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Group Title: Research report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC72-10
Title: Populations of insect pests on commodities grown on the west coast of Florida in 1972
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067679/00001
 Material Information
Title: Populations of insect pests on commodities grown on the west coast of Florida in 1972
Series Title: Bradenton AREC research report
Physical Description: 3, 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poe, S. L ( Sidney LaMarr ), 1949-
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.L. Poe.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December 7, 1972."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067679
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71843627

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





S 9 --(2/ AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
m -- ------- IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida

BRADENTON AREC Res arch Report GC72-10 December 7, 1972
F3 1 5 1973
POPULATIONS OF NSECT PESTS ON COMMODITIES GROWN ON THE WEST COAST
OF FLORIDA IN 1972
i.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
S. L. Poe


Each year, populations of insects and mites of economic importance must be
controlled on commodities grown in Florida. Management strategies are formed
based on knowledge of species present, crops attacked, and numbers of pests af-
fecting yield. Cumulative data collected on pests over several years will aid
in planning future management strategies. Presence of natural enemies (parasites,
predators or disease pathogens) and knowledge of when these populations attain
sufficient size to affect the pest are valuable data to use for making control
recommendations. Selective chemicals can be applied to conserve these natural
enemies and favor their effectiveness; whereas, indiscriminately applied toxicants
deprive the grower of natural regulating forces.

This report is a summary of insect and mite species encountered on plants
grown on the west coast of Florida from Hillsborough to Lee County during 1972.
It is compiled from records and notes taken during visits to experimental plots,
fields, commercial enterprises, packing houses, greenhouses, saran houses, nur-
series and landscape plantings. Included are data from observations of host
relationships, distribution, economic significance, natural enemies, biology
and control. The format is as follows: pest name, hosts, distribution, economic
importance, control: parasites, predators, pathogens or chemicals, supporting
observations. Species found are listed in Table 1. Several species are economi-
cally significant and deserve special consideration.

1. Southern Armyworm, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) was found in all areas
on tomato, pepper, garden vegetables, gladiolus and other crops. Larvae feed
heavily on tomato foliage and fruit. Some species of weed also support popula-
tions within crop areas. Generations overlap and this year flights of adults
began in February, after a mild winter and progressed northerly with the crop
season. Some tomato fields lost as much as 10% fruit at spring harvest due to
ravages of armyworm whose numbers ranged from 1-10 per plant. Little control by
natural agents was noted, a few braconid parasites (species undetermined) were
reared from larvae. Generally, control was acceptable with recommended toxicants
when applications were thorough. Fall populations developed very late (November)
but larvae were not as numerous as in the spring.

2. Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), is a general plant feeder on
tomatoes, peppers, gladiolus, gypsophila, statice, chrysanthemum, weeds and gar-
den vegetables. The beet armyworm appeared only in ornamental fields during
spring. Chrysanthemum cuttings were injured by continuous damage from a persis-
tent population. The situation in chrysanthemum growing areas is aggravated by
night lighting of the plants. An excess of 50,000 cuttings have been discarded
because the meristem of the young plants were damaged. Light trap catches through-
out the year peaked in April, June and October. Correlation of light trap moth
catch, moth egg hatch and control application has been relatively successful.
Vegetable fields were invaded during September and October when 5 larvae per
plant were noted. Damage was apparent on tomato, sweet pea, and other garden








vegetable foliage since no fruit was present at the time of sampling. Larval para-
sites (5%), predators (20%), and pathogens (8%) reduced the population that reached
maturity. The primary enemies were braconid parasites, reduviid predators and
Spicaria rilevi, a fungal pathogen. Recommended biocides were less than adequate
and serious outbreaks of armyworms in the fall were only partially controlled chem-
ically.

3. Corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) is a serious pest of many vegetables
and ornamentals, The corn earworm, also known as tomato fruitworm, was present in
large numbers on tomatoes, sweet corn, and eggplant but was sparse on gladiolus,
chrysanthemum and pepper. Twenty tomato varieties grown in spring were consumed.
No evidence of resistance to earworm was found. On corn 1-3 larvae per ear were
present, on tomato 1-4 larvae per plant, and about 20% of eggplant fruits were
infested. Larvae were so sparse on tomato foliage in October, November and early
December that the resulting damage never became severe.

4. Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hub) and other loopers are always preva-
lent in vegetable and ornamental plantings on the west coast. Tomato, pepper, cole
crops, garden vegetables, chrysanthemums, snapdragon and gerbera were infested with
loopers during spring. However, large populations did not develop and no serious
threat was posed by these pests. A polyhedrosis virus and use of Bacillus thurin-
giensis (Berl) in spring and the disease incited by Spicaria rileyi and Bacillus
thuringiensis in fall adequately control these species.

5. Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fab) attacked flower buds of roses
and snapdragons during late spring and summer. Damage to flower buds of these
crops is intolerable. Some varieties appear more susceptible than others or prefer-
ence is evident. Eggs were laid singly on the bud, stem or leaf and larvae attacked
the flower or ate into the stem. Control was by chemical pesticides. In the spring
numbers of larvae reached 2-5 per snapdragon stem or 1 per plant on roses in experi-
mental plots.

6. Tomato pinworm, Keiferia lycoperscella (Busck), developed large populations.
This was one of the largest infestations on tomatoes in many years. Ten to 12 larvae
per plant were common in some fields and much fruit harvested during spring was dis-
carded. Pinworm larval development is rapid and generations overlap but 5-6 gener-
ations per year are certain. Control of pinworm without chlorinated hydrocarbon.
chemicals is difficult and only partially successful. Pinworm populations are in-
creasing, apparently a result of the cessation of the use of DDT. Tomato appears
co be the only host. Present in seed beds and containerized plant production
houses, this pest readily invaded fall crops where populations built steadily
ii-gher in spite of control efforts.

7. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), was not present in
'oi!y spring crops but invaded sweet corn fields during the fall. In some areas
1havy populations, 3-5 larvae per plant, were present. The generations overlapped
ani several instars were observed in a single tassel. Young plants were attacked
1 ie-ek after emergence from the soil and the infestation persisted through harvest
where 1-3 larvae per ear were common in untreated plots. Controls in commercial
plantings were adequate.

8. Pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) was destructive to yellow summer
squash and in some garden plots damage was so severe that no fruit were harvested.
Blossoms, young fruit, and stems were attacked and destroyed by 5-8 larvae per








plant during the spring and fall crops. Control in commercial plantings was ade-
quate with Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl.) but some plant damage by pickleworm was
inescapable.

9. Flower thrips (Frankliniella spp.) are most prevalent during the spring
and summer after citrus bloom. They invade commercial flower production areas and
feed on chrysanthemums, snapdragon, gladiolus, carnation, tomato, pepper, straw-
berry and many species of plants in bloom. Damage, if any, to fruit crops is
difficult to estimate although 20-40 per blossom may be common however, damage
to commercial flowers is costly. Losses rapidly mount to thousands of dollars
and control without chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly dieldrin, is less than
adequate.

10. Leafminers, Liriomvza munda (Frick) and other leafming dipteran species
were devastating on early tomatoes during spring. As many as 3-10 per trifoliate
leaf were common soon after transplanting. Populations persisted through the spring
and appeared late (November) but heavy in the fall. Spring leafminer population
decline was apparently due to action of braconid parasites. As many as 25% of
puparia collected in some samples were parasitized. These pests were also impor-
tant on floral crops because of the minimal damage threshold of plants grown for
aesthetic value. Control with azinphosmethyl and diazinon was acceptable but not
outstanding, dimethoate continued to give better control.

11. Aphids, green peach, Mvzus persicae (Sulzer), black bean, Aphis fabae
Scopoli and turnip Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis) were common on vegetable in
1972. Green peach aphid acted as vector for viral diseases on peppers and injured
chrysanthemums and snapdragons. Populations were much greater 10-100 per plant
on spring peppers. Chinese cabbage, cole crops and leafy vegetables were infested
with turnip and green peach aphids. Bean aphids were present on beans and gladiolus
but did not survive well on other hosts, i.e. tomato. Parasites greatly reduced
the numbers of aphids in fields during summer. Fall populations of all aphids
were sparse.

12. Pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, appeared during March on bell
peppers and developed unchecked. This was one of the highest levels of weevils
observed on the west coast in many years. Three to 4 larvae, pupae or adults
were present in many fruits and two experimental fields ranged from 10-60% of
late fruits infested. This pest had no apparent natural enemies and no adequate
recommendations for control since the loss of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Spezi-
omens were again found in fall plantings in early November at Plant City.

13. Two spotted spidermite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, continued to plague
grouars of strawberries, eggplants, carnation, chrysanthemum, snapdragon, statice,
;,yp:ophila and many other crops. During the spring mite populations frequently
reached 200 or more per leaf on strawberry and egg plant leaves. Commercial re-
Lcnses of Phvtoseiulus persimilis, A.H., a Chilean predator of spidermites on 75
rcrcs of strawberries failed to check the surging populations. Failure might be
attributedd to lack of knowledge in making releases and timing these for best con-
lrol or 'o poor survival of this species under Florida conditions. Some benefit
on eCrplants was a native predator, Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) during late
spring and summer. Control of spidermites on saran or greenhouse floral crops was
entirely by chemical means.






on the ;est coat of peninsular Florida during 1972.


Sorcnl 1


Nature cf
Crops Season Poiilation


Spodoptera eridania (Cran.)
Southern armyworm





Spodoptera exipua (Hub.)
-Beet armyworm


Heliothis zea (Boddie)
- Corn earworm







Trichoplusia ni (Hub.)
Cabbage looper and other
loopers


B,I


Tomato


Pepper
Gladiolus
Weeds


B
I
B
D
B
B


B, I

D,B
B
B

B
I


Tomato
i
Pepper
Gladiolus
Gypsophila
Chrysanthemum
Statice
Watermelon
Aster

Tomato

Chrysanthemum
Eggplant
Gladiolus
Corn


Tomato

Pepper
Chrysanthemum
Snapdragon

Gerbera
,a terraelon


S
F
S,F
S,F


S
F
F
F
F
F
F
S
S

S,F
S
S
S
S
F
S


Heavy
Moderate
Light

Light

Light
Heavy
Light
Heavy
Moderate
Light
Heavy
Light
Light

Heavy
Light
Light
Moderate
Light
Heavy
Light

Light
Moderate
Light
Moderate
Moderate


Light
Light


10-20/20 plants
2-3/23 plants
0-1/20 plants
0-1/20 plants
0-1/20 plants

0-1/20 plants
10-20/20 plants
0-1/20 plants
10-20/20 plants
2-3/20 plants
0-1/20 plants
10-20/20 plants
0-1/20 plants
0-1/20 plants

5-10/20 plants
0-1/20 plants
0-1/10 ft bed
5-6/10 plants
0-1/20 plants
0-2/ear
0-1/ear


0-1/10
3-5/10
1-2/20
2-5/10
2-W/10


plants
plants
plants
ft bed
ft bed


0-1/10 plants
0-1/plant


Damaged fruit
Foliage feeding

Moved to crops


Foliar injury


Persistent -ll season

Damaged fruit

In stalk & ears


Spicaria virus
Early season foliage

Persistent all season
Cause severe damage
by defoliation

Early season only


1
Sources indicated = I -
23 = Spring crop season,


Imiokalee, D Dsver, B ,.u
F = Fall crop season.


Abundance


Corminents


------- --- -- ------ --------- --- ------


Abundancc- -- -------- ---


Q 4 -
Sourcel


____ ._~. _I_~__ Il---_.-cl- ---------.---


Table 1. Pest populations of economic signific-!ncc


Species






Table 1. (Continued 2)


Source Croon


n Ia ure of
ison Fo_ u la tion. I'bUndance Comrm0_nts _


Frankliniella spp
Slower thrips


Nitidulid beetles
Sap beetles


Taeniothrips simplex (Mori-
son). Gladiolus thrips

Laphygma frugiperda (Smith)
fall armyworn

Manduca sexta (Joh)
Tobacco hornworms

Scapteriscus spp.
Molecrickets


Feltia subterranea (Fab)
granulate cutworm


Tomato
Pepper
Chrysanthemum
Carnation
Gypsophila
Gladiolus


Sweet corn


Gladiolus


Sweet corn


Tomato
Tomato

Tomato
Pepper
Corn


I,B
I


Green & brown stinkbugs


S,F


F
F

S,F
S,F
S,F


Tomato
Watermelon


Tomato
Tomato


Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy

Light


Light


Heavy


Light
Light

Heavy
Moderate
Moderate


Heavy
Heavy


Moderate
Light


3-15/blossom
3 -15/blossom
3-15/blossom
10-30/blossom
5-10/blossom
5-10/radicle
5-10/cpike


Thrips appear to bc
migrating to flowers
from other crops
Probably weeds or citrus


0-1/ear


3-5/plant


2-3/plant


0-1/10 plants
0-1/10 plants

10-20/100 ft row
5-10/100 ft row
5-10/100 ft row

10-15/20 ft row
10-15/20 ft row

5-10/10 plants
0-1/10 plants


In ears & stalks


Foliage of small plants
consumed

Consumed roots of newly
set plants under mulch


Feed on unstaked fruit
Rindworm damage

On unstaked tomatoes
On staked plants after
legume cover crop was
harvested


Sources indicted = I Immokalee, D Dover, B Bradenton
2S = Spring crop:season, = F;1ll crop season.


TSeri .s ( u:


Cqz pcies






Table 1. (Continued 3)


Nature of
Species Source Crops Season2 Populaticon


--Tetranychus urticae Koch
2 spotted spidermite
red spider


B,D

B


Strawberry

Chrysanthemum


B Carnation


Snapdragon

Gypsophila
Statice
Eggplant


rjMyzus rsicae (Sulzer)
green peach aphid


Pachybrachius opp
Pameras


D,B
B


Disphania nitidalis (Stoll)
melonworm


-Liriomyza spp.
veg. leafminer


Pepper
Chrysanthemum

Snapdragon
Carnation

Strawberry
Tomato


Squash
Cucumber


Tomato

Pepper
Chry santhemum
Snapdragon


Light
Heavy
Light
Heavy
Light
Heavy
Light
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy
Heavy

Heavy
Light
Heavy
Heavy
Light

Heavy
Light


Heavy
Moderate


S
F
S
3,F
S,F


Heavy
Heavy
Light
Light
Light


Abundance

0-1/leaf
50-1u0/leaf
0-1/leaf
20-30/leaf
0-1/leaf
13-30/leaf
0-1/leaf
20-30/leaf
30-50/leaf
20-50/leaf
50-75/leaf


10-20/leaf
5-10/plant
10-20/plaant
10-20/plant
1-3/plant

30-50/10 plants
1-5/10 ft row


5-10/plant
1-5/plant

20-30/plant
20-30/plant
1-5/plant
O-1/plant
1-2/plant


Contients


Populations build
gradually from Jan to
June & cause severe
foliar damage


Populations persistent and
reached large proportions
on most crops



On mulched beds
Ground tomatoes

Feed on leaf and fruit


^Sources indicated = I Immokalee, D Dover, B -
S Spring crop season, F = Fall crop season.


-- -- ---- -- ----- --- --- -------- -----


Bradenton





Table 1. (Continued 4)


Source


Species


Keiferia lvcopersicella
(Busck). Tomato pinworm

Heliothis virescens (Fab)


Anthonoimus eugenii Cano
Pepper weevil

Leptinotarsa decemlineata
(Say). Colorado potato
beetle

Schizura concina (Smith)
Red-humped oakworm


Automeris io (Fab)
Io moth


Sibine stimulate (Clemen)
Saddleback caterpillar


Platynota sp.
--Leaf tier


Polyphagotarsonemus latus
(Banks). Broad mite


I,D
D

D



B,D


Nature of
Crops Season2 Population


Tomato


S,F


Snapdragon


Pepper
Pepper

Eggplant



Oak


Boxwood carissa F


Pa Ias


Chrysanthemum F


Gerbera
Azalea


Moderate


Heavy


Heavy
Light

Heavy



Heavy


Moderate


Moderate


Light


Heavy
Light


Abundance

l-5/plant


1-3/flower


1-3/fruit in
late harvest

5-10/plant



1-2 broods/tree


2-5/plant


2-5/plant


1/10 ft bed


50-100/bud
1-10/bush


Comments


attack in greenhouse
and fruit in field


Varietal preference eviden
1 flight of rhoths only,

Population heavier than
in many past years

Larvae end adults



Larvae defoliated
several ornamental
shade oak trees

Portions of plant
defoliated

No significant damage


Destroys growing tip


Cause thick, cupped
distorted foliage and
buds


2Sources indicated = I Immokalee, D Dover, B Bradenton
S = Spring crop season, F = Fall crop season.


_I __I __ 1 ~111~--~---~----sll


--_ --~ --






Table 1. (Continued 5)


Species Source'Co~


Nature of
Season Population


Abundance


Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B
Sweet potato whitefly

Taylorilygus pallidulus B
(Blanck.), a green plant
bug

Phvtoseiulus Dersimilis
(A-H), a predator

Plihtoseiulus macropilis
(Banks). A predator


Gerbera


Chrysanthemum




Strawberries


Strawberries


Moderate


Moderate
Moderate


Light


Light


10-20/plant


1-5/10 ft bed
5-10/10 ft bed in
untreated area

0-1/plant


More abundant in Spring


Cause bud distortion
and blind growth


Released to control
spidermites


0-1/plant in
late season
only.


Sources indicated = I Immokalee, D Dover, B Bradenton
S = Spring crop season, F = Fall crop season.


Come nts


~--~- --------- YLIII_ II


~I~-----~--~---


~ ~11~----1~-1^--~1~-


C


SI~ecie Sourcl _jL"


__ UII1_--




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