Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1976-10
Title: Insecticides and acaricides available for use on commercial flower crops
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067701/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insecticides and acaricides available for use on commercial flower crops
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 5, 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schuster, David J
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1976
Subject: Flowers -- Effect of pesticides on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Flowers -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insecticides -- Testing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: David J. Schuster.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 1976."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067701
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 72470928

Table of Contents
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Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

IFAS, University of Florida
/ i Bradenton, Florida


David J. Schuster

Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1976-10 September 1976

With the passage of the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act (FEPCA) of
1972, it is illegal to apply a pesticide by any means not included on the label.
The user must apply the material at the specified rates) with the proper applica-
tion and safety equipment on the crops and pests specifically stated or included on
the label. These restrictions have made the choice of materials for insecticide
and miticide programs more critical.

The purpose of this report is to give broad guidelines to growers in selecting
insecticides/acaracides for the specific flower crops being grown and the pests
expected or encountered. A list of materials registered for use for flowers is also
presented as a guide with the understanding that all products registered may not be
included (Table 7). The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are recommended to the exclusion of
others of suitable composition. Many pesticides, particularly older ones, may be
manufactured and/or formulated by many firms in many locales. In all cases growers
are strongly urged to read the entire label and to use the pesticide strictly in
accordance with label cautions, warnings, restrictions and directions.

There are many factors to take into consideration in choosing pesticides for
specific situations including: 1) the pest(s) expected or encountered; 2) the flower
crop being grown; 3) the location of the crop (outdoors, in greenhouse, under saran
or slats); 4) the safety of the material desired; 5) the minimum re-entry interval
desired; and 6) the phytotoxicity and compatibility of specific materials.

The list at the end of this report provides information regarding registrations
for the first three points as well as statements on phytotoxicity where this is
known (Table 7). For additional information on materials for use in greenhouses,
growers can consult Plant Protection Pointer #55 prepared by D. E. Short of the Coop-
erative Extension Service, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of
Florida, G-inesville, and R. A. Hamlen of the Agricultural Research Center, Apopka,

Insects and mites have evolved many different morphological features for attack
ing plants. Among these are their mouthparts which range from simple opposing
mandibles or jaws for chewing to elaborate stylet-like structures for sucking. The
chewing insects that attack flower crops include: armyworms, beetles, budworms,
cutworms, leafrollers, loopers and leafminers. These insects are more readily killed
with contact and/or stomach insecticides (leafminers may be controlled with contact
insecticides but are more easily managed with systemic compounds). Materials having
contact and/or stomach poison activity with registrations for use on flowers are
included in Table 1.

Ecking insects and mites that attack flowers include: aphids, leafhoppers,
mealybugs, mites, plant bugs, scales, thrips and whiteflies. Although susceptible
in varying degrees to contact insecticides, these pests are more.readily controlled
with pesticides having systemic properties; that is, they are absorbed by the plant
part to which they are applied and translocated to other parts.. Systemic pesticides
with registrations for use on flower crops are listed in Table 2. Mites belong to.


a different class of arthropods than insects and, as a result, differ in their mor-
phology, habits and physiology. The systemic insecticides listed in Table 2 (with
the exception of Pirimor) will give some degree of control of mites. Chemicals
that are specific for mite control are listed in Table 3.

Table 1. Contact insecticides registered for

Dylox, Proxol
Lannate, Nudrin

uses on flower


Table 2. Systemic pesticides registered for
uses on flower crops.

Azodrin Pirimor
Cygon, Defend Systox
Di-Syston Temik

Table 3. Miticides registered for use on flower

Acaraben Morestan
Delnav Omite
Ethion Pentac
Karathane Plictran
Kelthane Tedion

Safety of Pesticides Many flower crops must be handled frequently by workers,
particularly at pruning and harvest. In these instances the safety and minimum
re-entry intervals of pesticides should be considered. All registered pesticides
can be used safely if applicators will read and follow explicitly all label direc-
tions before handling. The Environmental Irotection Agency (EPA) has established
four categories for classifying pesticides on the basis of toxicity. Tables 4 and
5 list these categories and the signal worc's and precautionary statements required
on labels. They are presented to remind us.rs of the relative toxicities of pesti-
cides available for flower crops.

* *


Table 4. Toxicity categories required by EPA for front panel statements of 1/
pesticides with corresponding LD50's, LC50's, eye effects or skin irritation-- .


Up to and



Greater than

Oral LD-
Inhalation LC 50

(a) Dust or mist

(b) Gas or vapor

Dermal LC502/

Eye effects

Skin irritation

50 50-5(

2 2-20

200 200-2,0(

200 200-2,0(

corneal opacity
at 7 days

irritation or
damage at 72




within 7
days or
for 7 days

at 72 hours



20-200 200

2,000-20,000 20,000


No corneal
within 7

Mild or
at 72 hours



at 72 hours

Human Hazard Signal Word

Signal word
Danger and "Poison" in red on a background of distinctly contrast-
ing color, and the skull and crossbones shall appear in immediate
proximity to the word "poison."




/EPA. Title 40, Section 3. Regulations to the amended FIFRA. Federal Register.
October 16, 1974. Reprinted from A Manual for Determining Small Dosage Calcu-
lations of Pesticides and Conversion Tables by J. W. Neal, Jr., 1974.
-LD50 indicates the amount of toxicant an1, LC50 the concentration of toxicant
necessary to effect a 50% kill of the animal being tested (usually mice, rats,
or rabbits). It is expressed in weight of the chemical per unit of body weight.




- -- -


Table 5. Required precautionary statements by toxicity category
Table 5. Required precautionary statements by toxicity category-

category Oral, inhalation, or dermal toxicity Skin and eye irritation

I Poisonous if swallowed, inhaled or Corrosive, causes eye and skin
absorbed through skin. Do not damage (or skin irritation).
breathe vapor, dust, or spray mist. Do not get in eyes, on skin,
Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on or on clothing.
clothing. (Front panel statement Wear goggles or face shield
of practical treatment required.) and rubber gloves when hand-
ling. Harmful or fatal if
swallowed. (Appropriate first
aid statement required.)

II May be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, Causes eye and skin irritation
or absorbed through the skin. Do Do not get in eyes, on skin, or
not breathe vapors, dust, or spray on clothing. Harmful if swal-
mist. Do not get in eyes, on skin lowed. (Appropriate first aid
or on clothing. (Appropriate first statement required).
aid statement required).

III Harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or Avoid contact with skin, eyes,
absorbed through the skin. Avoid or clothing. First Aid: In
breathing vapors, dust, or spray case of contact, immediately
mist. Avoid contact with skin, flush eyes or skin with plenty
eyes, or clothing. (Appropriate of water. Get medical atten-
first aid statement required). tion if irritation persists.

IV No caution statement required. No caution statement required.

1/EPA. Title 40, Section 3. Regulations to the amended FIFRA. Federal Register.
October 16, 1974.
Reprinted from A Manual for Determining Small Dosage Calculations of Pesticides
and Conversion Tables by J. W. Neal, Jr., 1974.

Re-entry Intervals EPA has also established minimum re-entry intervals for
pesticides. For most pesticides, unprotected workers cannot enter a treated area
until dusts have settled or sprays have dried. However, those pesticides listed in
Table 6 have intervals ranging from 24-48 hr.

Table 6. Minimum re-entry interval (hours) established by EPA for certain

Azodrin 48 Metasystox-R 48
Bidrin 48 Parathion (ethyl
Endrin 48 and methyl) 48
EPN 24 Systox 48
Ethion 24 Zolone 24
Guthion 24


EPA says workers may enter treated areas before the minimum re-entry interval
has elapsed provided they are wearing protective clothing including clean, long-
sleeved shirts (close-woven), long legged pants, and fingerless gloves.

Phytotoxicity The safety of pesticides to plants is of obvious concern to
growers. Where thi .information is known or suggested, it is included in Table 4.
Despite what growers and extension and research personnel would like, not all
materials affect flower species and cultivars the same under all conditions. How-
ever, a few precautions can be taken to better insure the safety of pesticides to
plants. Do not spray wet or damp plants in full sunlight at high temperatures.
Apply only mixtures tested for safety. If phytotoxicity is a problem, choose a
wettable powder formulation. The emulsifiers in liquid formulations may intensify
the problem, but this is not always true. It is always a good rule for users to
apply the pesticide on a few plants under their conditions and observe any phytotoxic
responses several days later (later if possible) before applying the materials to
the entire planting.

Where combinations of pesticides are anticipated, physical compatibility
(miscibility, stability) should be considered. Consult compatibility charts when-
ever possible. It is also suggested to mix powders with powders and emulsions
with emulsions and mix compounds within the same class (i.e. phosphates with
phosphates, carbamates with carbamates).

Table 7 lists pesticides by their trade name (with common chemical name below)
except where one product is marketed under more than one name. In these cases, the
common chemical name is first with trade names below it.

Table 7. Insecticides and acaracides registered for uses on flower crops

Pesticide Applicationl Crop Pests Phytotoxicity2
Azodrin Spray (L) flowers aphids,cabbage,loopers, gladiolus flowers indicate
monocrotophos plant-bugs, mites, sensitivity
(outdoors only) leafhoppers, thrips

geraniums tobacco budworm mum leaves indicate
sensitivity, not recommend-
roses leafminers ed to apply more than once
every 3 weeks to mums
Baytex Spray (EC) flowering plants ants, aphids, leafhoppers, do not apply to rose
fenthion begonias, chrysanthemums, armyworms, mites cultivar 'Delightful'
geraniums, lilies, mari-
golds, peonies, phlox,
petunias, roses, snap-
dragons, verbena, zinnias
Biotrol-Plus Spray (UP) ornamental flower- aphids, cabbage loopers, none noted
Bacillus thuringiensis imported cabbageworns,
pyrethrins leafrollers, leaf hoppers,
Carbaryl3 Dust ornamentals herbaceous blister beetles, flea none noted
plants and bulbs beetles, Japanese beetles,
lacebugs, leafhoppers,
leafrollers, plant bugs,
psyllids, rose aphid,

Spray(WP,EC) as above the above pests plus
boxelder bugs, mealybugs,
June beetles

Spray (F) carnations, chrysanthe- same as above
mums, gladiolus, roses,
Delnav Spray (EC) African violets, carra- 2-spotted, clover, spruce None noted
etsspoted, love, spruce Sone noted

tions, chrysanthemums,
dahliar, gladioli,
orchids, roses

spider and European red

"II- -- --


Table 7. (Continued)


spray Gu,wrJI

carnations, chrysanthe-
mums, gladioli, lilacs,


Dimethoate3 Drench (EC) carnations aphids, mites, thrips, fhe flowers of carnation
Cygon, Defend Spray (EC) daylilies, gladioli aphids, thrips and flowers aun foliage
(outdoors only) gardenia tea scale, whiteflies of roses have indicated
gerberas thrips sensitivity
iris aphids, thrips, iris borer
poinsettias aphids, mealybugs, mites
roses aphids, leafhoppers, mites
Dibrom Vapor (EC) roses, other ornamental spider mites, aphids, overtreatment and direct
naled plants adult whiteflies application may cause
(greenhouse only) injury
'White Butterfly' and
'Golden Rapture' roses,
'Pink Champagne' chrysan-
themums and poinsettias may
be injured by vapor
Dipel Spray (WP) chrysanthemum cabbage loopers ione noted
Bacillus thuringiensis
(greenhouse or outdoors)
Di-Syston Granular flowers aphids, lace bugs, leaf- n noted
disulfoton hoppers, mites, thrips,
yT.Th4 ,t-n 1 4 -o

~r~ rm\


aphids, carnation b.id
mites, carnation shoot
mites, clover mites,
cyclamen mites, dipterous
leafminers, Europeam red
mites, flea beetle, holly
bud moths, leafhoppers
obscure root weevils,
omnivorous leaf tiers,
privet mites, scale
crawlers (Cottony cushion,
lecanium, pine needle,
san jose, soft scale),
thrips, 2-spotted mites,
TpTwTnrme Tsh4 f-f l ae


do not use on ferns,
poinsettia, hibiscus,
gardenia, stephanotis,
pilea, hydrangeas,

flowers of carnation,
chrysanthemum and snap-
dragon, and foliage of
roses have indicated

Table 7. (Continued)

Pesticide Application Crop Pests Phytotoxicity
Dursban Spray (EC) flowers aphids, cutworms, mealy- do not use on poinsettias
chloropyrifos bugs, mites, spittlebugs, and rose bushes
thrips, whiteflies
Enstar Spray (EC) ornamental plants aphids, whiteflies apply pre-bloom because of
insect growth regulator possible sensitivity
(greenhouse only)
bract damage has occurred o0
some poinsettias
Ethion Spray (EC) ornamentals millipedes (greenhouse) none noted
(greenhouse and outdoors) 2-spotted spidermites
Guthion Spray (EC,WP) ornamentals aphids, lace bugs, leaf- none noted
azinophosmethyl hoppers, mites, thrips
Karathane Spray (WP) aster, larkspur, begonia, red spidermites, clover may cause injury in hot
dinocap belladonna, dahlia, mites weather
chrysanthemum, calendula,
delphinium, gerbera,
hydrangea, African violet,
Spray (EC) roses (outdoors) red spidermites
roses (greenhouse) red spidermites, clover
Kelthane Spray (WP) flowers, ornamentals mites, including European flowers and foliage of carna
dicofol (greenhouse & outdoors) red, 2-spotted (red nations, roses and flowers
spider) 6-spotted, Pacific,of mums and foliage of snap-
privet, Schoene, yellow dragons indicated sensitivi-
(carpini), McDaniel, ty
Willamette, spruce, desert,
tropical mites ___
Lindane Dust (WP) gladiolus and daffodil wireworms none noted
Spray (EC) greenhouse nursery aphids, diabrotica flowers and foliage of roses
plants beetles, flea beetles, indicate sensitivity
leafminers, leafrollers,
loopers, plant bugs, injures hydrangeas and
psyllids, thrips, white- poinsettias

Table 7. (Continued)

Pesticide Application Crop Pests Phytotoxicity
Malathion Spray (EC) flowers aphids, mealybugs,potato slight injury reported on
leafhoppers, rose leaf- petunias
hoppers, spidermites, flowers of carnations,
tarnished plant bugs, chrysanthemums, roses, and
thrips, whiteflies snapdragons have indicated
ornamentals aphids, bagworms, rose should not be used on
leafhoppers, spidermites, Crassulas, orchids, Saint-
thrips paulia gloxinia and Reiger
Marlate Spray (WP) flowers, ornamentals blister beetles, cucumber none noted
methoxychlor beetles, flea beetles
fleahoppers, flower thrips,
Japanese beetles, leaf-
hoppers, rose chafers,
rose slugs (sawflies)
Metasystox-R *Spray (EC) flowers aphids, birch & holly injury has occurred in
oxydemeton-methyl leafminers, leafhoppers greenhouses on 'Hurricane',
(greenhouse & outdoors) mites, thrips, whiteflies, 'Iceberg', 'Whitetop', and
Drench (EC) chrysanthemums aphids, mites, thrips 'Pennant' chrysanthemums,
dahlias mites and on Easter lilies, Riege
roses aphids begonias and geraniums
Methomyl3 Spray (SP, L) chrysanthemums cabbage loopers, corn mum foliage indicated
Lannate, Nudrin earworms, beet armyworms, sensitivity after repeated
thrips applications
Morestan Spray (WP) flowers mites, mite eggs flowers and foliage of
oxythioquinox several rose varieties have
been injured, especially at
high temperatures
chrysanthemum flowers have
''indicated sensitivity
Omite Spray (WP) carnations, chrysanthemums, 2-spotted spidermites the flowers of mums and
propargite roses (use on roses foliage of roses have
limited to greenhouse, slat indicated sensitivity
and saran grown)


Table 7. (Continued)

Pesticide Application Crop Pests Phytotoxicity
Parathion Spray (EC, WJP) ornamentals aphids, cottony-cushion may prove harmful to
(outdoors only) scales, lacebugs, leaf- gardenias, hydrangeas,

hoppers, leaf tiers, crassulas, asters, Rieger
mealybugs, scales, thrips, begonias
whiteflies may cause leaf drop on
roses if used 7 days after
may bleach open blooms of
all flower crops
Pentac Spray (WP) carnations, chrysanthe- 2-spotted spidermites foliage of mums have indi-
mums, delphiniums, cated sensitivity
gardenias, poinsettias, do not apply to open blooms
snapdragons, zinnias
(greenhouse only)
roses (greenhouse and
Pirimor Spray (WP) chrysanthemums green peach aphids, do not aply Lo 'Icecap',
pirimicarb chrysanthemum aphids 'Goldcap' or related
(greenhouse only) cultivars
Plictran Spray (WP) ornamentals, including 2-spotted spidermites poinsettia bracts and
greenhouse grown carna- chrysanthemum blooms have
tions, chrysanthemums, been injured
poinsettias and roses flowers of carnations and

roses have indicated
Pyrenone Spray (EC) ornamentals, including aphids, flea beetles, none noted
pyrethrins Dust African violets, asters, leafhoppers
carnations, chrysanthemums,
dahlias, geraniums,
gladioli, marigolds,
roses, etc.

(greenhouse only)

Spray (EC)

ageratums, asters,azaleas, whiteflies
begonias, calendulas,
chrysanthemums, coleus,
fuschias, geraniums, mari-
golds, petunias, poinset-
tias, roses, salvias

spray on poinsettia pre-
do not apply .to open
blooms of 'Shoesmith' mums
do not treat red calceolaria

Table 7. (Continued)

Pesticide Application Crop Pests Phytotoxicity
Resmethrin Aerosol African violets,begonias, whiteflies
(continued) carnations, chrysanthemums,
dahlias, geraniums,
hibiscus, lilies, petunias,
poinsettias, roses,
Systox Spray and soil flowers aphids, birch, boxwood injury has occurred on
demeton drench (EC) and holly leafminers, African violets, cibotium
lacebugs, mealybugs, ferns and croft lilies
mites, whiteflies chrysanthemum flowers have
indicated sensitivity
Tedion Spray (WP) ornamentals citrus red mites, the flowers of carnations,
tetradifon 2-spotted spidermites chrysanthemums and roses
and foliage of snapdragons
have indicated sensitivity
Temik granular flower crops such as aphids, lacebugs, leaf- do not apply to open bloon
aldicarb chrysanthemums, carnations,hoppers, leafminers,
(greenhouse and outdoors) gerberas, orchids, roses, mealybugs, plantbugs,
snapdragons, etc. scale crawlers, spider-
bulb crops such as mites, thrips, white- avoid direct contact of
dahlias, gladiolus, lily, flies granules with bulbs
tulip, etc.
Thiodan Spray (EC, WP) ornamentals aphids, cyclamen mites, the EC formulation injured
endosulfan rose chafers, whiteflies, 'Bonnafon', 'Deluxe',
(greenhouse and outdoors) 'Fred Shoesmith', and
'White Knight' chrysanthe-
slight burning produced on
two species of the
geranium family
Trichlorfon3 Spray (L, SP) flowers armyworms, climbing certain varieties of
Dylox, Proxol cutworms, dipterous leaf- carnations, hydrangeas,
miners, lygus bugs, stink- mums, and zinnias have
bugs, tarnished plant been injured
bugs, tobacco budworms,
Soil drench (SP) narcissus narcissus bulbflies

Table 7. (Continued)

Pesticide Application Crop Pests Phytotoxicity
Trithion Spray (EC) African violets, begonias, aphids, mealybugs, a few rose varieties hav
carbophenothion carnations, chrysanthemums, spidermites and scale been injured
dahlias, gardenias, lilies, insects (see label for
lilacs, nasturtiums, species) and,potato
orchids, pansies, prim- leafhoppers
roses, poinsettias, snap-
dragons, violets
1EC = emulsifiable concentrate
F = flowable
L = water miscible liquid
SP = water soluble powder
WP = wettable powder

2Sources of information include the author's observations and those taken from Plant Protection Pointers # 50;
'Control of Major Arthropod Pests on Commercial Flower Crops' by D. E. Short and S. L. Poe, Fla. Cooperative Extension
Service, University of Florida, Gainesville; and Publication 381, '1974 Pesticide Recommendations for Greenhouse
Flower Crops', Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food.

3The common name of the pesticide is listed first because it is marketed under more than one trade name.

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