• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Commercial floriculture in...
 The major flower plants grown in...
 The major foliage plants grown...
 Advantage and disadvantage of commercial...
 Table 1. Projected estimates of...
 Table 2. List of plants commonly...
 Table 3. List of foliage plants...
 Table 4. Total imports into United...
 Table 5. Number of tropical foliage...
 Reference
 Acknowledgement






Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research and Education Center - GC-1975-8
Title: Production of flowers and foilage in Florida and the tropics
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067693/00001
 Material Information
Title: Production of flowers and foilage in Florida and the tropics
Series Title: Bradenton Agricultural Research and Education Center research report
Physical Description: 20 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Flowers -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 19-20).
Statement of Responsibility: Will E. Waters.
Funding: Bradenton AREC research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067693
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 72521762

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Commercial floriculture in Florida
        Page 2
        Chrysanthemum
            Page 2
        Gladiolus
            Page 2
        Gypsophila
            Page 3
        Statice
            Page 3
        Florist azalea
            Page 3
        Orchids
            Page 4
        Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum)
            Page 4
        Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima)
            Page 4
        Other miscellaneous cut flowers
            Page 4
        Miscellaneous potted flowers
            Page 4
        Annuals
            Page 4
        Caladiums
            Page 4
        Cut fern
            Page 5
        Cut foliage
            Page 5
        Tropical foliage plant
            Page 5
    The major flower plants grown in tropical America
        Page 6
    The major foliage plants grown in tropical America
        Page 6
    Advantage and disadvantage of commercial production in the tropics
        Page 7
    Table 1. Projected estimates of acreage and wholesale values of floriculture crops in Florida for 1985 with estimated acreages and values for 1968 and 1974
        Page 8
    Table 2. List of plants commonly observed in floriculture use in tropical countries
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Table 3. List of foliage plants commonly used in tropical countries and their cultural requirements
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Table 4. Total imports into United States of cut flowers and cut foliage for ornamental purposes, values in U.S. dollars at port of exportation, 1965, 1968 and 1974
        Page 17
    Table 5. Number of tropical foliage plants imported from selected countries into Florida, 1968 -69, 1972-73, and 1974-75 fiscal years
        Page 18
    Reference
        Page 19
    Acknowledgement
        Page 20
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









AREC Bradenton Research Report GC-1975-8

Production of Flowers and Foliage

Plants in Florida and the Tropics


Agricultural Research and Education Center, Bradenton
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville





0OU

BRADENTON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
RESEARCH REPORT GC-1975-8

Will E. Waters


























PRODUCTION OF FLOWERS AND FOLIAGE PLANTS IN FLORIDA AND THE TROPICS

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida






TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Abstract ................................................................... 1

Introduction ...... ...................... .. ......... .................... 1

Commercial Floriculture in Florida ............................*.......o.... 2
.-Chrysanthemums .......................................................... 2
Gladiolus .................................... ......................... 2
*-.Gypsophila ............................................................. 3
Statice ......... ............. ..................... ...................... 3
Florist Azalea ........................................................ 3
Orchids ............................................. ........ ........ 4
Easter Lilies ........................................................ 4
Poinsettias ...................................................... ....... 4
Other Miscellaneous Cut Flowers ......................................... 4
Miscellaneous Potted Flowers ............................................ 4
Annuals ................................................................. 4
Caladiums ........................ ....... .................................... 4
Cut Fern ............................................................... 5
Cut Foliage ............................................................. 5
Tropical Foliage Plant Production ...................................... 5

The Major Flower Plants Grown in Tropical America ........................ 6

The Major Foliage Plants Grown in Tropical America ........................ 6

Advantages and Disadvantages of Commercial Production in The Tropics ....... 7

Table 1. Projected Estimates of Acreage and Wholesale Values of
Floricultural Crops in Florida for 1985 with Estimated
Acreages and Values for 1968 and 1974 ......................... 8

Table 2. List of Plants Commonly Observed inFloriculturalUse in
Tropical Countries ............................................ 9

Table 3. List of Foliage Plants Commonly Used in Tropical Countries
and Their Cultural Requirements ............................. 14

Table 4. Total Imports Into the United States of Cut Flowers and
Cut Foliage for Ornamental Purposes, Values in U. S.
Dollars at Port of Exportation, 1965, 1968 and 1974............17

Table 5. Number of Tropical Foliage Plants Imported from Selected
Countries into Florida, 1968-69, 1972-73, and 1974-75
Fiscal Years ..................... .............. .. ..... .. 18

References ................................................................ 19

Acknowledgement ....................................................... .... 20


Printed by Editorial Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.










PRODUCTION OF FLOWERS AND FOLIAGE PLANTS IN THE TROPICS


ABSTRACT

The floricultural industries of Florida and the Tropical Americas
are among the fastest expanding segments of agriculture today.
The Florida floricultural industries, for example, increased in /
value from $71.4 million in 1968 to $148.9 million in 1974, with
a projected estimate of $266.2 million by 1985. Most of the in-
crease was associated with tropical foliage plants and potted
flowers. In South America and the Caribbean, commercial produc-
tion has increased several hundred percent during the same period,
with major increases associated with cut carnations and chrysan-
themums, tropical foliage cuttings and cut greenery.

Because of climatic similarities many of the same flower and fo iage
plants utilized in Florida are grown in the Tropical American coun-
tries for local consumption and export.




The tropical floricultural industry is one of the fastest expanding
agricultural segments in Florida and the Tropical Americas today. Flowers
and tropical foliage plants are not classified as basic necessities for /
life that is, food, shelter or clothing. However, they are high cash
value crops which generate millions of dollars for local and national
economies and, in addition, furnish employment to thousands of people.
Dollar values cannot be established for the aesthetic benefits of flowers
and living plants in improving man's quality of life through environmental
awareness and beautification, personal recreation and therapeutic values
in all geographic locations.

Floricultural plants used in subtropical and tropical areas are com-
posed of many genera native to temperate as well as tropical regions because
of the vast array of micro-climates associated with different altitudes.
The state of Florida has several distinctive climates, ranging from the
typical four season temperate climate in north Florida, where minimum
winter temperatures may drop as low as 100 to 200F, to the subtropical
climate of south Florida, with infrequent light winter frosts.

Because of these interrelationships and climatic similarities, the
objectives of this paper are: (a) describe the scope and expected trends
in the Florida floricultural industries, (b) list and characterize the
common floricultural commodities grown in subtropical and tropical Americas,
and (c) furnish some information on the culture and use of these plants.










Commercial Floriculture in Florida

Table 1 reflects the array of commercial floricultural plants produced
commercially in Florida as well as the estimated acreages and their whole-
sale value for 1968, 1974, and projected production by 1985 (5, 23). These
data are estimates based on USDA Statistical Reporting Service (21, 22),
1974 Agricultural Growth in an Urban Age (AGUA) Report (5), unpublished
Florida County Extension Agents' estimates for the 1974 AGUA Reports, and
personal interviews by the Author with knowledgeable commercial producers,
County Extension Agents, and research personnel in all phases of ornamen-
tal horticulture.

Chrysanthemum. The industry produces cut pompons and standard chrysan-
themums, potted mums, and cuttings. Chrysanthemums were grown on 1,025 acres
in Florida during 1973-74 and were worth $25.2 million at wholesale.

Main areas for outdoor chrysanthemum production are from Tampa south
along the Gulf Coast and from Vero Beach south along the Atlantic Coast.
Major production centers are in areas around Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Stuart,
and Delray Beach. The industry is comprised of approximately 42 pompon
growers, 26 standard growers, four commercial propagators and 12 large volume
pot mum growers.

After harvest, pompons are packaged into bunches containing from five
to seven stems with bunches approximately 28 inches long. Bunches of 12 to
14 ounces weight are packed about 25 per corrugated cardboard box. Stan-
dard chrysanthemums are graded by flower size ranging from four to seven
inches in diameter and from 75 to 150 individual stems packed per container.
Most of the potted chrysanthemums are produced and sold in five or six inch
diameter pots containing three to five flowering plants.

Pompon chrysanthemums from Florida are marketed primarily from late
October through early June. Largest shipments are between November 15 and
May 15 with the eastern seaboard accepting 75% of the volume sold on con-
tract or daily basis. Chrysanthemum farms have historically been located
in the warmer coastal areas for winter field production.

Gladiolus produced in Florida equalled two-thirds of the total U.S.
production in 1974. This represented an estimated 200 million flower
spikes, with a wholesale value of $15.8 million. These were produced
on 7,500 acres of land.

The gladiolus industry developed in Florida during the 1930's and 40's
as the main source for gladiolus flowers in the U.S. during the winter
months. During the 1973-74 season there were 16 gladiolus flower growers
with an average 469 acres in flower production per farm.

Flowers are harvested and graded into five categories, based on stem
length and bud count, and are placed in bunches consisting of 10 spikes.










Commercial Floriculture in Florida

Table 1 reflects the array of commercial floricultural plants produced
commercially in Florida as well as the estimated acreages and their whole-
sale value for 1968, 1974, and projected production by 1985 (5, 23). These
data are estimates based on USDA Statistical Reporting Service (21, 22),
1974 Agricultural Growth in an Urban Age (AGUA) Report (5), unpublished
Florida County Extension Agents' estimates for the 1974 AGUA Reports, and
personal interviews by the Author with knowledgeable commercial producers,
County Extension Agents, and research personnel in all phases of ornamen-
tal horticulture.

Chrysanthemum. The industry produces cut pompons and standard chrysan-
themums, potted mums, and cuttings. Chrysanthemums were grown on 1,025 acres
in Florida during 1973-74 and were worth $25.2 million at wholesale.

Main areas for outdoor chrysanthemum production are from Tampa south
along the Gulf Coast and from Vero Beach south along the Atlantic Coast.
Major production centers are in areas around Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Stuart,
and Delray Beach. The industry is comprised of approximately 42 pompon
growers, 26 standard growers, four commercial propagators and 12 large volume
pot mum growers.

After harvest, pompons are packaged into bunches containing from five
to seven stems with bunches approximately 28 inches long. Bunches of 12 to
14 ounces weight are packed about 25 per corrugated cardboard box. Stan-
dard chrysanthemums are graded by flower size ranging from four to seven
inches in diameter and from 75 to 150 individual stems packed per container.
Most of the potted chrysanthemums are produced and sold in five or six inch
diameter pots containing three to five flowering plants.

Pompon chrysanthemums from Florida are marketed primarily from late
October through early June. Largest shipments are between November 15 and
May 15 with the eastern seaboard accepting 75% of the volume sold on con-
tract or daily basis. Chrysanthemum farms have historically been located
in the warmer coastal areas for winter field production.

Gladiolus produced in Florida equalled two-thirds of the total U.S.
production in 1974. This represented an estimated 200 million flower
spikes, with a wholesale value of $15.8 million. These were produced
on 7,500 acres of land.

The gladiolus industry developed in Florida during the 1930's and 40's
as the main source for gladiolus flowers in the U.S. during the winter
months. During the 1973-74 season there were 16 gladiolus flower growers
with an average 469 acres in flower production per farm.

Flowers are harvested and graded into five categories, based on stem
length and bud count, and are placed in bunches consisting of 10 spikes.










Commercial Floriculture in Florida

Table 1 reflects the array of commercial floricultural plants produced
commercially in Florida as well as the estimated acreages and their whole-
sale value for 1968, 1974, and projected production by 1985 (5, 23). These
data are estimates based on USDA Statistical Reporting Service (21, 22),
1974 Agricultural Growth in an Urban Age (AGUA) Report (5), unpublished
Florida County Extension Agents' estimates for the 1974 AGUA Reports, and
personal interviews by the Author with knowledgeable commercial producers,
County Extension Agents, and research personnel in all phases of ornamen-
tal horticulture.

Chrysanthemum. The industry produces cut pompons and standard chrysan-
themums, potted mums, and cuttings. Chrysanthemums were grown on 1,025 acres
in Florida during 1973-74 and were worth $25.2 million at wholesale.

Main areas for outdoor chrysanthemum production are from Tampa south
along the Gulf Coast and from Vero Beach south along the Atlantic Coast.
Major production centers are in areas around Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Stuart,
and Delray Beach. The industry is comprised of approximately 42 pompon
growers, 26 standard growers, four commercial propagators and 12 large volume
pot mum growers.

After harvest, pompons are packaged into bunches containing from five
to seven stems with bunches approximately 28 inches long. Bunches of 12 to
14 ounces weight are packed about 25 per corrugated cardboard box. Stan-
dard chrysanthemums are graded by flower size ranging from four to seven
inches in diameter and from 75 to 150 individual stems packed per container.
Most of the potted chrysanthemums are produced and sold in five or six inch
diameter pots containing three to five flowering plants.

Pompon chrysanthemums from Florida are marketed primarily from late
October through early June. Largest shipments are between November 15 and
May 15 with the eastern seaboard accepting 75% of the volume sold on con-
tract or daily basis. Chrysanthemum farms have historically been located
in the warmer coastal areas for winter field production.

Gladiolus produced in Florida equalled two-thirds of the total U.S.
production in 1974. This represented an estimated 200 million flower
spikes, with a wholesale value of $15.8 million. These were produced
on 7,500 acres of land.

The gladiolus industry developed in Florida during the 1930's and 40's
as the main source for gladiolus flowers in the U.S. during the winter
months. During the 1973-74 season there were 16 gladiolus flower growers
with an average 469 acres in flower production per farm.

Flowers are harvested and graded into five categories, based on stem
length and bud count, and are placed in bunches consisting of 10 spikes.










Bunches are placed upright in hampers that contain from 20 to 26 bunches,
depending upon grade and cultivar. As price is dependent upon grade, most
growers attempt to produce only top quality spikes. Typical crops contain
60 to 75% of spikes in the top two grades.

The main winter (November through May) production areas are located in
the warmer coastal areas around Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Naples and Delray
Beach. A limited amount of early fall (September through November) and
late spring (April through June) flowers are produced near Palatka, Marianna
and Blountstown.

Gladiolus flowers are marketed from September through June, with 95%
of the U.S. supplies generally available from Florida between late Novem-
ber and mid-May. Holiday seasons are the most active market periods. In
1973, approximately 821 of the gladiolus crop was shipped by truck and 17%
by air. In contrast to chrysanthemums, approximately 25% of the gladiolus
crop is sold on consignment, 20% is sold on a daily or weekly basis as the
crop matures, and 55% is sold on contract standing order.

Gypsophila (Baby's Breath) is one of the newest and most rapidly expand-
ing cut flowers produced commercially in Florida. During the past four years,
acreage has expanded from just a few acres to an estimated 330 acres pro-
duced by 12 growers during the 1974-75 season. Periodic plantings of gypso-
phila are made from September through February, and a single planting can
be harvested up to 10 times. The stems are harvested just as the buds expand
and are bundled into 9 to 10 ounce bunches. Stem ends are placed in water
or flower preservative and shipped. Baby's Breath flowers are shipped by
trucks along with gladiolus and chrysanthemums, and are widely accepted by
the retail floral industry because there are few flowers that provide the
delicate appearance of gypsophila. Also, the flowers make an excellent
dried flower for future sales.

Statice has been produced in Florida for many years on a limited scale,
but in recent years the acreage has expanded significantly. There are
presently an estimated 15 growers producing annual statice (Limonium
sinuatum) on about 180 acres with an estimated wholesale value of $2.2
million. Since flowering apparently is stimulated by cool temperatures
and/or long day length, the main harvest period is between January and
May. Stems are cut when the flowers are fully open and packaged in 12 to
16 ounce bunches for shipment dry in cardboard boxes. Statice is used
both as a fresh cut flower and dried flower.

Florist Azalea acreage has been estimated at 90 acres, with an annual
value of $2.7 million. Most of these are pot plant cultivars which are
grown in Florida for up to one year, usually under saran structures. The
plants are then shipped to northern greenhouse operators for growing on
and forcing.










Bunches are placed upright in hampers that contain from 20 to 26 bunches,
depending upon grade and cultivar. As price is dependent upon grade, most
growers attempt to produce only top quality spikes. Typical crops contain
60 to 75% of spikes in the top two grades.

The main winter (November through May) production areas are located in
the warmer coastal areas around Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Naples and Delray
Beach. A limited amount of early fall (September through November) and
late spring (April through June) flowers are produced near Palatka, Marianna
and Blountstown.

Gladiolus flowers are marketed from September through June, with 95%
of the U.S. supplies generally available from Florida between late Novem-
ber and mid-May. Holiday seasons are the most active market periods. In
1973, approximately 821 of the gladiolus crop was shipped by truck and 17%
by air. In contrast to chrysanthemums, approximately 25% of the gladiolus
crop is sold on consignment, 20% is sold on a daily or weekly basis as the
crop matures, and 55% is sold on contract standing order.

Gypsophila (Baby's Breath) is one of the newest and most rapidly expand-
ing cut flowers produced commercially in Florida. During the past four years,
acreage has expanded from just a few acres to an estimated 330 acres pro-
duced by 12 growers during the 1974-75 season. Periodic plantings of gypso-
phila are made from September through February, and a single planting can
be harvested up to 10 times. The stems are harvested just as the buds expand
and are bundled into 9 to 10 ounce bunches. Stem ends are placed in water
or flower preservative and shipped. Baby's Breath flowers are shipped by
trucks along with gladiolus and chrysanthemums, and are widely accepted by
the retail floral industry because there are few flowers that provide the
delicate appearance of gypsophila. Also, the flowers make an excellent
dried flower for future sales.

Statice has been produced in Florida for many years on a limited scale,
but in recent years the acreage has expanded significantly. There are
presently an estimated 15 growers producing annual statice (Limonium
sinuatum) on about 180 acres with an estimated wholesale value of $2.2
million. Since flowering apparently is stimulated by cool temperatures
and/or long day length, the main harvest period is between January and
May. Stems are cut when the flowers are fully open and packaged in 12 to
16 ounce bunches for shipment dry in cardboard boxes. Statice is used
both as a fresh cut flower and dried flower.

Florist Azalea acreage has been estimated at 90 acres, with an annual
value of $2.7 million. Most of these are pot plant cultivars which are
grown in Florida for up to one year, usually under saran structures. The
plants are then shipped to northern greenhouse operators for growing on
and forcing.










Bunches are placed upright in hampers that contain from 20 to 26 bunches,
depending upon grade and cultivar. As price is dependent upon grade, most
growers attempt to produce only top quality spikes. Typical crops contain
60 to 75% of spikes in the top two grades.

The main winter (November through May) production areas are located in
the warmer coastal areas around Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Naples and Delray
Beach. A limited amount of early fall (September through November) and
late spring (April through June) flowers are produced near Palatka, Marianna
and Blountstown.

Gladiolus flowers are marketed from September through June, with 95%
of the U.S. supplies generally available from Florida between late Novem-
ber and mid-May. Holiday seasons are the most active market periods. In
1973, approximately 821 of the gladiolus crop was shipped by truck and 17%
by air. In contrast to chrysanthemums, approximately 25% of the gladiolus
crop is sold on consignment, 20% is sold on a daily or weekly basis as the
crop matures, and 55% is sold on contract standing order.

Gypsophila (Baby's Breath) is one of the newest and most rapidly expand-
ing cut flowers produced commercially in Florida. During the past four years,
acreage has expanded from just a few acres to an estimated 330 acres pro-
duced by 12 growers during the 1974-75 season. Periodic plantings of gypso-
phila are made from September through February, and a single planting can
be harvested up to 10 times. The stems are harvested just as the buds expand
and are bundled into 9 to 10 ounce bunches. Stem ends are placed in water
or flower preservative and shipped. Baby's Breath flowers are shipped by
trucks along with gladiolus and chrysanthemums, and are widely accepted by
the retail floral industry because there are few flowers that provide the
delicate appearance of gypsophila. Also, the flowers make an excellent
dried flower for future sales.

Statice has been produced in Florida for many years on a limited scale,
but in recent years the acreage has expanded significantly. There are
presently an estimated 15 growers producing annual statice (Limonium
sinuatum) on about 180 acres with an estimated wholesale value of $2.2
million. Since flowering apparently is stimulated by cool temperatures
and/or long day length, the main harvest period is between January and
May. Stems are cut when the flowers are fully open and packaged in 12 to
16 ounce bunches for shipment dry in cardboard boxes. Statice is used
both as a fresh cut flower and dried flower.

Florist Azalea acreage has been estimated at 90 acres, with an annual
value of $2.7 million. Most of these are pot plant cultivars which are
grown in Florida for up to one year, usually under saran structures. The
plants are then shipped to northern greenhouse operators for growing on
and forcing.









Orchid acreage has been estimated at 110 acres with an annual esti-
mated sales value of $2.5 million. In addition, there are approximately
3,000 orchid hobbyists in the state that grow all types of orchids.
Orchids are marketed primarily as small potted plants to the hobbyists;
however, some large flowering potted plants, asexual divisions and cut
flowers are sold.

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) is a relatively minor floral crop
in Florida with a total estimated value of $1.2 million from about 40 acres
of potted plants, 15 acres of cut-flowers, and 20 acres of bulb production.
Potted plants and cut-flowers are programmed to bloom for specific market
periods. Bulbs are produced in the winter season on organic soils of
central Florida, but production has declined in recent years mainly because
of disease and high labor costs.

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) production in Florida accounts for
30 acres devoted to growing 0.58 million potted plants valued at $1.0 million.
These are sold at Christmas, mainly in Florida and southern states. Adoption
of programming and production techniques to fit the subtropical climate of
Florida has greatly increased the potential for this crop. Also, introduc-
tion of several new cultivars less sensitive to day length with excellent
shipping and keeping qualities has increased the potential for large scale
poinsettia production in Florida.

Other miscellaneous cut flowers produced commercially in Florida have
been estimated at 40 acres and include anemones, asters, carnations, Dutch
Iris, Gerbera daisies, delphiniums, roses, snapdragons, tuberoses, other
lilies and miscellaneous cut annuals.

Miscellaneous potted flowers include an array of plants produced in
greenhouses or saran structures. These include such crops as begonias,
forced bulbs, gardenias, geraniums, Gerbera daisies, gloxinias, hydrangeas
and violets. The acreage in production has been estimated at 50 acres with
a value of $1.6 million.

Annuals Bedding plant production in Florida has expanded greatly
during the last five years. Bedding plants are produced throughout the
state mainly in greenhouses, saran structures or covered seed beds. Pro-
duction is concentrated around metropolitan areas whereas vegetable trans-
plants are grown primarily in vegetable crop production areas and in central
and north Florida. The main species sold include tomatoes, peppers,
petunias, marigolds, begonias, salvia, snapdragon, dianthus, zinnias,
impatiens, alyssum, celosia, ageratum, pansies and coleus.

Caladiums Many cultivars of this colorful tropical American plant
are grown on muck soils of central Florida, primarily around Sebring and
Lake Placid. The Florida industry produces nearly 75% of the caladium
tubers used in the world and 80% of those used in the USA. Caladiums
were grown on approximately 600 acres of land in 1974 and were worth
about $2.5 million (5). The industry is composed primarily of small
growers with less than 10 acres in production; however, a few large
growers produce 50 acres or more.









Orchid acreage has been estimated at 110 acres with an annual esti-
mated sales value of $2.5 million. In addition, there are approximately
3,000 orchid hobbyists in the state that grow all types of orchids.
Orchids are marketed primarily as small potted plants to the hobbyists;
however, some large flowering potted plants, asexual divisions and cut
flowers are sold.

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) is a relatively minor floral crop
in Florida with a total estimated value of $1.2 million from about 40 acres
of potted plants, 15 acres of cut-flowers, and 20 acres of bulb production.
Potted plants and cut-flowers are programmed to bloom for specific market
periods. Bulbs are produced in the winter season on organic soils of
central Florida, but production has declined in recent years mainly because
of disease and high labor costs.

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) production in Florida accounts for
30 acres devoted to growing 0.58 million potted plants valued at $1.0 million.
These are sold at Christmas, mainly in Florida and southern states. Adoption
of programming and production techniques to fit the subtropical climate of
Florida has greatly increased the potential for this crop. Also, introduc-
tion of several new cultivars less sensitive to day length with excellent
shipping and keeping qualities has increased the potential for large scale
poinsettia production in Florida.

Other miscellaneous cut flowers produced commercially in Florida have
been estimated at 40 acres and include anemones, asters, carnations, Dutch
Iris, Gerbera daisies, delphiniums, roses, snapdragons, tuberoses, other
lilies and miscellaneous cut annuals.

Miscellaneous potted flowers include an array of plants produced in
greenhouses or saran structures. These include such crops as begonias,
forced bulbs, gardenias, geraniums, Gerbera daisies, gloxinias, hydrangeas
and violets. The acreage in production has been estimated at 50 acres with
a value of $1.6 million.

Annuals Bedding plant production in Florida has expanded greatly
during the last five years. Bedding plants are produced throughout the
state mainly in greenhouses, saran structures or covered seed beds. Pro-
duction is concentrated around metropolitan areas whereas vegetable trans-
plants are grown primarily in vegetable crop production areas and in central
and north Florida. The main species sold include tomatoes, peppers,
petunias, marigolds, begonias, salvia, snapdragon, dianthus, zinnias,
impatiens, alyssum, celosia, ageratum, pansies and coleus.

Caladiums Many cultivars of this colorful tropical American plant
are grown on muck soils of central Florida, primarily around Sebring and
Lake Placid. The Florida industry produces nearly 75% of the caladium
tubers used in the world and 80% of those used in the USA. Caladiums
were grown on approximately 600 acres of land in 1974 and were worth
about $2.5 million (5). The industry is composed primarily of small
growers with less than 10 acres in production; however, a few large
growers produce 50 acres or more.









Orchid acreage has been estimated at 110 acres with an annual esti-
mated sales value of $2.5 million. In addition, there are approximately
3,000 orchid hobbyists in the state that grow all types of orchids.
Orchids are marketed primarily as small potted plants to the hobbyists;
however, some large flowering potted plants, asexual divisions and cut
flowers are sold.

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) is a relatively minor floral crop
in Florida with a total estimated value of $1.2 million from about 40 acres
of potted plants, 15 acres of cut-flowers, and 20 acres of bulb production.
Potted plants and cut-flowers are programmed to bloom for specific market
periods. Bulbs are produced in the winter season on organic soils of
central Florida, but production has declined in recent years mainly because
of disease and high labor costs.

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) production in Florida accounts for
30 acres devoted to growing 0.58 million potted plants valued at $1.0 million.
These are sold at Christmas, mainly in Florida and southern states. Adoption
of programming and production techniques to fit the subtropical climate of
Florida has greatly increased the potential for this crop. Also, introduc-
tion of several new cultivars less sensitive to day length with excellent
shipping and keeping qualities has increased the potential for large scale
poinsettia production in Florida.

Other miscellaneous cut flowers produced commercially in Florida have
been estimated at 40 acres and include anemones, asters, carnations, Dutch
Iris, Gerbera daisies, delphiniums, roses, snapdragons, tuberoses, other
lilies and miscellaneous cut annuals.

Miscellaneous potted flowers include an array of plants produced in
greenhouses or saran structures. These include such crops as begonias,
forced bulbs, gardenias, geraniums, Gerbera daisies, gloxinias, hydrangeas
and violets. The acreage in production has been estimated at 50 acres with
a value of $1.6 million.

Annuals Bedding plant production in Florida has expanded greatly
during the last five years. Bedding plants are produced throughout the
state mainly in greenhouses, saran structures or covered seed beds. Pro-
duction is concentrated around metropolitan areas whereas vegetable trans-
plants are grown primarily in vegetable crop production areas and in central
and north Florida. The main species sold include tomatoes, peppers,
petunias, marigolds, begonias, salvia, snapdragon, dianthus, zinnias,
impatiens, alyssum, celosia, ageratum, pansies and coleus.

Caladiums Many cultivars of this colorful tropical American plant
are grown on muck soils of central Florida, primarily around Sebring and
Lake Placid. The Florida industry produces nearly 75% of the caladium
tubers used in the world and 80% of those used in the USA. Caladiums
were grown on approximately 600 acres of land in 1974 and were worth
about $2.5 million (5). The industry is composed primarily of small
growers with less than 10 acres in production; however, a few large
growers produce 50 acres or more.









Orchid acreage has been estimated at 110 acres with an annual esti-
mated sales value of $2.5 million. In addition, there are approximately
3,000 orchid hobbyists in the state that grow all types of orchids.
Orchids are marketed primarily as small potted plants to the hobbyists;
however, some large flowering potted plants, asexual divisions and cut
flowers are sold.

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) is a relatively minor floral crop
in Florida with a total estimated value of $1.2 million from about 40 acres
of potted plants, 15 acres of cut-flowers, and 20 acres of bulb production.
Potted plants and cut-flowers are programmed to bloom for specific market
periods. Bulbs are produced in the winter season on organic soils of
central Florida, but production has declined in recent years mainly because
of disease and high labor costs.

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) production in Florida accounts for
30 acres devoted to growing 0.58 million potted plants valued at $1.0 million.
These are sold at Christmas, mainly in Florida and southern states. Adoption
of programming and production techniques to fit the subtropical climate of
Florida has greatly increased the potential for this crop. Also, introduc-
tion of several new cultivars less sensitive to day length with excellent
shipping and keeping qualities has increased the potential for large scale
poinsettia production in Florida.

Other miscellaneous cut flowers produced commercially in Florida have
been estimated at 40 acres and include anemones, asters, carnations, Dutch
Iris, Gerbera daisies, delphiniums, roses, snapdragons, tuberoses, other
lilies and miscellaneous cut annuals.

Miscellaneous potted flowers include an array of plants produced in
greenhouses or saran structures. These include such crops as begonias,
forced bulbs, gardenias, geraniums, Gerbera daisies, gloxinias, hydrangeas
and violets. The acreage in production has been estimated at 50 acres with
a value of $1.6 million.

Annuals Bedding plant production in Florida has expanded greatly
during the last five years. Bedding plants are produced throughout the
state mainly in greenhouses, saran structures or covered seed beds. Pro-
duction is concentrated around metropolitan areas whereas vegetable trans-
plants are grown primarily in vegetable crop production areas and in central
and north Florida. The main species sold include tomatoes, peppers,
petunias, marigolds, begonias, salvia, snapdragon, dianthus, zinnias,
impatiens, alyssum, celosia, ageratum, pansies and coleus.

Caladiums Many cultivars of this colorful tropical American plant
are grown on muck soils of central Florida, primarily around Sebring and
Lake Placid. The Florida industry produces nearly 75% of the caladium
tubers used in the world and 80% of those used in the USA. Caladiums
were grown on approximately 600 acres of land in 1974 and were worth
about $2.5 million (5). The industry is composed primarily of small
growers with less than 10 acres in production; however, a few large
growers produce 50 acres or more.









Orchid acreage has been estimated at 110 acres with an annual esti-
mated sales value of $2.5 million. In addition, there are approximately
3,000 orchid hobbyists in the state that grow all types of orchids.
Orchids are marketed primarily as small potted plants to the hobbyists;
however, some large flowering potted plants, asexual divisions and cut
flowers are sold.

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) is a relatively minor floral crop
in Florida with a total estimated value of $1.2 million from about 40 acres
of potted plants, 15 acres of cut-flowers, and 20 acres of bulb production.
Potted plants and cut-flowers are programmed to bloom for specific market
periods. Bulbs are produced in the winter season on organic soils of
central Florida, but production has declined in recent years mainly because
of disease and high labor costs.

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) production in Florida accounts for
30 acres devoted to growing 0.58 million potted plants valued at $1.0 million.
These are sold at Christmas, mainly in Florida and southern states. Adoption
of programming and production techniques to fit the subtropical climate of
Florida has greatly increased the potential for this crop. Also, introduc-
tion of several new cultivars less sensitive to day length with excellent
shipping and keeping qualities has increased the potential for large scale
poinsettia production in Florida.

Other miscellaneous cut flowers produced commercially in Florida have
been estimated at 40 acres and include anemones, asters, carnations, Dutch
Iris, Gerbera daisies, delphiniums, roses, snapdragons, tuberoses, other
lilies and miscellaneous cut annuals.

Miscellaneous potted flowers include an array of plants produced in
greenhouses or saran structures. These include such crops as begonias,
forced bulbs, gardenias, geraniums, Gerbera daisies, gloxinias, hydrangeas
and violets. The acreage in production has been estimated at 50 acres with
a value of $1.6 million.

Annuals Bedding plant production in Florida has expanded greatly
during the last five years. Bedding plants are produced throughout the
state mainly in greenhouses, saran structures or covered seed beds. Pro-
duction is concentrated around metropolitan areas whereas vegetable trans-
plants are grown primarily in vegetable crop production areas and in central
and north Florida. The main species sold include tomatoes, peppers,
petunias, marigolds, begonias, salvia, snapdragon, dianthus, zinnias,
impatiens, alyssum, celosia, ageratum, pansies and coleus.

Caladiums Many cultivars of this colorful tropical American plant
are grown on muck soils of central Florida, primarily around Sebring and
Lake Placid. The Florida industry produces nearly 75% of the caladium
tubers used in the world and 80% of those used in the USA. Caladiums
were grown on approximately 600 acres of land in 1974 and were worth
about $2.5 million (5). The industry is composed primarily of small
growers with less than 10 acres in production; however, a few large
growers produce 50 acres or more.









Orchid acreage has been estimated at 110 acres with an annual esti-
mated sales value of $2.5 million. In addition, there are approximately
3,000 orchid hobbyists in the state that grow all types of orchids.
Orchids are marketed primarily as small potted plants to the hobbyists;
however, some large flowering potted plants, asexual divisions and cut
flowers are sold.

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) is a relatively minor floral crop
in Florida with a total estimated value of $1.2 million from about 40 acres
of potted plants, 15 acres of cut-flowers, and 20 acres of bulb production.
Potted plants and cut-flowers are programmed to bloom for specific market
periods. Bulbs are produced in the winter season on organic soils of
central Florida, but production has declined in recent years mainly because
of disease and high labor costs.

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) production in Florida accounts for
30 acres devoted to growing 0.58 million potted plants valued at $1.0 million.
These are sold at Christmas, mainly in Florida and southern states. Adoption
of programming and production techniques to fit the subtropical climate of
Florida has greatly increased the potential for this crop. Also, introduc-
tion of several new cultivars less sensitive to day length with excellent
shipping and keeping qualities has increased the potential for large scale
poinsettia production in Florida.

Other miscellaneous cut flowers produced commercially in Florida have
been estimated at 40 acres and include anemones, asters, carnations, Dutch
Iris, Gerbera daisies, delphiniums, roses, snapdragons, tuberoses, other
lilies and miscellaneous cut annuals.

Miscellaneous potted flowers include an array of plants produced in
greenhouses or saran structures. These include such crops as begonias,
forced bulbs, gardenias, geraniums, Gerbera daisies, gloxinias, hydrangeas
and violets. The acreage in production has been estimated at 50 acres with
a value of $1.6 million.

Annuals Bedding plant production in Florida has expanded greatly
during the last five years. Bedding plants are produced throughout the
state mainly in greenhouses, saran structures or covered seed beds. Pro-
duction is concentrated around metropolitan areas whereas vegetable trans-
plants are grown primarily in vegetable crop production areas and in central
and north Florida. The main species sold include tomatoes, peppers,
petunias, marigolds, begonias, salvia, snapdragon, dianthus, zinnias,
impatiens, alyssum, celosia, ageratum, pansies and coleus.

Caladiums Many cultivars of this colorful tropical American plant
are grown on muck soils of central Florida, primarily around Sebring and
Lake Placid. The Florida industry produces nearly 75% of the caladium
tubers used in the world and 80% of those used in the USA. Caladiums
were grown on approximately 600 acres of land in 1974 and were worth
about $2.5 million (5). The industry is composed primarily of small
growers with less than 10 acres in production; however, a few large
growers produce 50 acres or more.









Orchid acreage has been estimated at 110 acres with an annual esti-
mated sales value of $2.5 million. In addition, there are approximately
3,000 orchid hobbyists in the state that grow all types of orchids.
Orchids are marketed primarily as small potted plants to the hobbyists;
however, some large flowering potted plants, asexual divisions and cut
flowers are sold.

Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) is a relatively minor floral crop
in Florida with a total estimated value of $1.2 million from about 40 acres
of potted plants, 15 acres of cut-flowers, and 20 acres of bulb production.
Potted plants and cut-flowers are programmed to bloom for specific market
periods. Bulbs are produced in the winter season on organic soils of
central Florida, but production has declined in recent years mainly because
of disease and high labor costs.

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) production in Florida accounts for
30 acres devoted to growing 0.58 million potted plants valued at $1.0 million.
These are sold at Christmas, mainly in Florida and southern states. Adoption
of programming and production techniques to fit the subtropical climate of
Florida has greatly increased the potential for this crop. Also, introduc-
tion of several new cultivars less sensitive to day length with excellent
shipping and keeping qualities has increased the potential for large scale
poinsettia production in Florida.

Other miscellaneous cut flowers produced commercially in Florida have
been estimated at 40 acres and include anemones, asters, carnations, Dutch
Iris, Gerbera daisies, delphiniums, roses, snapdragons, tuberoses, other
lilies and miscellaneous cut annuals.

Miscellaneous potted flowers include an array of plants produced in
greenhouses or saran structures. These include such crops as begonias,
forced bulbs, gardenias, geraniums, Gerbera daisies, gloxinias, hydrangeas
and violets. The acreage in production has been estimated at 50 acres with
a value of $1.6 million.

Annuals Bedding plant production in Florida has expanded greatly
during the last five years. Bedding plants are produced throughout the
state mainly in greenhouses, saran structures or covered seed beds. Pro-
duction is concentrated around metropolitan areas whereas vegetable trans-
plants are grown primarily in vegetable crop production areas and in central
and north Florida. The main species sold include tomatoes, peppers,
petunias, marigolds, begonias, salvia, snapdragon, dianthus, zinnias,
impatiens, alyssum, celosia, ageratum, pansies and coleus.

Caladiums Many cultivars of this colorful tropical American plant
are grown on muck soils of central Florida, primarily around Sebring and
Lake Placid. The Florida industry produces nearly 75% of the caladium
tubers used in the world and 80% of those used in the USA. Caladiums
were grown on approximately 600 acres of land in 1974 and were worth
about $2.5 million (5). The industry is composed primarily of small
growers with less than 10 acres in production; however, a few large
growers produce 50 acres or more.






-5-



Cut Fern Florida is the leading state in production of cut ferns.
There were approximately 2,100 acres in production in 1974 with an esti-
mated wholesale value of $13 million (5). The two main species are
Polystichum adiantiforme (leatherleaf) and Asparagus plumosus namus
plumosuss fern). The percentage of sales for the cut ferns in 1974 were:
leatherleaf 75%, plumosus 20% and other ferns 5%. Both major species are
indigenous to tropical areas of the world and are produced in Florida under
lath and saran structures or under natural oak tree shade. The acreage of
plumosus has decreased over 50% during the last 15 years where leatherleaf
acreage increased markedly. Production is concentrated in the north central
Florida counties of Volusia, Orange, and Lake. However, some acreage is
scattered through central and south Florida. Many of the cut flowers
producers have established plantings of the leatherleaf fern as companion
crop for their cut flower sales.

Cut foliage acreage in Florida has been estimated at 400 acres with
a wholesale value of $2 million (5). Major plants grown for foliage are
podocarpus, pittosporum, crotons, eucalyptus and palms. The industry is
located in the north central Florida counties of Volusia, Putnam, Lake
and Marion; however, some small plantings are in production through central
and southern Florida. They frequently serve as a supplement crop to cut
flowers or cut ferns.

Tropical foliage plant production is the most rapidly expanding seg-
ment of the ornamental horticultural industry in Florida. The wholesale
value of Florida foliage plants has increased from $15 million in 1968 to
an estimated $65 million in 1974 (4, 5, 6, 23). This figure represents
more foliage plant production than is in the rest of the USA combined.
Production is concentrated primarily in two areas: one in central Flor-
ida in the vicinity of Apopka and the other in southeastern coastal Flor-
ida from Stuart to Homestead. New production centers are developing
throughout central and southern Florida near metropolitan areas.

Most of the production in central Florida is under shaded structures
heated during the winter months. In south Florida, part of the production
is in the open fields and part under open saran structures. Most outdoor
acreage (no shade) in south Florida is composed of cultivars from the
genera of Ficus, Sansevieria, Brassaia, Aralia, and Dracaena.

The foliage industry is composed of a conglomerate of large, medium
and small producers with the smaller producers supplying specific items
to the large operations through contractural arrangements. Specialty
crops include such items as bromeliads, peperomia, cacti, ferns, Norfolk
Island pine, and zebra plant.

Most foliage plant genera used for commercial production in Florida
are indigenous to tropics and are shown in Table 3. Foliage plants are
shipped from Florida throughout the USA primarily by truck, with limited
shipment by rail, bus and air, and are used primarily as indoor house
and office plants, and for landscaping indoor shopping malls and patios.






-5-



Cut Fern Florida is the leading state in production of cut ferns.
There were approximately 2,100 acres in production in 1974 with an esti-
mated wholesale value of $13 million (5). The two main species are
Polystichum adiantiforme (leatherleaf) and Asparagus plumosus namus
plumosuss fern). The percentage of sales for the cut ferns in 1974 were:
leatherleaf 75%, plumosus 20% and other ferns 5%. Both major species are
indigenous to tropical areas of the world and are produced in Florida under
lath and saran structures or under natural oak tree shade. The acreage of
plumosus has decreased over 50% during the last 15 years where leatherleaf
acreage increased markedly. Production is concentrated in the north central
Florida counties of Volusia, Orange, and Lake. However, some acreage is
scattered through central and south Florida. Many of the cut flowers
producers have established plantings of the leatherleaf fern as companion
crop for their cut flower sales.

Cut foliage acreage in Florida has been estimated at 400 acres with
a wholesale value of $2 million (5). Major plants grown for foliage are
podocarpus, pittosporum, crotons, eucalyptus and palms. The industry is
located in the north central Florida counties of Volusia, Putnam, Lake
and Marion; however, some small plantings are in production through central
and southern Florida. They frequently serve as a supplement crop to cut
flowers or cut ferns.

Tropical foliage plant production is the most rapidly expanding seg-
ment of the ornamental horticultural industry in Florida. The wholesale
value of Florida foliage plants has increased from $15 million in 1968 to
an estimated $65 million in 1974 (4, 5, 6, 23). This figure represents
more foliage plant production than is in the rest of the USA combined.
Production is concentrated primarily in two areas: one in central Flor-
ida in the vicinity of Apopka and the other in southeastern coastal Flor-
ida from Stuart to Homestead. New production centers are developing
throughout central and southern Florida near metropolitan areas.

Most of the production in central Florida is under shaded structures
heated during the winter months. In south Florida, part of the production
is in the open fields and part under open saran structures. Most outdoor
acreage (no shade) in south Florida is composed of cultivars from the
genera of Ficus, Sansevieria, Brassaia, Aralia, and Dracaena.

The foliage industry is composed of a conglomerate of large, medium
and small producers with the smaller producers supplying specific items
to the large operations through contractural arrangements. Specialty
crops include such items as bromeliads, peperomia, cacti, ferns, Norfolk
Island pine, and zebra plant.

Most foliage plant genera used for commercial production in Florida
are indigenous to tropics and are shown in Table 3. Foliage plants are
shipped from Florida throughout the USA primarily by truck, with limited
shipment by rail, bus and air, and are used primarily as indoor house
and office plants, and for landscaping indoor shopping malls and patios.






-5-



Cut Fern Florida is the leading state in production of cut ferns.
There were approximately 2,100 acres in production in 1974 with an esti-
mated wholesale value of $13 million (5). The two main species are
Polystichum adiantiforme (leatherleaf) and Asparagus plumosus namus
plumosuss fern). The percentage of sales for the cut ferns in 1974 were:
leatherleaf 75%, plumosus 20% and other ferns 5%. Both major species are
indigenous to tropical areas of the world and are produced in Florida under
lath and saran structures or under natural oak tree shade. The acreage of
plumosus has decreased over 50% during the last 15 years where leatherleaf
acreage increased markedly. Production is concentrated in the north central
Florida counties of Volusia, Orange, and Lake. However, some acreage is
scattered through central and south Florida. Many of the cut flowers
producers have established plantings of the leatherleaf fern as companion
crop for their cut flower sales.

Cut foliage acreage in Florida has been estimated at 400 acres with
a wholesale value of $2 million (5). Major plants grown for foliage are
podocarpus, pittosporum, crotons, eucalyptus and palms. The industry is
located in the north central Florida counties of Volusia, Putnam, Lake
and Marion; however, some small plantings are in production through central
and southern Florida. They frequently serve as a supplement crop to cut
flowers or cut ferns.

Tropical foliage plant production is the most rapidly expanding seg-
ment of the ornamental horticultural industry in Florida. The wholesale
value of Florida foliage plants has increased from $15 million in 1968 to
an estimated $65 million in 1974 (4, 5, 6, 23). This figure represents
more foliage plant production than is in the rest of the USA combined.
Production is concentrated primarily in two areas: one in central Flor-
ida in the vicinity of Apopka and the other in southeastern coastal Flor-
ida from Stuart to Homestead. New production centers are developing
throughout central and southern Florida near metropolitan areas.

Most of the production in central Florida is under shaded structures
heated during the winter months. In south Florida, part of the production
is in the open fields and part under open saran structures. Most outdoor
acreage (no shade) in south Florida is composed of cultivars from the
genera of Ficus, Sansevieria, Brassaia, Aralia, and Dracaena.

The foliage industry is composed of a conglomerate of large, medium
and small producers with the smaller producers supplying specific items
to the large operations through contractural arrangements. Specialty
crops include such items as bromeliads, peperomia, cacti, ferns, Norfolk
Island pine, and zebra plant.

Most foliage plant genera used for commercial production in Florida
are indigenous to tropics and are shown in Table 3. Foliage plants are
shipped from Florida throughout the USA primarily by truck, with limited
shipment by rail, bus and air, and are used primarily as indoor house
and office plants, and for landscaping indoor shopping malls and patios.











The Major Flower Plants Grown in Tropical America

Since an array of climates exist from subfreezing temperatures at
high elevations to humid tropical conditions in the lowlands, many plant
types are used for floricultural purposes. They include such general
groupings or classifications as annuals, bulbs, cut flowers, potted
flowers, tuberous plants, perennials, desert plants, shrubs, trees and
vines. Since thousands of species or individual varieties of flowers
are present, the more common genera or groups of plants observed in
the Caribbean Islands, Central America and Northern South America
countries are listed in Table 2 along with abbreviated cultural and
floricultural use information.

Major uses of floral crops in the tropics are in landscaping, private
and public gardens and for cut and potted flowers. Commercial plantings
are located usually around metropolitan areas and aimed toward local
markets. However, cut flowers for export are produced mainly in Colombia,
Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Mexico with less production in
the other tropical countries. Exported floral items are composed primarily
of carnations, chrysanthemums, daisies, statice, roses and cut foliage and
ferns. Table 4 reflects the drastic increase in cut flowers imported into
the U.S. from 1965 to 1974. There was an approximate four-fold increase
in flower imports from the tropical Americas from 1965 to 1968 and a 24-fold
increase from 1968 to 1974. Major commodity increases were in carnations,
chrysanthemums, cut foliage and ferns and daisies with lesser increases of
statice and roses.

Smith (18, 19) estimated that 14% of the domestic supply of carnations,
pompons and standard chrysanthemums came from imports in 1973. The domestic
supply of carnations increased 62%, pompon chrysanthemums 44%, and standard
chrysanthemums 20% from 1966 to 1973.

The major cultural problems noted in all flower production systems
were: (a) lack of adequate disease and insect control, (b) fertilizer
and plant nutritional problems, and (c) lack of knowledge on culture of
specific crops.

The Major Foliage Plants Grown in Tropical America

Hundreds of species of tropical foliage plants are grown and sold
locally or exported from tropical countries. The predominant genera
grown in the tropics and as well as in Florida are listed in Table 3.
Conover et al. (4) estimated that over 300 species were used in the
commercial trade in Florida alone. Many more species and varieties
are used locally in the tropical countries as landscape plants,
decorative vines, ground covers and, to a lesser extent, potted and
specimen plants. Commercial production of potted foliage plants in the
tropics is in its infancy and limited to production for local markets.
U. S. Customs regulations prohibit the importation of soil media on
plant roots; therefore, only seed, vegetative cuttings, cut flowers, or
plants with roots free of all media are allowed to enter the U. S.











The Major Flower Plants Grown in Tropical America

Since an array of climates exist from subfreezing temperatures at
high elevations to humid tropical conditions in the lowlands, many plant
types are used for floricultural purposes. They include such general
groupings or classifications as annuals, bulbs, cut flowers, potted
flowers, tuberous plants, perennials, desert plants, shrubs, trees and
vines. Since thousands of species or individual varieties of flowers
are present, the more common genera or groups of plants observed in
the Caribbean Islands, Central America and Northern South America
countries are listed in Table 2 along with abbreviated cultural and
floricultural use information.

Major uses of floral crops in the tropics are in landscaping, private
and public gardens and for cut and potted flowers. Commercial plantings
are located usually around metropolitan areas and aimed toward local
markets. However, cut flowers for export are produced mainly in Colombia,
Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Mexico with less production in
the other tropical countries. Exported floral items are composed primarily
of carnations, chrysanthemums, daisies, statice, roses and cut foliage and
ferns. Table 4 reflects the drastic increase in cut flowers imported into
the U.S. from 1965 to 1974. There was an approximate four-fold increase
in flower imports from the tropical Americas from 1965 to 1968 and a 24-fold
increase from 1968 to 1974. Major commodity increases were in carnations,
chrysanthemums, cut foliage and ferns and daisies with lesser increases of
statice and roses.

Smith (18, 19) estimated that 14% of the domestic supply of carnations,
pompons and standard chrysanthemums came from imports in 1973. The domestic
supply of carnations increased 62%, pompon chrysanthemums 44%, and standard
chrysanthemums 20% from 1966 to 1973.

The major cultural problems noted in all flower production systems
were: (a) lack of adequate disease and insect control, (b) fertilizer
and plant nutritional problems, and (c) lack of knowledge on culture of
specific crops.

The Major Foliage Plants Grown in Tropical America

Hundreds of species of tropical foliage plants are grown and sold
locally or exported from tropical countries. The predominant genera
grown in the tropics and as well as in Florida are listed in Table 3.
Conover et al. (4) estimated that over 300 species were used in the
commercial trade in Florida alone. Many more species and varieties
are used locally in the tropical countries as landscape plants,
decorative vines, ground covers and, to a lesser extent, potted and
specimen plants. Commercial production of potted foliage plants in the
tropics is in its infancy and limited to production for local markets.
U. S. Customs regulations prohibit the importation of soil media on
plant roots; therefore, only seed, vegetative cuttings, cut flowers, or
plants with roots free of all media are allowed to enter the U. S.









In 1968-69 it was estimated that 100 acres were used for foliage plant
production for export whereas the present acreage is estimated at 800 acres
(6, 16, 17, 19, 23). This does not include the collection of native seeds
or plants and commercial seed production for export. Dollar values on
tropical production are difficult to establish because of declaration and
monetary variations from country to country. It is estimated that at least
$20 million worth of propagating materials are currently imported to the U.S.
mainland (6, 19). Major sources of these plants are Guatemala, Honduras,
Jamaica, and Costa Rica. The rapid increase in the numbers of foliage plants
imported into the U. S. from the tropics between 1968-69 and 1974-75 fiscal
years is shown in Table 5. Conover (6) estimated that 25% of the vegetative
non-rooted and rooted cuttings utilized in the U. S. foliage industries were
produced in the tropical countries. The predominant genera or groups impor-
ted to date include Aglaonema, Aphelandra, Aralia, Brassaia, Cordyline,
Dracaena, Ficus, Maranta, Syngonium, Palms, Peperomia, Philodendron, Pleomele,
Scindapsus, Yucca, and bromeliads.

Seeds for sexually propagated foliage plants are collected primarily
from uncultivated plants in tropical sections of Mexico, Central America,
islands of the Caribbean, and limited plantings in the USA. Major foliage
genera or groups propagated by seeds include: Anthurium, Ardisia, Aspara-
gus, Beaucarnea, Brassaia, Bromeliads, Cacti, Coffea, Ficus, Philodendron,
Podocarpus, Syngonium, Yucca and members of the palmaceae.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Commercial Production in the Tropics

Factors favoring commercial floricultural production in the tropical
countries include: abundance of low cost labor, a wide variety of favorable
year-round climates, the use of less expensive structures, less need for
expensive heating and cooling energy, availability of high quality irriga-
tion water, cooperative governmental agricultural policies on imports and
exports in some countries, and less governmental regulations on the use of
agricultural chemicals.

Disadvantages to tropical floricultural production are: difficulties
with utilization and training of local labor, difficulties with language
and local customs, inadequate sources and time delays in obtaining special-
ized supplies and equipment, high cost of materials and supplies, under-
standing laws and regulations of other cultures, inadequate air cargo
space and flight schedules to the U. S. and Europe, and the lack of tech-
nical horticultural knowledge and diagnostic laboratories.





-8-



Vb\e' 3-
TalIe Projected estimates of acreage and wholesale values of floricultural
crops in Florida for 1985 with estimated acreages and values for 1968 and
1974. (UUI)

Dollar value
lover Cr_, Estimated acreages 1968 1974 1985
C-p 1968 1974 1985 Million dollars


Fwer CrWs
hrysan hemum ,
Pompons 650
Standards 100
Pots 200
Rooted cuttings 120
I--G;~aaiolr--is---- ---- --------- -- -"-
Flowers 8,500
Corms 800
Gypsophila b
Statice b
Florist Azaleas c
Orchids 100
Lilies 67
Poinsettias 25
Roses 100
Misc. potted flowers c
Misc. cut flowers 100
Misc. bulb crops
Annuals\ c
Caladiums 700
Cut Foliage
Cut Fern 1,750
Foliage plants (tropical) 650
Misc. potted flowers & annuals 225


650
60
150
165

7,500
600
330
180
90
110
60
30
35
50
40
30
80
600
400
2,100
755
I


14,087 14,035


800
100
250
200

8,000
800
500
380
120
130
70
55
65
90
75
60
120
850
450
2,300
1,200



16,645


9.6
1.8
1.6
5.0

13.0
2.0
b
b
c
2.0
1.3
2.7
1.3

1.0

-c
1.4

8.7
15.0
5.0


10.9 13.4
1.4 2.3
4.4 7.0
8.7 10.6

15.8 16.8
2.1 2.8
4.5 6.8
2.2 4.6
2.7 3.6
2.5 3.0
1.3 1.5
1.0 1.8
0.8 1.2
1.6 2.9
0.4 0.8
0.3 0.6
5.0 7.5
2.5 3.5
2.0 2.3
13.0 15.7
65.0 150.0
- -


71.4 148.9 260.2


TOTALS


values are e res d in 1974 dol ars t show change in vol e o out t
rather than ch es in price.
b1968 estimate included in miscel neous cut flower at
c1968 estima es i cluded with mis laneous potted flers and ials.
dEstimate do not include comm cial vegetable tra p ant pro cti n.


Sources: (5, 19, 21, 23).




Table 2. List of plants commonly observed in floriculturaluse in tropical countries.
Floricultural uses
Ln 44
Common a o
Genera Common name propagation 0 o aO3 0 o Other
2 gQu o 4cjU m ,I uses
or group or comment methods W W 0 o WM W U uses
4 cnW W 4 oa -C -WC :3
r O -H r-4 to r E r-l a 1 utfJJO 0
0 4 0 0 -i C O O WC 01 0 J -1 3r-l 0 W
0 O4 S H 0-1 PQ D P. U44 U P


Agapanthus(s)
Alocasia(s)

Aloe(s)
Alpinia(s)
Althaea
Alyssum
Amaranthus(s)
Amaryllis(s)
Amonum
Anemone

Annuals
Anthurium(s)
Aphelandra
Asparagus(s)
Aster
Begonia(s)

Bougainvillea(s)
Brassica(s)
Bromeliad (s)
Cactus(s)
Caladium(s)
Calathea(s)
Calendula
Calla lily(s)
Callistephus(s)
Canna(s)
Capsicum

Catharanthus
Celmisia


Celosia(s)


Lily of the Nile
Elephant ear, over
60 sp.
Aloe, over 200 sp.
Gingers(Shell,Red)
Hollyhock
Gold dust
Many kinds
Amaryllis
Torch ginger
Windflower, Poppy
flower
Many kinds
Anthuriums, 500 sp.
Zebra plant
Asparagus fern
Perennial asters
Begonias, over 300
sp.
Many varieties
Ornamental cabbage
Many genera & sp.
Cactus, many sp.
Many varieties
Over 100 sp. Marant.
Pot marigold
Callas, several ap.
China aster
Several sp.
Chilli, cayenne
pepper
Periwinkle
Snow daisies,
many sp.
Cockscomb


Tubers
Rhizomes, cuttings,
suckers, seeds
Offset shoots
Divisions,rhizomes,seeds
Seeds
Seeds, cuttings
Seeds, cuttings
Bulbs, seeds
Rhizomes, seeds
Clump divisions, bulbs

Seeds, cuttings
Seeds, divisions
Leaf, bud, or stem
Seeds, divisions
Divisions, seeds
Cuttings, seeds, tubers

Cuttings
Seeds
Shoots, seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Tubers, divisions
iRhizomes,divisions,seeds
Seeds
Rhizomasdivisions,seeda
Seeds
Rhisomes,divisions,seeds
Seeds, cuttings

Seeds
Cuttings, seeds


Seeds


3-6
2-6

3-12
3-24
2-3
6-12
3-4
12-24
3-24
2-4

2-4
6-12
3-6
3-6
3-6
2-6

3-12
3-4
3-12
3-12
2-4
3-6
2-4
3-6
3-4
3-6
3

2-4
2-4


3-2 3
1 2-3


3
1
2
2
2

1
2

2
1
2
2-3
2
2

2-3
2
3
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
2

3
2


3-2
3-2
3
3
3
3
2-3
3-2

3-2
2
1-2
3-2
3
3-2

3
3
1-3
3-2
3-2
2-1
3
3
3
3
3

3
3


Low 30's
Low 30's

Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Cold hardy
Low 30's
Mid 20's
Low 40's
Mid 20's


Low
Low
Low
Mid
Low
Mid


30's
50's
40's
20's
30's
30's


Mid 20's
Mid 20's
Low 30's
High 20's
Low 40's
Mid 30's
Low 30's
Mid 30's
Low 30's
Mid 30's
Mid 30's

Low 30's
Mid 20's

Low 30's


Medicinal



Seed prod.
Seeds, bulbs

Bulb prod.

Seed prod.


Cut foliage

Seed prod.




Food






Food




Seed prod.






Table 2. (Continued)
Floricultural uses
wo
Common o
Genera Common name propagation o a0 U 5 H *
g 2 d u a 2
or group or comment methods M U < I n C C aM I o
0 :3 3 4. 1 i) 1 4 C) a) W l `4 QU Q) :3
Cc O cl lO 3 4a !J-O 0
oHJa) = to 0. W 0 U o "
S 0 -to r-, E-4i Z "a o o-W O 0
0 W 0 0 ~~~, 0 W00rI:j-


Chrysanthemum(s)
Clerodendron(s)
Coleus
Convolvulus
Cortaderia
Cosmos
Costus

Crinum lily(s)
Cucurbita(s)
Cyperus(s)
Dahlia(s)-
Delphinium
Dianthus(s)

Dimorphotheca

Eucalyptus(s)
Euphorbia(s)
Fuchsia(s)
Gardenia(s)
Gazania(s)
Gerbera
Geseneriad(s)
Gladiolus(s)
Gloxinia

Gypsophila
Haemanthus
Hedychium(s)
Helianthus
Helichrysum
Heliconia(s)
Hemerocallis


All types & sp.
Bleeding heart
105 species
Morning Glory
Pampas grass
Mexican aster
Ginger, 100 sp.

Crinum, many sp.
Ornamental gourds
Egyptian paper
Many hybrids
Larkspur, many sp.
Carnation, several
sp.
African daisy,
several sp.
Many species
Over 1,000 sp.
Many sp. & hybrids
Gardenia
Black-eyed Susan
African daisy
Many genera & sp.
Glads
Gloxinia

Baby's breath
African lily
White ginger
Sun flowers
Straw flower
Heliconias
Daylily


Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, suckers
Cuttings, seeds
Seeds
Seeds, divisions
Seeds
Rhizomes,divisions,seeds,
shoots, cuttings
Bulbs,divisions,seeds
Seeds
Divisions, seeds
Bulbs
Seeds
Cuttings, seeds

Seeds,cuttings,divisions

Seeds, cuttings
Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings
Seeds, divisions
Seeds, divisions
Cuttings, seeds, tubers
Corms, cormels, seeds
Seeds, leaf cuttings,
rhizomes
Seeds,cuttings,rhizomes
Bulbs
Rhizomes,divisions,seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Divisions, seeds
Rhizomes, seeds


3-6
6-12
2-4
2-3
3-6
3-4
3-4

6-12
3-4
3-6
3-4
2-3
3-4

4-12

6-12
3-6
3-6
4-12
4-12
3-6
2-6
3-6
3-6

3-6
6-12
3-24
3-4
2-3
3-6
3-12


3
3
3
3
3
3
3-2

3
3
3
3
3
3

3

3
3
2
3-2
3
3
2-1
3
2-1

3
1-3
3-2
3
3
1-3
3


High 20's
Low 30's
Low 40's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's


Mid
Mid
Low
Low
Low
Mid


30's
40's
30's
30's
30's
20's


Low 30's

Mid 20's
Low 30's
Mid 20's
High 20's
High 20's
High 20's
Low 50's
Low 30's
Mid 30's

Low 30's
Mid 20's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 50's
Mid 20's


Vines


Herbs



Dried flwrs







Trees

Trees


Seed prod.








Dried flwrs
Dried flwrs






Table 2. (Continued)

Floricultural uses

Common Q o
Genera Common name propagation 0 .a ) t Other
or group or comment methods 0 4 0 o o W U uses
4-1 a m aU (D ti 6 C a) "0 a c 4-j Z S g -:
BO C H a -4 tI J 4(P) O M O
0 i 0 0 -H CO W, 0 (t a)4 0 05 :O : -) r 43 0 W
ZO 1 X E- 'H = & .1 44iU 0.


Hibiscus(s)
Hoya(s)

Hyacinthus(s)
Hydrangea(s)
Hymenocallis(s)
Impatiens (s)

Impomoea(s)
Iris(s)

Ixora(s)

Jasminum(s)
Kalanchoe(s)
Lampranthus(s)
Lantana
Lilium(s)
Limonium
Lobularia
Lupinus(s)
Lycoris
Malus
Malva
Melaleuca(s)
Mirabilis
Narcissus(s)
Nymphaea(s)

Oenothera(s)
Orchids


Many hybrids
Wax plant, many
sp. & hybrids
Many hybrids
Several species
Spider flower
Snap weed, Sultans,
several sp.
Morning glory
Many hybrids & sp.

Ixora

Jasmines
Succulents
Iceplant
Lantana
Lily, many kinds
Statice
Sweet alyssum
Lupine, many sp.
Amaryllis
Floral apple
Perennial hibiscus
Bottle brush
Four o'clock
Daffodils, many sp.
Water lily

Primrose, 200 sp.
Many genera & sp.


Cuttings, seeds


Cuttings,
Bulbs
Cuttings,
Bulbs


seeds

divisions


Seeds,cuttings,divisions
Seeds
Bulbs,rhizomes,divisions,
seeds
Cuttings,divisions,root
sprouts
Cuttings
Leaf cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, layers
Cuttings,seeds,divisions
Bulbs,scales,leaf buds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Bulbs
Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Seeds,tubers,divisions
Bulbs
Rhizomes, tubers

Seeds,divisions,cuttings
Divisions,seedsplantleat


4-6

3-6
2
3-6
3-4

2-4
2-3

2-6

3-6
3-6
2-4
3
3-4
3-6
3-6
2-3
2-4
6-24
24-36
12-36
12-48
3-4
2-4
2-4

2-4
12-24


Low 30's

High 20's
High 20's
Mid 20's
Low 30's

Mid. 30's
Low 30's

Mid 20's

Mid 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Mid 20's
High 20's
Mid 20's
Mid 20's
Low 30's
Mid 30's
Hardy
Hardy
High 20's
Low 30's
Mid 20's
Hardy &
tropical
Low 30's
Low 40's


Baskets












Seed prod.

Baskets

Dried flower



Trees

Cut foliage





Table 2. (Continued)

Floricultural uses

Wo
Common .o 4 -4
Genera Common name propagation U rq Other
or u2 p atihod n 0V4 (d i a use
or group2 or comment methods U I *J 2 I r U: 1. uses
-0 0 0 I3 60 0W 4-3 0 -
o r( -H -4 Wd 0 O0


Passiflora(s)
Pedilanthus(s)
Pelargonium(s)
Pentas(s)
Petunia(s)
Phlox(s)
Plumeria
Poinsettia
Polianthes
Polygonum(s)
Portulaca
Protea
Prunus(s)
Ranunculus(s)

Rosa(s)

Rudbeckia(s)

Saintpaulia(s)
Salvia(s)
Schlumbergera
Scilla(s)

Sedum(s)
Senecio(s)

Sinningia

Solanum

Stephanotis


Passion flower
Zig Zag plant
Geraniums, many sp.
Star clusters
Many hybrids
Phlox
Frangipani
Poinsettia
Tuberose
Several kinds
Rose moss
Many species
Several flowering
200 kinds of
buttercups
Many sp. & types

Black-eyed Susan
(Gloriosa daisy)
African violets
Many species
Easter cactus
Blue Bells, Cuban
lily
Mexican spring
Many sp., daisy
type flowers
Gloxinia

Ornamental potato,
tomato
Waxflower


Seeds, cuttings
Cuttings
Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Seeds, cuttings
Seeds, divisions
Cuttings
Cuttings
Tubers
Seeds, cuttings
Seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Seeds, cuttings
Tubers, seeds

Cuttings, seeds

Seeds,divisions,cuttings

Leaf cuttings
Seeds, cuttings
Cuttings
Bulbs, seeds

Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, seeds

Seeds, leaf cuttings,
tubers
Seeds, cuttings

Cuttings


4-12
2-4
2-4
3-4
2-4
2-4
3-6
4-6
2-4
2-4
2-4
3+
6-24
3-4

4-6

3-4

3-6
2-4
6-12
3-12

2-4
3-6

3-6

2-6

6-24


2-3 3-2
2 2


Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Mid 20's
Low 30's
Mid 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 40's
Hardy
High 20's

Mid 20's,
Some hardy
High 20's

Mid 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's

Mid 20's
High 20's

Mid 30's

Low 30's

Low 30's


-Vines,fruit
Cut foliage
Seed prod.

Seed prod.






















Vines






Table 2. (Continued)
Floricultural uses
Common
Genera Common name propagation "~
or group2 or comment methods o Other
Sa) u *H "r uses

0- 10 W C- b 0 a) 7j "0 o 4


Strelitzia(s) Bird of Paradise Divisions 24-36 1-3 3 Low 30's X X X X
Streptocarpus Cape Primrose Leaf cuttings 4-6 1-2 2-1 Mid 40's X
Tagetes Marigolds Seeds 2-4 2 3 High 20's X X X X X Seed prod.
Tropaeolum Nastursium Seeds 3-4 2 3 High 20's X X X
Verbena(s) Vergena, vervain Seeds, divisions 2-4 -3 3 High 20's X X X
Viola(s) Violets, pansies Seeds 2-4 2 2 Low 30's X X X
Zantedeschia(s) Calla lily Seeds, divisions 3-6 1-2 3 Low 30's X X X X
Zingiber Cane ginger Rhizomes 4 1-2 2 Low 30's X X
Zinnia(s) Zinnia Seeds 2-3 2 3 Low 30's X X
Zygocactus Christmas cactus Cuttings 6-12 2 2 High 20's X X

1Source: (7, 9, 11, 14, 24)

2The (s) indicates that several species or varieties of this genera or group are grown.

3Moisture tolerance ratings are based on scale of 1 to 3 where 1 represents those plants that need wet or damp areas,
2 plants that need medium soil moisture conditions, and 3 plants which can survive satisfactorily under excessively
dry situations.

4Light intensity ratings are based on a scale of 1 to 3 where 1 represents those plants which can be grown under
relatively low light situations of 75% shade or more, 2 represents those plants that grow under medium shade of
50 to 60% and 3 represents those plants which grow satisfactorily in full sun.

Temperature tolerances given represent those levels at which the foliage will show typical cold damage symptoms.






Table 3. List of foliage plants commonly used in tropical countries and their cultural requirement.

Floricultural uses

Common Wo
Genera Common names propagation u ) 3 W u J o Other
2 Z U 1 U P 0 0 q 4
or group or comments method "o e (- Ca r ao o 4 uses
S0 U 0 Z a _: CO 0 el r oP
U4 Q) *H -r4 W Z
0o o o o c o 0)0 P o M 4


Adiantum(s)
Agave(s)

Aglaonema(s)
Aloe(s)
Alsophila(s)
Ananus
Anthurium(s)
Aphelandra

Aralia(Polyscias)

Araucaria
Ardisia
Asparagus(s)
Aspidistra
Asplenium
Aucuba
Begonia(s)
Brassaia(s)

Bromeliad(s)
Cacti(s)
Caladium(s)
Calathea(s)
Chlorophytum(s)
Cissus(s)
Codiaeum(s)
Coffea
Coleus(s)
Colocasia(s)


Maidenhair ferns
Century plants
(many species)
Chinese evergreen
Aloe, over 200 sp.
Tree ferns
Variegated pineapple
Anthuriums, 500 sp.
Zebra plant

Aralias, several
genera
Norfolk Island pine
Ardisia,coral berry
Plumosus & sprengeri
Cast iron plant
Birds nest fern
Japanese laurel
Begonias, over 300sp.
Schefflera,several
sp. Umbrella tree
Many genera & sp.
Cactus, many sp.
Many hybrids
Over 100 species
Airplane, Spider
Grape Ivy
Crotons,many hybrids
Coffee
Coleus
Elephant ear


Divisions, spores

Offset shoots, seeds
Tip & cane cuttings
Offset shoots
Cuttings, spores
Shoots
Seeds, divisions
Leaf, bud, or tip cut-
tings, sprouts
Cuttings, seeds, air
layers
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds, divisions
Divisions


Cuttings, seeds
Seeds, cuttings,


tubers


Seeds, cuttings
Shoots, seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Tubers, divisions
Divisions,rhizomes,seeds
Plantlets, seeds
Cuttings
Cuttings
Seeds
Cuttings, seeds
Rhizomes, divisions


4-12

6-12
3-8
3-12
3-12
6-12
6-12

3-6

3-6
6-24
3-12
3-6
3-6

6-12
2-6

3-12
3-12
3-12
2-4
3-6
2-3
2-4
3-6
3-12
2-4
4-6


2

3
2-3
3
1
3
1


Low 40's


Low
Low
Low
Mid
Mid
Low


30's
40's
30's
30's
30's
40's


1-2 Low 40's


Low 30's
Mid 20's
Low 20's
High 20's
Low 30's

Low 20's
Mid 30's

Low 30's
Low 30's
High 20's
Low 40's
Mid 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's


Fiber

Medicinal
Media

Cut flowers



Seed prod.
Xmas trees

Seed prod.



Seed prod.

Seed prod.

Food






Drink
Seed prod.







Table 3. (Continued)


Floricultural uses

0)o
u a) 3 Q 41 Cd 0
Common U U U o 0 mH I-
Genera Common names propagation W 0 0 U Other
group2 r co 4n We h a P W -4 u e
or group or comments methods P a C o 0 W U 1 uses
0 0 C 0 0 o cO (s ( o
~u vl~r r,


Cordyline(s)
Crassula(s)
Dieffenbachia(s)
Dizygotheca
Dracaena(s)
Episcia(s)
Euphorbia(s)
Fatsia
Ficus(s)

Fittonia(s)
Gesneriads(s)
Gynura
Hedera(s)

Helxene
Hoya(s)
Hypoestes
Kalanchoe(s)

Maranta(s)(Calathea
Monstera(s)
Nephrolepis(s)
Orchid
Palm(s)

Pandanus(s)
Pellaea(s)
Pellonia(s)
Peperomia(s)


Ti Plant
Jade plants
Dumb cane
False Aralia
Dracaenas, many sp.
Episcia
Many sp.
Fatsia
Rubber plants, figs,
many sp.
Nerve plants
Many genera, sp.
Purple passion
English Ivies

Baby tears
Wax plant
Pink polka dot
Kalanchoe,succulents,
several sp.
Prayer plants
Philodendrons
Boston fern
Many genera & sp.
Many kinds

Screw pines
Ferns
Watermelon vine
Peperomias


Stem or tip cuttings
Cuttings, leaves
Stem & root cuttingsseeds
Seeds, cuttings
Cuttings, canes
Cuttings
Cuttings
Suckers, cuttings


Cuttings,
Cuttings
Cuttings,
Cuttings
Cuttings

Cuttings
Cuttings,
Cuttings


air layers

seeds, tubers




seeds


Leaf cuttings, seeds
Cuttings, divisions
Tip cuttings, seeds
Runners
Divisions,plantlets eeds
Seeds

Seeds, cuttings,suckers
Divisions,runners,spores
Cuttings
Cuttings


3-6
4-6
3-6
4-6
3-6
3-4
3-12
3-6

2-6
3-4
3-6
2-4
3-12

2-4
3-6
3-4

2-4
2-6
2-4
3-6
12-24
6-24

6-24
3-12
3-6
2-4


30's
30's
40's
30's
30's
50's
30's
30's


Low 30's
Low 40's
Low 50's
Low 30's
Hardy

Mid 30's
High 20's
Low 30's


Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low

Mid
Low
Low
Mid


30's
30's
30's
30's
40's
30's

30's
30's
30's
30's


Food



Fences




Totem poles


X Vines,
Totem poles

Totem poles


X Seed prod.

X Totem poles

X Flowers
Seed prod.,
food
Construction






Table 3. (Continued)


Floricultur al ues
LI o
0o
Common uo a W 0 > o
U 4 1 U 0. C Other
Genera Common names propagation 0 MC a 4 o u Other
2 o a or. group or comments methods W W 0 $4 a r uses
So o r a a 4o 3a a p o o 0
s0 00r 0c P d 0 0.
E-4 -W ~ ~rm I


Philodendron(s)
Pilea(s)
Platycerium(s)
Plectranthus(s)
Podocarpus(s)
Polyscias(s)
Polystichum(s)
Portulacaria
Pteris
Rhoeo(s)
Sansevieria(s)
Schlumbergera(s)
Scindapsus(s)
Spathiphyllum(s)
Syngonium(s)
Tradescantia(s)
Yucca
Zygocactus(s)


Philodendron
Aluminum plant
Staghorn ferns
Swedish Ivy
Podocarpus
Aralias, several sp.
Leatherleaf fern
Jade plant
Silver lace fern
Oyster plant
Snake plant
Easter cactus
Pothos
Spathiphylum
Nephthytis
Wandering Jew
Spanish bayonet
Christmas cactus


Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings
Divisions, spores
Cuttings
Seeds, cuttings
Cuttings,seeds,air layers
Rhizomes
Cuttings
Spores, divisions
Cuttings
Cuttings, suckers
Cuttings
Cuttings
Divisions
Cuttings, seeds
Cuttings
Seeds, cuttings
Cuttings


2-6
3-4
12-36
2-4
3-24
3-6
6-12
3-4
4-6
2-3
3-6
6-12
2-4
3-6
3-4
2-3
6-12
6-12


Low 30's
Low 30's
High 20's
Low 30's
Low 20's
Low 30's
Low 30's
High 20's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Mid 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
Low 30's
High 30's
Low 30's


X Totem poles


Seed prod.


X Totem poles

X Totem poles
X
Fences


1Sources: (1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 24)

2The (s) indicates that several species or varieties of this genera or groups are grown.

3Moisture tolerance ratings are based on scale of 1 to 3 where 1 represents those plants that need wet or damp areas,
2 plants that need medium soil moisture conditions and 3 plants which can survive under excessively dry conditions.

Light intensity ratings are based on a scale of 1 to 3 where 1 represents those plants which can be grown under rela-
tively low light situations of 75% shade or more, 2 represents those plants that grow under medium shade of 50 to 60%
and 3 represents those plants which grow satisfactorily in full sun.

5Temperature tolerances given represent those levels at which the foliage will show typical cold damage symptoms.




-17-


Table 4. Total value of imports into the United States of cut flowers
and cut foliage for ornamental purposes; values at port of exporta-
tion, 1965, 1968 and 19741.


Exporter2 1965 1968 1974
U. S. Dollars

Canada $ 18,817 $209,926 $ 581,97


Argentina 5,210 19,623
Brazil 132,660 285,433 2,006,306
British Honduras 304
Chile -- 585
Colombia 73,098 11,545,134
Costa Rica 3,160 11,932 91,339
Ecuador 12,111 216,800 686,248
Guatemala 2,227 16,765 685,096
Mexico 719 11,982 64,163
Panama 1,801 3,190 2,213
Peru 265 887
Uruguay -2,485 1,155
Venezuela 814 2,023 574
Others 6.990t
CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA TOTAL $153,492 $629,497 $15,110,313


Bahamas 784 6,540
Bermuda 9,548 723 4,415
Haiti -
Dominican Republic 3,398 6,841
Jamaica 151 285
CARIBBEAN TOTAL $10,483 $4,121 $18,081


Europe $715,548 $710,854 $5,443,547


Asia $92,584 $135,825 $874,781


Oceania $124,630 $173,778 $499,052


Africa $3,979 $22,687 $314,892


WORLD TOTAL $1,119,533 $1,886,688 $22,842,613


Sources (15, 18, 19, 20, 23)
2Excludes shipments valued at less than $250.00
Excludes shipments valued at less than $250.00





-18-


Table 5. Number of tropical foliage plants imported from selected coun-
tries into Florida, 1968-69, 1972-73, and 1974-75 fiscal years.


Number of plants
Country of origin 1968 69 1972 73 1974 75

Bahamas -- 1,472
Belgium 4,500 2,350 31,820
Brazil -- 2,865
British Honduras (Belize) 251 48,500 873,697
Colombia 18,297 28,940 95,864
Costa Rica 36,571 75,913 4,267,708
Denmark -- 165,925
Dominica -- -- 71,537
Dominican Republic -- 871,233
Guatemala 315,376 5,861,229 28,468,255
Honduras 1,974,032 20,353,657 19,091,274
Jamaica -- 11,972,180
Mexico -- 2,114
Netherlands -- 9,970 38,140
Nicaragua -- -- 57,389
TOTAL 2,348,826 26,459,759 66,011,473


SOURCES: (10, 15, 16, 17,





-19-


REFERENCES


1. Blazer, J. A., K. C. Atwood and C. Dunham, III. 1940. Tropical Plant-
ing Book. Royal Palm Nurseries, Oneco, Fla. 75 pp.

2. Conover, C. A. 1968. Using tropical ornamentals in garden rooms,
enclosed patio and pool areas. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ.
328. 20 pp.

3. Conover, C. A., T. J. Sheehan and D. B. McConnell. 1971. Using Florida
grown foliage plants. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 746. 62 pp.

4. Conover, C. A., R. T. Poole, J. F. Knauss, R. A. Hamlen and R. W. Henley.
1973. Florida's changing foliage industry. HortScience 8:462-464.

5. Conover, C. A., T. J. Sheehan and W. E. Waters. 1975. Agricultural
Growth in an Urban Age. Ornamentals Industry. Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla., pg.
83-102.

6. Conover, C. A. 1974. Production and research on tropical foliage plants
in the Americas. Proc. XIX Internat. Hort. Congress Vol. XI, Sec. IX,
Warszawa, Poland (in press).

7. Crockett, J. U. 1971. Flowering House Plants. Time-Life Books,
New York, NY 160 pp.

8. DeWerth, A. F. 1964. Indoor landscaping...with live foliage plants.
Texas Agr. Progress 10(3):3-6.

9. Fonteno, W. C. and E. L. McWilliams. 1974. Factors influencing the
landscape use of bromeliads. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. TA11314,
College Station, Texas (in press).

10. Florida Division of Plant Industry, Dept. of Agri. Consumer Services,
1974. Unpublished data on imports and exports of foliage plants.

11. Graf, A. B. 1970. Exotica 3. Roehrs Co., E. Rutherford, N. J.
1834 pp.

12. Ingham, H. R. and S. M. Ayoub. 1972. Tropical plants, susceptible hosts
of burrowing nematodes. Div. Plant Industry Exclusion & Detection,
Dept. Food & Agr., State of Calif. 32 pp.

13. Joiner, J. N. and W. E. Waters. 1970. The influence of cultural con-
ditions on the chemical composition of six tropical foliage plants.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., Trop. Reg. 14:254-267.

14. Macoboy, Stirling. 1971. What Flower is That? Crown Publishers, Inc.,
New York, NY. 317 pp.






-20-


15. Smith, C. N. and W. E. Waters. 1969.
and exports of floricultural products
America. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.


Some observations on imports
with special reference to Latin
82:429-436.


16. Smith, C. N. 1970. Trends in the Florida foliage plant industry.
Univ. of Fla. Economics Mimeo Report 70-3.

17. Smith, C. N. 1974. Recent developments in the foliage plant industry.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., Trop. Reg. 18: (in press).

18. Smith, C. N. and M. M. Amin. 1974. Competition from cut flower imports.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 87:457-462.

19. Smith, C. N. 1975. Unpublished personal communications. Univ. of Fla.,
Gainesville, Fla.

20. U. S. Bureau of the Census. U. S. Imports General and Consumption,
Schedule A, Commodity and Country (FT-135 Series, Washington: U. S.
Govt. Printing Office 1966-1969, 1974).


21. U. S. Crop Reporting Board.
and Sales, 1968 and 1969.
17 pp.

22. U. S. Crop Reporting Board.
Production and Sales, 1973
SpCr 6-1(75). Washington,


1970. Flowers and Foliage Production
USDA SpCr 6-1(70). Washington, D. C.,


1975. Flowers and Foliage Plants -
and 1974. Intentions for 1975. USDA
D. C., 18 pp.


23. Waters, W. E. 1969. The ornamental horticulture industry of Florida
and its implication to production in tropical Americas. Proc. Amer.
Soc. Hort. Sci., Trop. Reg. 13:382-392.

24. Winters, H. F. 1952. Some large-leaved ornamental plants for the
tropics. Federal Exp. Sta. in Puerto Rico Circ. 35. USDA, Washing-
ton, D.C,, 92 pp.









ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. C. N. Smith for the
technical assistance given in compiling the statistical data, and Mr. Gary
Hermance, IFAS Editorial Department, for editorial assistance.


This publication was promulgated at an annual cost of $176.56, or 22 cents per copy, to
inform the public of new findings in horticulture research I




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