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Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC1975-3
Title: Preliminary report on dusts and dips for Caladium tubers and chips
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067689/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preliminary report on dusts and dips for Caladium tubers and chips
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Magie, R. O ( Robert Ogden ), 1906-
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Caladium -- Propagation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Caladium -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Magie.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April, 1975."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067689
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71842924

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not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
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record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
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(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida










AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
IFAS, University of Florida


BRADENTON AREC RESEARCH REPORT GC1975-3 April, 1975

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON DUSTS AND DIPS FOR CALADIUM TUBERS AND CHIPS

R. 0. Magie



At the request of Florida caladium growers, some early results of our first "bulb"
treatment tests are presented here in time for spring planting.

Experiment No. 1 'Frieda Hemple' tubers were dug on each of three farms in Lake
Placid and Sebring on December 31, 1974: Farm A on virgin muck, Farm B on "diseased"
soil, and Farm C on fumigated soil. On January 2, tubers in each lot were handled
in one of 3 ways: one-third were not washed, one-third were washed in running
water and one-third washed, drained, then soaked 15 minutes in a suspension con-
taining 5 pounds captain 50W plus 1 pound Agri-Strep (Streptomycin, 22%) per 100
gallons water. Temperature of the water used for washing and treating tubers
was 71*F. Tubers were cured and stored in trays on a greenhouse bench for 6
weeks. Greenhouse temperatures averaged 77*F during the day and 690F at night.
The relative humidity averaged 49% in daylight and 78% at night. The greenhouse
was heated at night. On Feb. 14 tubers were treated in hot water; 1220F or 50C
for 30 minutes. Three days later they were cut into 10 chips per treatment and
dusted immediately as follows:

1. Hydrated lime plus Fermate 76W (ferbam), 5 parts to 1 part by weight.
2. Hydrated lime plus Demosan 65W plus Thylate 65W (Arasan, thiram), 5 parts, 1
part and 1 part, respectively, by weight.
3. Captan 50W plus Benlate plus Agri-Strep plus Celite 209, 4, 2, 1 and 33 parts,
respectively, by weight.
4. Benlate plus Truban 30WP plus Agri-Strep plus Celite 209 2 4; 1 and 33 parts-
respectively, by weight. 'j;. LIB?/ARY
5. Captan plus Fermate plus Agri-Strep plus Celite 209, 4;, 3, 1 and 33 parts,
respectively, by weight.
6. Celite 209 alone. This is a moisture-absorbent diatomaceousS (ftb siWates)
with a pl of 5.5.

The dusted chips were held in paper bags at 76-800F for 2 ys' t9ihe, p.l n ily
dry peat moss in plastic bags held for two weeks at 76-800. 'e num4
of roots and sprouts were recorded on March 5, 1975 and the chips returned ot"-e
bags of peat. Chips from A tubers had the longest and most roots and sprouts, B
tubers the least and C tubers were intermediate. Data from the 3 tuber lots were
combined in the following table:










-2-


Table 1. Average length in inches of roots and sprouts per chip on March 5.

Not washed Washed Washed + Captan
Dust treatment on chips Roots Sprouts Roots Sprouts Roots Sprouts
In. In. In. In. In. In.

1. Lime + Fermate 6.6 0.57 4.2 0.37 5.5 0.43
2. Lime + Dem. + Thyl. 4.9 0.43 1.5 0.17 1.8 0.20
3. Capt. + Benlate 6.2 0.43 1.6 0.17 3.9 0.33
4. Benl. + Truban 4.1 0.50 0.4 0.07 1.9 0.33
5. Capt. + Fermate 4.3 0.30 2.9 0.20 3.9 0.23
6. Control 8.5 0.50 3.1 0.27 4.1 0.27

Mean 5.7 0.45 2.3 0.20 3.5 0.30



Only one rotted tuber was found in the unwashed lot, 11 in washed and 20 in washed
plus captain dip. The number of rotted tubers in the 3 farm lots was similar. Four
of the best-rooted chips from each treatment were planted on March 12 in 6-inch
pots of peat moss. Before planting, the number of roots on each chip was recorded
and on March 21 the length of sprouts in each pot was recorded (Table 2).


Number of roots per
on March 21.
Not washed
It No. Length
roots sprouts


chip on March 12 and length in inches of sprouts per


Washed
No. Length
roots sprouts


Washed + captain
No. Length
roots snroits


Mean
No. Length
roots c rournt


In. In. In. In.

1 19 1.5 16 1.8 13 1.5 16 1.6
2 16 2.1 13 0.8 11 1.3 14 1.4
3 18 1.0 13 0.8 12 1.1 14 0.9
4 16 1.3 10 0.3 12 1.2 12 0.9
5 13 1.1 17 1.0 13 1.0 14 1.0
6 20 1.9 17 1.0 13 0.7 17 1.2

Mean 17 1.5 14 0.9 12 1.1



Conclusions Results so far indicate that unwashed tubers sprout earlier than
washed and that lime + Fermate dust retards sprouting less than the other fungicides
and that Benlate + Truban dust delays growth.

Experiment No. 2 utilized the same tuber stocks and the same curing and storing
treatments as Exp. 1 but instead of dust treatments, whole tubers were given the
following treatments at time of hot water treatment on Feb. 10.


Table 2.
chip
Chip
Treatment
No.






-3-


1. Control, cool water soak at about 700F for 30 minutes.
2. Hot water, 1220F for 30 minutes.
3. Benlate 501 at 1 lb per 100 gallons of hot water (1220F for 30 minutes).
4. Benlate 1 lb plus Vydate 2 pints per 100 gallons of hot water (30 minute soak
at 122F).
5. Benlate 1 lb plus Vydate 2 pints plus Nurelle 2 pints per 100 gallons, 30
minute soak at about 700F.

All treatments included Agri-Strep at 400 ppm ai, control included.

Two days later tubers were chipped, 10 per treatment per tuber source and held in
paper bags for one week. On Feb. 19 chips were placed in nearly dry peat moss in
plastic bags. The number and length of roots and sprouts were recorded on March 6
(Table 3) and the chips returned to bags of peat. Sprouting and length of growth
was good on A and C, less on B tuber chips.


Table 3. Average length of roots and sprouts per chip on March 6.
Not washed Washed Washed + Captan
Hot water treatment (HWT) Roots Sprouts Roots Sprouts Roots Sprouts
In. In. In. In. In. In.

1. Control, cool water 7.1 .57 4.8 .20 9.3 .57
2. Hot water alone (HWT) 6.2 .47 3.4 .30 5.4 .37
3. HWT + Benlate 11.8 .83 4.9 .27 8.4 .67
4. HWT + Benl. + Vydate 6.0 .23 5.2 .23 4.7 .30
5. Benl. + Vydate +
Nurelle (no heat) 7.5 .43 5.5 .30 6.0 .27

Mean 7.7 .51 4.8 .26 6.8 .43



On March 12 the chips were removed from the plastic bags, the four most vigorous
chips in each treatment were chosen and the number of roots on those chips was
recorded. Then the four chips from each source/treatment lot were planted in a
6-inch pot of peat moss. On March 21 the length of shoots in each pot was
recorded. These data are shown in Table 4.


Table 4. Number of roots per chip on March 12 and length in inches of sprouts
per chip on March 21.
Not washed Washed Washed + Captan Mean
Treatment No. Length No. Length No. Length No. Length
No. roots sprouts roots sprouts roots sprouts roots sprouts
In. In. In. In.

1 14 1.3 15 1.0 18 1.5 16 1.3
2 21 2.7 19 1.6 13 1.5 18 1.9
3 21 2.8 19 1.4 22 2.8 21 2.3
4 18 1.2 18 0.8 17 1.2 18 1.0
5 15 1.7 15 0.4 16 0.6 15 0.9

Mean 18 1.9 17 1.0 17 1.5








-4-


Discussion The number of rotted chips was not significantly different between
the 5 treatments, but unwashed tubers had 15, washed had 27 and washed plus captain
had 8 rotted chips. Hashing tubers without a fungicidal dip delayed sprout and
root growth. The delay of sprouting caused by HWT (Treatment No. 2) was not found
when Benlate was added to the hot water (Treatment No. 3),

Experiment No. 3 utilized the same tuber stocks as in Exp. No. 1 and 2. All tubers
were washed and treated on Jan. 2 and then held on the greenhouse bench. There
were 30 tubers used for each of the 12 treatments, 10 tubers from each of the 3
sources. The soaks were 10 minute treatments.

Tuber treatments on January 2:

1. Control, water
2. Control, Agri-Strep at 1 lb/100 gallons water
3. Thylate 5 lb + Agri-Strep 1 Ib per 100 gallons
4. Captan 5 lb + Thylate 5 lb per 100 gallons
5. Benlate 1.5 lb + Thylate 5 Ib per 100 gal
6. Dowicide A 5 Ib per 100 gal
7. Benlate 1.5 lb + Thylate 5 lb + Vydate 2 pints/100 gal
8. Benlate 1.5 lb + Nurelle 2 pints/100 gal
9. Dusted (no dip) with Fermate (76W) 2 lb + captain (50W) 3 lb + Agri-Strep 1 lb
(no diluent)
10. Dusted with Daconil 2 Ib + captain 3 lb + Agri-Strep 1 lb (no diluent)
11. Dusted with Benlate (501) 1.5 lb + Thylate (65W) 3 Ib + Agri-Strep 1 lb
(no diluent)
12. Control, no dip, no dust

Whole tubers were placed in peat moss and plastic bags on February 10, 1975. Data
on average number and length of roots per tuber were recorded on Feb. 21, and oh
March 14 the average number and length of sprouts per tuber were recorded (Table 5).


Table 5. Average number and length of roots and sprouts, Experiment 3.
Roots, Feb. 21 Sprouts, Feb.21 Rotted Length
Treatment of tubers Length Length tubers sprouts
on January 2 No. inches No. Inches No. inches

1. Control, water 11 17 2.0 1.6 4 5.0
2. Control, Agri-Strep 11 15 2.1 1.4 5 3.2
3. Thylate + Agri-Strep 13 19 2.4 1.9 5 4.2
-4. Captan + Thylate 14 20 2.3 1.9 3 3.8
5. Benlate + Thylate 17 25 2.4 2.3 3 6.8
6. Dowicide A 8 13 0.9 0.9 11 3.2
7. Benl. + Thylate + Vyd. 20 30 3.3 2.1 0 4.0
8. Benlate + Nurelle 16 24 2.9 2.5 1 5.1
9. Fermate/captan dust 15 21 2.1 1.5 3 4.2
10. Daconil/captan dust 9 12 2.1 0.8 2 4.0
11. Benlate/Thylate dust 15 24 2.1 1.9 5 5.3
12. Control, no dip or dust 12 17 2.5 1.9 5 3.6









-5,-


The whole tubers were replaced in the bags of peat moss and held in the warm room.
On Feb. 26 the remaining tubers were planted in 6-inch pots, 2 pots per treatment.
The length of sprouts per tuber on March 14 is given in the last column of
Table 3. Tubers in this experiment were not hot water treated.

Discussion. Combinations of Benlate and Thylate seem to be helpful in promoting
early root and shoot growth, however, delay of sprouting does not indicate less
effective disease control.

The main purpose of these experiments is to develop better control measures for
diseases that cause tuber rots in the field and in storage. Further experiments
are planned to accomplish these purposes.




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