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Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1976-17
Title: Susceptibility of some ornamentals to fluoride air pollution
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067707/00001
 Material Information
Title: Susceptibility of some ornamentals to fluoride air pollution
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Woltz, S. S
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Effect of fluorides on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.S. Woltz, W.E. Waters.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November 1976."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067707
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 72466705

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
SIFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton

Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1976-17 November 1976

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME ORNAMENTALS TO FLUORIDE AIR POLLUTION

S. S. Woltz and W. E. Waters


The relationship of ornamental plants to environmental quality has received
increased attention in recent years. While ornamental plants usually improve the
environment, occasionally the tables are turned and the environment damages the
plants as in the case of air-borne fluorides. Fluoride from the atmosphere has
received attention in Florida for an extended period of time since it affects the
growth and quality of ornamental plant material. Since the construction of green-
houses at the Bradenton Agricultural Research and Education Center with provisions
i for maintenance of steady-state, varied levels of fluoride air content, it became
possible to classify ornamental plants for susceptibility to air-borne fluorides.
Information from this work should be useful in choosing ornamental plant species
for specific planting locations when a fluoride air pollution problem is likely
to occur.

Compartmentalized fiberglass-wood-concrete greenhouses were constructed to
provide attached, serially-fumigated units. Each unit is 9' x 12' in size and
has an air space of approximately 800 cubic feet. Air for cooling and providing
a stable fluoride atmosphere was drawn through 3 1/2' x 5' double-thickness
cooling pads at the rate of 425 cubic feet per minute. !lydrofluoric 'acid was
volatilized in a gas generator chamber between the pad and the fan. Tliermostat-
ically controlled evaporators (polypropylene beakers in a sand bathin cornnrcial
electric skillets) were used to steadily volatilize the hydrofluoric'arid of con-,
centrations varied according to the desired atmospheric fluoride levef. The rateY
of dripping of HF into the beakers was about 3-4 drops per minute providing, .a
steady evolution of gaseous acid fluoride which was then mixed with a large volume"
of air drawn through the fan, directed to the top of the greenhouse ,recirculated
and then vented on the far side of the greenhouse.

Atmospheric fluoride was monitored once or twice weekly and adjustments/made
as necessary to maintain stable atmospheric fluoride concentrations at levels of
0, 0.4, 2 and 10 nicrognams fluoride per cubic meter of air. The gravitational
flow rate of standardized HF solution was adjusted by raising or lowering the
polyethylene bottle delivering HF into the generator system through a 0.015 inch
inside diameter intravenous injection polyethylene tube.

Plants (4 replicates per fumigation compartment) were graded into uniform lots
before they were placed in the respective fumigation chambers. Appropriate shading
was provided by saran screen placed over the fumigation greenhouses. Plant parts
previously damaged by environmental factors were removed or noted and uniformly
distributed among treatments.

A three-week exposure period was the standard treatment. Plants were observed
daily for the early occurrence of symptoms. Direct comparisons of plants from dif-
ferent fumigation levels were made twice weekly with plants moved outdoors under
natural light.

Plants were classlrit ,iirpptibility to fluoride injury. Three classes
were used: high, medium and low to indicate the degree of economic or quality damage.
Species which reacted very rapidly or at the low HF levels were usually included in
the highly susceptible category. A wide range of ornamentals was investigated for
susceptibility to hydrofluoric acid air pollution. Classification of the ornampn-
tals is presented in Table 1.








TABLE 1. FLUORIDE SENSITIVITY* OF ORNAMENTALS


PLANTS R
AT-~NUALS
Ageratum
Alyssum
Aster
Calendula
Dusty ililler
Gazania
Impatiens
marigold
Petunia
Salvia
Snapdragon

FLO 7ERS
Amaryllis (leaves)
Begonia Glamour Red
(leaf & flower)
Begonia Uhite Comet
(leaf & flower)
Carnation (leaf & flower)
Catteleya
Daylily (leaf)
Dendrobium
Geranium (leaf & flower)
Gerbera (flower)
Gloxinia 'Red Velvet'
Gypsophila (leaf)
Phalaenopsis
Poinsettia Annette Hegg
(leaf & flower) (Dark Red,
Diva, White)

LANDSCAPE
Aralia
Ardisia
Croton
Norfolk Island Pine
Areca palm
Chamadorea palm
Kentia palm
Phoenix palm
Queen palm
Podocarpus
Schefflera


*H = nigh susceptibility
I = Hedium susceptibility
L = Low susceptibility


EATING


H
II


M
L
L
L
L
H-II

M
H

L


PLANTS
FERNS
Boston
Fluffy Ruffle
Pteris
-Albo-lineata
-Evergenensis
-Nayii

FOLIAGE
Aglaonema
Aphelandra
Asparagus springerii
Bromeliads:
Nidulariam
Vriesia
Caladium
Red Flag, Freida Hemple
Chlorophytur
Chives
Coffee
Cordyline
Crassula
Dracena Janet Craig
Dracena Warneckii
Dracena Hlassangeana
Dieffenbachia
Gynura
Hemigraphis
Hoya
Iarantha Red Veined Prayer
Nephthytis
Peperomia 3 varieties
Philodendron oxycardium
Philodendron panduriforme
Philodendron Red Emerald
Philodendron selloum
Pilea Aluminum Plant
Pothos
Rhoeo
Sansevaria
Swedish Ivy
Tradescantia


RATING


Plant




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