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Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1976-9
Title: Fertilizing gladiolus
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067700/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fertilizing gladiolus
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Woltz, S. S
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Gladiolus -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.S. Woltz.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June, 1976."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067700
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 72471827

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Generalized fertilizer recommendations for fine sand soils
        Page 1
    Factors determining fertilizer needs
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Special disorders
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Lc- i / AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
// ( J IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida

S-i0 FERTILIZING GLADIOLUS
S. S. Woltz

Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1976-9 June, 1976


No single fertilizer recommendation can be made for gladiolus for all conditions
under which they may be grown. It is probably best, therefore, to describe a general
fertilizer program that will insure against serious deficiencies or excesses of the
various nutrient elements, and then vary the program to meet local needs.

Generalized Fertilizer Recommendations for Fine Sand Soils

The following four applications of fertilizer make up a general program to be
varied according to needs, as discussed later in this report.

1. 400 pounds of 4-8-8 containing secondaries, mixed in the bed. Nitrogen
sources are specified as 25 percent organic, 40 percent nitrate, and
35 percent ammoniacal. The secondary elements and the percentages to
be supplied in the 4-8-8 fertilizer are: 1 percent water soluble MgO,
0.5 percent Fe203, 0.5 percent MnO, 0.2 percent CuO, 0.2 percent ZnO,
and 0.2 percent B203. Notes: If dolomite limestone is used in condi-
tioning the land, omit MgO in applications 1 and 2. ZnO and MnO may
be reduced or omitted if furnished in fungicidal sprays regularly.
CuO should be omitted in soils with over three years history of copper
fertilization.

2. 500 pounds of the above mixture sidedressed and worked into moist soil
about 2 weeks after planting.

3. 400 pounds of 5-10-10 containing 0.2 percent B203, with nitrogen from
inorganic sources, approximately 60 percent ammoniacal and 40 percent
nitrate. This is to be applied two weeks after No. 2 above. (In
cool, wet soils, nitrate percentage may be increased).

4. 400 pounds of the mixture in No. 3, applied two weeks later.

If the grower prefers to use only one fertilizer mixture, he may vary the for-
mula given for applications 1 and 2 by halving the percentages of secondary elements,
except for B203 which should not be reduced. This mixture may then be applied at
the rate of 400 pounds mixed in the bed, followed by three 500 pound sidedressings
before flower harvest.

Factors Determining Fertilizer Needs

Following is an outline of the factors affecting fertilizer requirements of
gladiolus:

I. Soil Conditions

1. Fertilizer retaining capacity

If the soil has a high cation-exchange capacity, or in other words, is a
heavier soil than the sands, nutrient elements other than nitrates are
retained somewhat against leaching. This is true in mucks and certain
phases of Bladen and Manatee soils, for example.






Lc- i / AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
// ( J IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida

S-i0 FERTILIZING GLADIOLUS
S. S. Woltz

Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1976-9 June, 1976


No single fertilizer recommendation can be made for gladiolus for all conditions
under which they may be grown. It is probably best, therefore, to describe a general
fertilizer program that will insure against serious deficiencies or excesses of the
various nutrient elements, and then vary the program to meet local needs.

Generalized Fertilizer Recommendations for Fine Sand Soils

The following four applications of fertilizer make up a general program to be
varied according to needs, as discussed later in this report.

1. 400 pounds of 4-8-8 containing secondaries, mixed in the bed. Nitrogen
sources are specified as 25 percent organic, 40 percent nitrate, and
35 percent ammoniacal. The secondary elements and the percentages to
be supplied in the 4-8-8 fertilizer are: 1 percent water soluble MgO,
0.5 percent Fe203, 0.5 percent MnO, 0.2 percent CuO, 0.2 percent ZnO,
and 0.2 percent B203. Notes: If dolomite limestone is used in condi-
tioning the land, omit MgO in applications 1 and 2. ZnO and MnO may
be reduced or omitted if furnished in fungicidal sprays regularly.
CuO should be omitted in soils with over three years history of copper
fertilization.

2. 500 pounds of the above mixture sidedressed and worked into moist soil
about 2 weeks after planting.

3. 400 pounds of 5-10-10 containing 0.2 percent B203, with nitrogen from
inorganic sources, approximately 60 percent ammoniacal and 40 percent
nitrate. This is to be applied two weeks after No. 2 above. (In
cool, wet soils, nitrate percentage may be increased).

4. 400 pounds of the mixture in No. 3, applied two weeks later.

If the grower prefers to use only one fertilizer mixture, he may vary the for-
mula given for applications 1 and 2 by halving the percentages of secondary elements,
except for B203 which should not be reduced. This mixture may then be applied at
the rate of 400 pounds mixed in the bed, followed by three 500 pound sidedressings
before flower harvest.

Factors Determining Fertilizer Needs

Following is an outline of the factors affecting fertilizer requirements of
gladiolus:

I. Soil Conditions

1. Fertilizer retaining capacity

If the soil has a high cation-exchange capacity, or in other words, is a
heavier soil than the sands, nutrient elements other than nitrates are
retained somewhat against leaching. This is true in mucks and certain
phases of Bladen and Manatee soils, for example.









In heavier soils it will be possible to omit one of the fertilizer appli-
cations or to reduce the amount of each application. Also, the fertilizer
analysis may be adjusted on the basis of important reserves of nutrients
in the soil or on the basis of the fertilizer retaining capacity of the
soil. With most gladiolus soils, however, there is not generally any
large reserve of nutrients at planting time.

The lower the moisture-holding capacity of the soil, the greater will be
the loss of nutrients to leaching. Irrigation or rain water carrying
dissolved nutrients will move them out of the root zone before the roots
have a chance of absorbing a good share of the fertilizer application.
The remedy for the loss of nutrients due to excessive drainage is more
frequent applications of fertilizer, repeating those fertilizer applica-
tions that were made just before heavy rains, and arranging irrigation
to cause the least leaching loss. In order to reduce this loss of
nutrients in irrigation water it is desirable to avoid the practice,
as much as possible, of saturating the soil and then quickly draining it.
With heavier soils, having greater clay and organic matter contents, more
of the water from a given rainfall or irrigation is retained in the root
zone.

2. Root Disturbances

Any factor that limits the expansion and functioning of the root system
decreases the efficiency of applied fertilizer and thus makes special
treatments necessary, such as increased rates of fertilization, nutritional
sprays, and variations in fertilizer placement and irrigation to bring the
nutrients to the damaged root system. The factors that are known to damage
the roots are: nematodes, fungi, and toxic levels of chemical elements
in the soil.

Experience with soil fumigants indicates that the response to fertilizer
will be different when fumigants are effectively used on soils infested
with destructive fungi and nematodes. The root system will be more exten-
sive and there will be more active feeder roots which will result in
greater uptake of nutrients, both native and applied. In many soils that
have been repeatedly planted to gladiolus, the roots are much restricted
by nematodes and fungi working together and the growth of leaves and flowers
is limited by the poor uptake of fertilizer.

Fertilizer experiments have shown that it is necessary to use more fertili-
zer to get normal flower and corm production when damage by fungi and nema-
todes to roots is serious. Little or no fertilizer under these conditions
resulted in extremely low flower production as well as poor corm production.
The use of abnormally high levels of fertilization, such as one ton of
8-8-16 per acre resulted in greatly improved yields, but these yields were
still sub-normal.

The formulation of fertilizers will need to be changed when partial soil
sterilization is practiced, in order to compensate for the temporary
decrease in conversion of organic nitrogen to ammoniacal compounds and
also the conversion of the latter to nitrates. Thus, fertilizers for
partially sterilized soil should contain more nitrate and less organic and
ammoniacal nitrogen, at least during the first month or so after treatment.








Two other types of root disturbances encountered are physical damage from
cultivation operations and chemical burn by concentrated fertilizer appli-
cations in the root zone. The first of these is avoided by cultivating
with sweeps set so they will do the least amount of root pruning while
still providing effective weed control. To reduce fertilizer burn on roots,
distribute the application in a fairly wide band and work into moist soil.

3. Soil pH

Low soil pH values, especially below 5.0, cause increased leaching of most
nutrient elements and thus decrease the efficiency of applied fertilizer.
Where accumulated soil copper causes toxicity to plants, such toxicity is
much worse at lower pH levels and may be reduced by adequate liming. Very
high pH levels reduce the availability of minor elements, except molybdenum,
to plants It is desirable to keep the soil pH within the range of 5.5 to
6.5. pH measurements should be made well in advance of planting,and liming
materials should be applied in time to allow them to react. The nature of
the soil and the liming material will determine the length of time required.
Consult Florida Circular S-39.

Frequently, after applying fertilizer at the beginning of the crop season,
it is found that the pH will drop a half to one unit below the value found
before fertilizing. The calcium chloride method of determining soil pH
permits the use of larger amounts of lime when needed for soils with
greater reserve or exchangeable acidity. Soils that have been fertilized
regularly do not usually have large reserve acidity content, while heavier
soils that are being cultivated for the first time usually do.

II. Climatic Conditions

Cold, wet weather decreases the rate at which organic nitrogen becomes
available to plants. Consequently, nitrogen supplied to gladiolus in such
weather should be derived mainly from inorganic sources, especially nitrate.
Nitrate of potash or soda to supply 15 to 20 pounds of nitrogen per acre is
frequently beneficial during periods of cold, wet weather, as a supplement
to the regular fertilizer program.

In warmer weather, especially when considerable rainfall is expected, a
greater percentage of the nitrogen should be furnished from ammoniacal and
organic sources to reduce leaching losses. Organic nitrogen requires time
to become available, however, and applications made near the flowering stage
may be only partly available before flowers are cut. Special care should
be exercised with the placement of fertilizers containing organic nitrogen
to be sure that the fertilizer will be in contact with moist soil since
moisture is necessary for the breakdown process.

The effect of rainfall on fertilizer practices is discussed under other
sections of this report, but it should be emphasized that during long dry
periods special care must be taken to insure that sufficient moisture is
present to dissolve the fertilizer. Otherwise, it may lie dormant and
several applications may accumulate to become available at the same time
following a good rain, with undesirable effects. Irrigation and placement
methods should be coordinated to insure the fertilizer coming in contact
with moist soil.




-4-


III. Quality of Irrigation Water

Very little work has been done on this subject as it pertains to gladiolus,
but it would be well to discuss it briefly on the basis of available infor-
mation.

The total salt content of irrigation water should be below 1800 ppm for
best results. If possible, it is better to use wells with high salt con-
tent in the late summer and early fall and those with lower salt content
in the winter and spring since rain in August, September and October will
leach salts and also make it unnecessary to irrigate so often.

The chemical nature of the salts in the water has a bearing on fertilizer
practices to be employed. Large amounts of sodium and chloride are espec-
ially undesirable. The effects of calcium, magnesium, sulfate and bicar-
bonate ions are not as serious. To compensate for high sodium, the grower
should broadcast 1000 pounds of gypsum per acre to prevent an unbalance of
calcium nutrition. The general level of potassium and magnesium required
will also be increased somewhat since sodium competes both in the soil and
in the plant with these elements.

IV. Diseases

The degree of damage resulting from Fusarium corm rot is affected by
fertilizer practices and this should be considered in planning the ferti-
lizer program. High levels of nitrogen will increase the incidence and
severity of Fusarium corm rot. Certain sources of organic nitrogen, such
as blood tankage, mixed in the bed will have an especially bad effect.
Low levels of phosphorus will also increase the severity of Fusarium corm
rot. Theoretically, calcium and potassium in good supply should decrease
the susceptibility while high chlorine should increase it. Other diseases
attacking corms and leaves are probably also made worse by high levels of
nitrogen and ameliorated by the presence of adequate calcium and potassium.

Since Fusarium corm rot is the most serious disease problem, the nitrogen
supply must be limited in order to prevent undue effect. Any normal ferti-
lizer program for flower production involving the use of not more than
about 80 to 120 pounds of nitrogen per acre in a crop season should not
cause undue loss unless the soil provides large amounts of nitrogen. If
a good muck soil is planted to gladiolus, it is advisable to use no nitro-
gen in the fertilizer except under cold and wet conditions.

Gladiolus plants, especially from planting stock and cormels, have an
important nitrogen requirement, and to realize the best crop, adequate
nitrogen must be supplied. If heavy leaching losses occur, it is advisable
to repeat the application of fertilizer. When Fusarium is not a serious
problem, due to varietal resistance or clean corms and soil, the grower
may fertilize more liberally with nitrogen so long as he maintains the
calcium and potassium at a good level.

Special Disorders

1. Bud Rot. We have experimental evidence that physiological bud rot may be caused
by relatively low calcium content of the spikes. Preventive measures include
(1) adequate liming, (2) avoiding a nutritional imbalance due to excess mag-
nesium, potassium, sodium, or nitrogen, (3) spraying with 4 pounds of calcium
nitrate per hundred gallons of water two to four times between the stage spikes
first begin to slip and the time flower cutting starts, and (4) broadcasting
1000 pounds of gypsum per acre before planting.







2. Topple of Gladiolus. The breaking over of spikes as they open in vases, is
caused by low calcium content of the spikes and may be largely prevented by
the methods used for bud rot control above.

3. Iron Deficiency is identified by a yellowing of new leaves, especially the
fourth to seventh leaves. Spikes will also be yellow or pale green. If the
condition is severe, the first to the third leaf may also be affected. Iron
deficiency is found mostly on older soils that have a history of copper accumu-
lation. Control measures include adequate liming, to the pH range 6.0 to 6.5,
before planting and soil treatment with iron ethylene diamine tetracetic acid
(iron EDTA) at the rate of 20 pounds active ingredient per acre at the time the
deficiency is found. This material, a chelate with trade names of Sequestrene
and Versene, should be worked into moist soil. If severe iron deficiency is
expected on the basis of the history of the soil, it is well to include 20 to
30 pounds of iron EDTA per ton of fertilizer to be used in all applications be-
fore flower harvest.

4. Copper Deficiency is encountered principally on new land. This deficiency is
identified by an abnormal wilting of leaves, especially noticeable in 'Valeria'.
Control methods involve broadcasting 20 pounds of copper sulfate per acre on
new land before planting. The heavier rates are to be used on soils with
greater organic matter content. If the deficiency develops during the growing
season, a sidedress fertilizer application supplying 10 pounds of copper sulfate
per acre should be made.

5. Boron Deficiency is recognized by a characteristic notching on edges of leaves
and by translucent streaks along the veins of 'Hopman's Glory' cultivar. The
deficiency is more likely to occur in the one to three-leaf stage and may result
from an abnormally low boron reserve in the corm. In addition to having 0.2
percent .B203. in the fertilizer, the grower may spray with 1-1/2 pounds of
borax or solu-bor in 100 gallons of water 2 or 3 times if boron deficiency
symptoms are found. It is reported, however, that spraying too frequently with
borax may cause brittle spikes. Borax is very easily leached from the soil
which makes repeated applications of borated fertilizer necessary. Less than
about 15 ppm boron in recently matured gladiolus leaves is an indication that
boron may be a limiting factor.




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