and an additional
35 to 50 pounds in late January or early February.


Time the initial nitrogen application with the approach of cool weather. Splitting
the nitrogen application gives better distribution of forage growth. If legumes
are planted in combination with the small rain, the second supplementary nitrogen
application may not be needed. The phosphorus and potash may be applied prior to
or at planting. Broadcasting the fertilizer and disking to incorporate is the preferred
application procedure.









Oats: Florida 501 and Elan for fall and winter grazing. Coker 227 for winter
and spring forage.

Wheat: Hakeland.

Ryegrass: Florida Rust Resistant, Gulf, Magnolia, Northrup King, Tetrablend
444, Pennington Pintergreen.


Soil Selection

Small grains will not tolerate flooding or waterlogged conditions, therefore,
select soils that are naturally well drained or can be drained economically. Rye-
grass on the other hand has a much higher moisture requirement than small grains.
Ryegrass has done well on flatwoods soils that are too wet for rye, wheat, or oats.
In south Florida to increase chances of successful establishment and production,
irrigation is needed. With irrigation the Water table should be maintained at
about ten inches below the surface on sand soils.


Liming

Annual grasses grow best in soils with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Depending on the
liming needs determined by a soil test, broadcast the recommended kind and amount
of limestone at least three to four weeks prior to planting. The limestone should
be incorporated into the upper six inches of soil with a disk harrow to be effective
in increasing the soil pH.


Fertilization

Fertilization is essential for successful production of cool season forages.
If soil test results are not available, the recommendation in Table 1 may be used
as a rough guide.

Table 1. Recommended Fertilization of Small Grains Tithout Benefit of Soil
Teat Results.


Texture of Pasic Fertilization Recommendations
Surface Soil Lbs/Acre
N P205 K20
Sand 64 96
Loamy Sand or Sandy Loam 96 96
Peat or Muck 0 72 96

*On plantings for forage or a combination of forage and grain, apoly 35-50
pounds of nitrogen just after the stand is established and an additional
35 to 50 pounds in late January or early February.


Time the initial nitrogen application with the approach of cool weather. Splitting
the nitrogen application gives better distribution of forage growth. If legumes
are planted in combination with the small rain, the second supplementary nitrogen
application may not be needed. The phosphorus and potash may be applied prior to
or at planting. Broadcasting the fertilizer and disking to incorporate is the preferred
application procedure.









Oats: Florida 501 and Elan for fall and winter grazing. Coker 227 for winter
and spring forage.

Wheat: Hakeland.

Ryegrass: Florida Rust Resistant, Gulf, Magnolia, Northrup King, Tetrablend
444, Pennington Pintergreen.


Soil Selection

Small grains will not tolerate flooding or waterlogged conditions, therefore,
select soils that are naturally well drained or can be drained economically. Rye-
grass on the other hand has a much higher moisture requirement than small grains.
Ryegrass has done well on flatwoods soils that are too wet for rye, wheat, or oats.
In south Florida to increase chances of successful establishment and production,
irrigation is needed. With irrigation the Water table should be maintained at
about ten inches below the surface on sand soils.


Liming

Annual grasses grow best in soils with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Depending on the
liming needs determined by a soil test, broadcast the recommended kind and amount
of limestone at least three to four weeks prior to planting. The limestone should
be incorporated into the upper six inches of soil with a disk harrow to be effective
in increasing the soil pH.


Fertilization

Fertilization is essential for successful production of cool season forages.
If soil test results are not available, the recommendation in Table 1 may be used
as a rough guide.

Table 1. Recommended Fertilization of Small Grains Tithout Benefit of Soil
Teat Results.


Texture of Pasic Fertilization Recommendations
Surface Soil Lbs/Acre
N P205 K20
Sand 64 96
Loamy Sand or Sandy Loam 96 96
Peat or Muck 0 72 96

*On plantings for forage or a combination of forage and grain, apoly 35-50
pounds of nitrogen just after the stand is established and an additional
35 to 50 pounds in late January or early February.


Time the initial nitrogen application with the approach of cool weather. Splitting
the nitrogen application gives better distribution of forage growth. If legumes
are planted in combination with the small rain, the second supplementary nitrogen
application may not be needed. The phosphorus and potash may be applied prior to
or at planting. Broadcasting the fertilizer and disking to incorporate is the preferred
application procedure.









Planting

Use a grain drill and plant high-quality weed-free seed. Pay particular
attention to the percentage germination listed on the seed tag. Cheap seed might
have low germination. Base seed price comparisons on the amount of pure line seed.
At planting, the soil moisture conditions should be favorable for germination and
growth.

Prepare a seedbed by disking land to incorporate limestone, phosphorus and
potash. Keep seedbed free of weeds until planting time by harrowing as necessary.

Interplanting small grain into a perennial warm season grass sod ("sod-seeding")
is frequently desirable. This practice works best when growth of the grass sod has
slowed, resulting in less competifton with the small grain for moisture and fertility.
The sod can be lightly disked to form a seeded or the small grain may be planted with
a "sod-seeding" machine.

Ryegrass can be seeded on to perennial grass sods. The seed may be distributed
by air with a cyclone seeder or mixed with fertilizer and the mixture applied by a
fertilizer distributor.


Table 2. Seeding Rate and Planting Dates for Winter Annual Grasses.

Oats: 3 to 4 bushels per acre, Sep 29 to Nov 14
Rye: l- to 2 bushels per acre, Oct 29 to Nov 29
Heat: 1 to 2 bushels per acre, Oct 29 to Nov 29
Ryegrass: 20 to 30 lbs. per acre, Oct 15 to Nov 29


In small grain plantings, the grazing season may be lengthened and forage pro-
duction increased by reducing the seeding rate of the small grain to two thirds of
the lower rate, and adding 10 to 12 pounds of an adapted variety of ryegrass and one
of the following: 2 pounds improved southern white clover, 8 pounds of annual white
sweetclover, or 6 pounds of red clover. The legume included in the mixture should be
inoculated with the proper culture of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Do not mix inoculated
legume seed with fertilizer. The bacteria will be killed by the fertilizer.


Harvesting

Do not graze until plants have reached a height of eight to ten inches. If
possible, practice totational grazing, leaving a stubble about three inches high
and allowing intervals of three to four weeks between grazing. If grazing is
continuous, control animal numbers or daily grazing periods so that plant height
is maintained between five and ten inches. Surplus forage may be cut for hay or
silage when the first heads appear in the field.


Winter Legumes

Many of the legumes used in Florida are not true annuals but act as annuals when
grown under Florida conditions.









Planting

Use a grain drill and plant high-quality weed-free seed. Pay particular
attention to the percentage germination listed on the seed tag. Cheap seed might
have low germination. Base seed price comparisons on the amount of pure line seed.
At planting, the soil moisture conditions should be favorable for germination and
growth.

Prepare a seedbed by disking land to incorporate limestone, phosphorus and
potash. Keep seedbed free of weeds until planting time by harrowing as necessary.

Interplanting small grain into a perennial warm season grass sod ("sod-seeding")
is frequently desirable. This practice works best when growth of the grass sod has
slowed, resulting in less competifton with the small grain for moisture and fertility.
The sod can be lightly disked to form a seeded or the small grain may be planted with
a "sod-seeding" machine.

Ryegrass can be seeded on to perennial grass sods. The seed may be distributed
by air with a cyclone seeder or mixed with fertilizer and the mixture applied by a
fertilizer distributor.


Table 2. Seeding Rate and Planting Dates for Winter Annual Grasses.

Oats: 3 to 4 bushels per acre, Sep 29 to Nov 14
Rye: l- to 2 bushels per acre, Oct 29 to Nov 29
Heat: 1 to 2 bushels per acre, Oct 29 to Nov 29
Ryegrass: 20 to 30 lbs. per acre, Oct 15 to Nov 29


In small grain plantings, the grazing season may be lengthened and forage pro-
duction increased by reducing the seeding rate of the small grain to two thirds of
the lower rate, and adding 10 to 12 pounds of an adapted variety of ryegrass and one
of the following: 2 pounds improved southern white clover, 8 pounds of annual white
sweetclover, or 6 pounds of red clover. The legume included in the mixture should be
inoculated with the proper culture of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Do not mix inoculated
legume seed with fertilizer. The bacteria will be killed by the fertilizer.


Harvesting

Do not graze until plants have reached a height of eight to ten inches. If
possible, practice totational grazing, leaving a stubble about three inches high
and allowing intervals of three to four weeks between grazing. If grazing is
continuous, control animal numbers or daily grazing periods so that plant height
is maintained between five and ten inches. Surplus forage may be cut for hay or
silage when the first heads appear in the field.


Winter Legumes

Many of the legumes used in Florida are not true annuals but act as annuals when
grown under Florida conditions.









Planting

Use a grain drill and plant high-quality weed-free seed. Pay particular
attention to the percentage germination listed on the seed tag. Cheap seed might
have low germination. Base seed price comparisons on the amount of pure line seed.
At planting, the soil moisture conditions should be favorable for germination and
growth.

Prepare a seedbed by disking land to incorporate limestone, phosphorus and
potash. Keep seedbed free of weeds until planting time by harrowing as necessary.

Interplanting small grain into a perennial warm season grass sod ("sod-seeding")
is frequently desirable. This practice works best when growth of the grass sod has
slowed, resulting in less competifton with the small grain for moisture and fertility.
The sod can be lightly disked to form a seeded or the small grain may be planted with
a "sod-seeding" machine.

Ryegrass can be seeded on to perennial grass sods. The seed may be distributed
by air with a cyclone seeder or mixed with fertilizer and the mixture applied by a
fertilizer distributor.


Table 2. Seeding Rate and Planting Dates for Winter Annual Grasses.

Oats: 3 to 4 bushels per acre, Sep 29 to Nov 14
Rye: l- to 2 bushels per acre, Oct 29 to Nov 29
Heat: 1 to 2 bushels per acre, Oct 29 to Nov 29
Ryegrass: 20 to 30 lbs. per acre, Oct 15 to Nov 29


In small grain plantings, the grazing season may be lengthened and forage pro-
duction increased by reducing the seeding rate of the small grain to two thirds of
the lower rate, and adding 10 to 12 pounds of an adapted variety of ryegrass and one
of the following: 2 pounds improved southern white clover, 8 pounds of annual white
sweetclover, or 6 pounds of red clover. The legume included in the mixture should be
inoculated with the proper culture of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Do not mix inoculated
legume seed with fertilizer. The bacteria will be killed by the fertilizer.


Harvesting

Do not graze until plants have reached a height of eight to ten inches. If
possible, practice totational grazing, leaving a stubble about three inches high
and allowing intervals of three to four weeks between grazing. If grazing is
continuous, control animal numbers or daily grazing periods so that plant height
is maintained between five and ten inches. Surplus forage may be cut for hay or
silage when the first heads appear in the field.


Winter Legumes

Many of the legumes used in Florida are not true annuals but act as annuals when
grown under Florida conditions.










White Clover Usually a winter annual but may act as a perennial under optimum
fertility and moisture conditions.
Varieties: Louisiana S-1, Nolin's Improved Phite, Regal Ladino,
Tillman (Regal Ladino does not seed well in Florida).

Red Clover Winter annual under Florida conditions. Pill not tolerate flooding.
Varieties: Tensas, Nolin's Red, Pennscott, Orbit, Kenland,
Chesapeake, Lakeland.

Berseem Clover Make early growth but is subject to cold damage. Requires
slightly higher fertility level than most forage legumes.
Varieties: Nile, Hustler, Miscawi.

Sweetclover Fill grow on slightly drier soils than white clover. Pill not
tolerate flooding. This clover has a shorter but earlier grazing
season than white clover. It will produce seed but should be
reseeded each fall to insure good stands. Sweet clover is not
as palatable as other clovers, but animals learn to 'eat it.
Varieties: I'ubam, Floranna.


Liming

The legumes require higher levels of calcium and a higher soil DP level for good
growth than grasses. Soil pH should be at least 6.0 or higher.

On areas for new legume plantings, soil test and apply the indicated amount of
limestone. Areas that have not been heavily limed in the past probably will need
liming.


Fertilization

Legumes do not need nitrogen fertilizer if properly inoculated with nitrogen
fixing bacteria. Legumes do require heavy fertilization with phosphorus and potash.
A general recommendation for new plantings is 600 pounds of 0-14-14 per acre at
planting. On older stands that have been well fertilized in the past, the rate may
be reduced. On new land, minor elements should be applied.


Planting

The legumes may be seeded with a grain drill that has a small seed attachment
or the seed may be broadcast and the area disked lightly to cover the seed. Covering
the seed 1/4 to 1/2 inch prevents the inoculant from drying out. Seeding into
established sods without any seedbed preparation can be done when adequate moisture
is available. Also the grass should be grazed closely, clipped, or burned to reduce
competition before the legume is seeded. Rolling or cultinacking the area after
seeding insures good soil-seed contact and sneeds uP germination and establishment.










White Clover Usually a winter annual but may act as a perennial under optimum
fertility and moisture conditions.
Varieties: Louisiana S-1, Nolin's Improved Phite, Regal Ladino,
Tillman (Regal Ladino does not seed well in Florida).

Red Clover Winter annual under Florida conditions. Pill not tolerate flooding.
Varieties: Tensas, Nolin's Red, Pennscott, Orbit, Kenland,
Chesapeake, Lakeland.

Berseem Clover Make early growth but is subject to cold damage. Requires
slightly higher fertility level than most forage legumes.
Varieties: Nile, Hustler, Miscawi.

Sweetclover Fill grow on slightly drier soils than white clover. Pill not
tolerate flooding. This clover has a shorter but earlier grazing
season than white clover. It will produce seed but should be
reseeded each fall to insure good stands. Sweet clover is not
as palatable as other clovers, but animals learn to 'eat it.
Varieties: I'ubam, Floranna.


Liming

The legumes require higher levels of calcium and a higher soil DP level for good
growth than grasses. Soil pH should be at least 6.0 or higher.

On areas for new legume plantings, soil test and apply the indicated amount of
limestone. Areas that have not been heavily limed in the past probably will need
liming.


Fertilization

Legumes do not need nitrogen fertilizer if properly inoculated with nitrogen
fixing bacteria. Legumes do require heavy fertilization with phosphorus and potash.
A general recommendation for new plantings is 600 pounds of 0-14-14 per acre at
planting. On older stands that have been well fertilized in the past, the rate may
be reduced. On new land, minor elements should be applied.


Planting

The legumes may be seeded with a grain drill that has a small seed attachment
or the seed may be broadcast and the area disked lightly to cover the seed. Covering
the seed 1/4 to 1/2 inch prevents the inoculant from drying out. Seeding into
established sods without any seedbed preparation can be done when adequate moisture
is available. Also the grass should be grazed closely, clipped, or burned to reduce
competition before the legume is seeded. Rolling or cultinacking the area after
seeding insures good soil-seed contact and sneeds uP germination and establishment.










White Clover Usually a winter annual but may act as a perennial under optimum
fertility and moisture conditions.
Varieties: Louisiana S-1, Nolin's Improved Phite, Regal Ladino,
Tillman (Regal Ladino does not seed well in Florida).

Red Clover Winter annual under Florida conditions. Pill not tolerate flooding.
Varieties: Tensas, Nolin's Red, Pennscott, Orbit, Kenland,
Chesapeake, Lakeland.

Berseem Clover Make early growth but is subject to cold damage. Requires
slightly higher fertility level than most forage legumes.
Varieties: Nile, Hustler, Miscawi.

Sweetclover Fill grow on slightly drier soils than white clover. Pill not
tolerate flooding. This clover has a shorter but earlier grazing
season than white clover. It will produce seed but should be
reseeded each fall to insure good stands. Sweet clover is not
as palatable as other clovers, but animals learn to 'eat it.
Varieties: I'ubam, Floranna.


Liming

The legumes require higher levels of calcium and a higher soil DP level for good
growth than grasses. Soil pH should be at least 6.0 or higher.

On areas for new legume plantings, soil test and apply the indicated amount of
limestone. Areas that have not been heavily limed in the past probably will need
liming.


Fertilization

Legumes do not need nitrogen fertilizer if properly inoculated with nitrogen
fixing bacteria. Legumes do require heavy fertilization with phosphorus and potash.
A general recommendation for new plantings is 600 pounds of 0-14-14 per acre at
planting. On older stands that have been well fertilized in the past, the rate may
be reduced. On new land, minor elements should be applied.


Planting

The legumes may be seeded with a grain drill that has a small seed attachment
or the seed may be broadcast and the area disked lightly to cover the seed. Covering
the seed 1/4 to 1/2 inch prevents the inoculant from drying out. Seeding into
established sods without any seedbed preparation can be done when adequate moisture
is available. Also the grass should be grazed closely, clipped, or burned to reduce
competition before the legume is seeded. Rolling or cultinacking the area after
seeding insures good soil-seed contact and sneeds uP germination and establishment.







-5-


Rates and Dates for Seeding Forage Legumes

Crop Planting Dates Seeding Rates
Per Acre

T7hite Clover Oct 15 Nov 29 3 4
Red Clover Oct 15 NTov 29 12 15
Sweet Clover Oct 15 Nov 20 12 15
Berseem Clover Oct 15 Tov 29 16 20



Red clover may show greater seedling vigor, Quicker establishment, and produce
more forage earlier than white clover when both are started from new seedlings. whitee
clover may provide forage longer into the growing season than red clover.

To obtain maximum forage production, adapted varieties, water control, good
fertility and superior management are required.




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