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 Copyright
 Introduction
 Production problems
 Economic problems
 Problems in variety developmen...
 Summary and prognosis
 Bibliography






Group Title: Mimeo report - Bradenton Agricultural Research & Education Center - GC-1972-9
Title: Report to the Georgia-Florida Tomato Canners Associations concerning processing tomato varieties for production in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067678/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report to the Georgia-Florida Tomato Canners Associations concerning processing tomato varieties for production in Florida
Series Title: Bradenton AREC mimeo report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Crill, Pat, 1939-
Burgis, D. S ( Donald Stafford ), 1913-
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Canned tomatoes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Pat Crill and D.S. Burgis.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November 3, 1972."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067678
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71843686

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Production problems
        Page 1
    Economic problems
        Page 2
    Problems in variety development
        Page 3
    Summary and prognosis
        Page 3
    Bibliography
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
a-!-- IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida

BRADENTON AREC Mimeo Report GC1972-9 November 3, 1972

REPORT TO THE GEORGIA-FLORIDA TOMATO CANNERS ASSOCIATIONS CONCERNING
PROCESSING TOMATO VARIETIES FOR PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

Pat Crill and D. S. Burgis


INTRODUCTION

At the present time a tomato variety is not available which can be economically
grown for the whole-pack canning industry of Florida. This is primarily because
one has never been developed and the Florida canning industry has existed as a sal-
vage operation. The canner contract with a fresh-market tomato grower for his
field after the fresh- scs i over. This usually provided the canner with
most of the Tnt.n t t3. te vine which was too late and too small for
fresh market. | -ar angement wa quite acceptable to the canning industry.

The deve pment OtdriAt2te ma hine harvest varieties for fresh market use
reduced the am unt o fruit available or a salvage operation. The rapid adoption
of the variety s 'Walter' and 'Florida MH-l' by Florida fresh market tomato growers
has drastically reduced the am(Iptoi uit available to be canned because virtually
all of the fruit fipj.thU i aeti s n be sold for fresh market consumption.
Florida tomato u nd fruit unavailable for salvage and subsequent canning.

In addition to the lack of fruit, Florida canners are also faced with increased
competition from tomato canners in the Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania
area. New varieties developed for whole-pack canning have resulted in a product
superior to that canned in Florida from salvage fresh market tomatoes. The varie-
ties presently grown in Florida must be cored by hand before canning and this added
operation is expensive and the product is inferior. Recent United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture regulations now permit tomatoes to be processed as a whole-
pack product if the diameter and depth of the stem core is a minimum size or less.
When fruit with these characteristics are machine harvested and then lye-peeled,
the end result is a product much superior to what is presently canned in Florida
at a cost which Florida canners can not meet.

PRODUCTION PROBLEMS

To successfully compete in the present situation Florida tomato canners must
find a new source of fruit and it must be of high quality. The limiting factor
in tomato production in Florida is plant disease when susceptible varieties are
used; therefore, care must be taken when a variety is selected. Also with most
varieties evaluated in the past, the development of color is inadequate. The
environmental conditions for production of color in processing tomato varieties
are unique. Those varieties that do well elsewhere, fail to perform in Florida
because of disease susceptibility and poor color development.

Plant diseases considered as potential limiting factors in processing tomato
production in Florida are of three types: 1) vascular diseases which are for the
most part caused by soil-borne pathogens and invade via the roots, 2) foliage
diseases which cause leaf-spots, blights and eventually defoliation, and 3) fruit
spots and rots which destroy fruit. All three types of diseases can significantly
reduce yields of susceptible varieties.








AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
a-!-- IFAS, University of Florida
Bradenton, Florida

BRADENTON AREC Mimeo Report GC1972-9 November 3, 1972

REPORT TO THE GEORGIA-FLORIDA TOMATO CANNERS ASSOCIATIONS CONCERNING
PROCESSING TOMATO VARIETIES FOR PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

Pat Crill and D. S. Burgis


INTRODUCTION

At the present time a tomato variety is not available which can be economically
grown for the whole-pack canning industry of Florida. This is primarily because
one has never been developed and the Florida canning industry has existed as a sal-
vage operation. The canner contract with a fresh-market tomato grower for his
field after the fresh- scs i over. This usually provided the canner with
most of the Tnt.n t t3. te vine which was too late and too small for
fresh market. | -ar angement wa quite acceptable to the canning industry.

The deve pment OtdriAt2te ma hine harvest varieties for fresh market use
reduced the am unt o fruit available or a salvage operation. The rapid adoption
of the variety s 'Walter' and 'Florida MH-l' by Florida fresh market tomato growers
has drastically reduced the am(Iptoi uit available to be canned because virtually
all of the fruit fipj.thU i aeti s n be sold for fresh market consumption.
Florida tomato u nd fruit unavailable for salvage and subsequent canning.

In addition to the lack of fruit, Florida canners are also faced with increased
competition from tomato canners in the Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania
area. New varieties developed for whole-pack canning have resulted in a product
superior to that canned in Florida from salvage fresh market tomatoes. The varie-
ties presently grown in Florida must be cored by hand before canning and this added
operation is expensive and the product is inferior. Recent United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture regulations now permit tomatoes to be processed as a whole-
pack product if the diameter and depth of the stem core is a minimum size or less.
When fruit with these characteristics are machine harvested and then lye-peeled,
the end result is a product much superior to what is presently canned in Florida
at a cost which Florida canners can not meet.

PRODUCTION PROBLEMS

To successfully compete in the present situation Florida tomato canners must
find a new source of fruit and it must be of high quality. The limiting factor
in tomato production in Florida is plant disease when susceptible varieties are
used; therefore, care must be taken when a variety is selected. Also with most
varieties evaluated in the past, the development of color is inadequate. The
environmental conditions for production of color in processing tomato varieties
are unique. Those varieties that do well elsewhere, fail to perform in Florida
because of disease susceptibility and poor color development.

Plant diseases considered as potential limiting factors in processing tomato
production in Florida are of three types: 1) vascular diseases which are for the
most part caused by soil-borne pathogens and invade via the roots, 2) foliage
diseases which cause leaf-spots, blights and eventually defoliation, and 3) fruit
spots and rots which destroy fruit. All three types of diseases can significantly
reduce yields of susceptible varieties.











Vascular diseases most likely to occur in processing tomatoes are Fusarium
wilt incited by race 2 of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici, Verticillium wilt incited
by Verticillium albo-atrum and bacterial wilt incited by Pseudomonas solanacearum.
Fusarium wilt incited by race 1 is not likely to be a problem since most varieties
which would be considered for use are resistant to this pathogen. Also, any con-
trol measure used for race 2 should be effective for race 1. Verticillium wilt is
not likely to be a problem on acid sand land soils and bacterial wilt is usually
not a problem except on new land.

Foliage diseases which are serious problems include early blight incited by
Alternaria solani, gray leafspot incited by Stemphylium solani and bacterial spot
incited by Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Early blight and gray leafspot can normally
be controlled with routine fungicide programs. Control of bacterial leafspot is
not practical if an epidemic develops and optimum weather conditions for disease
development prevail.

Fruit diseases likely to occur include bacterial spot incited by Xanthomonas
vesicatoria, sour rot incited by Geotrichum candidum and various soil rots incited
by several fungi including species of Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium, Botrytis, as well
as bacterial soft rot incited by Erwinia carotovora. Very little information is
available concerning ripe fruit diseases in Florida, but anthracnose incited by
Colletotrichum phomoides which is one of the major fruit diseases elsewhere is
rare or non-existent in Florida. Drosophila flies and sap beetles may be problems
when fruit are harvested red ripe for canning.

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

Experimental yields of 30 tons per acre of marketable:fruit have been obtained
with numerous breeding lines developed by the University of Florida. Such a yield
is quite feasible on a commercial basis. Florida canners have indicated a "field
price" of $35.00 per ton is the near maximum a cannery can pay for tomatoes and
remain solvent. A yield of 30 tons at $35.00 per ton results in a gross income to
the grower of $1050.00 per acre. A quick glance at Table 1 indicates such a yield
and monetary return is not adequate to even pay for production costs.

Costs must be reduced considerably below those listed in Table 1 if the pro-
duction of canning tomatoes is to be feasible in Florida. To reduce production
costs, varieties must be developed which are adapted to Florida environmental
conditions, resistant to the major diseases and have high yields of superior
product. Multiple disease resistant adapted varieties would eliminate the need
for fumigation and reduce the cost of disease control via spraying. To further
minimize the costs of production, direct seeding or plug mix seeding could be
substituted for the transplants and cost of transplanting and the full-bed mulch
could be replaced with strip mulch. The revised production costs based on minimum
input with a multiple disease resistant adapted variety are shown in Table 2.
From this it appears more feasible that canning tomatoes can be grown and pro-
cessed competitively in Florida if a yield of 30 tons per acre can be achieved.
If a yield of 20 tons per acre is achieved gross sales would result in $700.00
and 30 tons in $1050.00 per acre sales. Comparing these returns with the costs
in Table 2 it is seen that a yield of 20 tons per acre is required just to break
even.









-"..PROBLEMS IN VARIETY DEVELOPMENT.

A canning variety which will perform satisfactorily using the cultural methods
and practices outlined in Table 2 is not available. The University of Florida has
been instrumental in providing the fresh market tomato industry of Florida with vari-
eties but development of canning varieties has been for the most part ignored. This
is primarily because those qualities which are desirable in a fresh market tomato
are generally undesirable in a processing tomato. Likewise, a processing tomato
must have certain attributes which are most undesirable in a fresh market variety.
The objectives of a fresh market tomato breeding program are, therefore, totally
different from the objectives of a processing tomato breeding program. The pri-
mary objective of the University of Florida tomato breeding program has been to
develop fresh market varieties and relatively little effort has been expended on
development of processing types because there has been no production of processing
tomatoes in Florida.

The Florida Canners Association requested the University of Florida tomato
breeding program in early 1972 to initiate research to develop a multiple disease
resistant variety suitable for whole-pack. The request from the association was
accompanied with grant funds to partially support such research. A very limited
breeding program is now underway at the Agricultural Research and Education Center-
Bradenton with the specific objective to develop a tomato variety which will be
suitable for Florida tomato canners. For such a variety to be successful it must
be developed in a very short period of time. If the variety is not developed the
future for Florida tomato canners is bleak and the industry cannot survive for long
as it now exists.

SUMMARY AND PROGNOSIS

Data are not available from which to accurately predict the success or demise
of the Florida tomato canning industry. The information presented in this report
are estimates based on very few available facts assembled from the bibliography
listed at the back of this report. If tomato canners are willing to pay a field
price of $35.00 per ton and a farmer produces 30 tons per acre, this results in
the farmer receiving gross sales receipts of $1050.00 per acre. If the farmer
incurs the production costs developed in Table 2 less the harvesting costs which
will be borne by the cannery he will have a gross profit of $1050.00 minus
$391.00 = $659.00. The actual net profit or loss will vary considerably with each
farmer and the individual farming operation.

The future for whole pack canning tomatoes is not a bright one in Florida
based upon these estimates and conjectures, but may improve considerably as more
research is accumulated, as farmers become more interested in growing canning
tomatoes, and as the canneries learn more about processing tomatoes grown speci-
fically for their purposes. Techniques used by the cannery will definitely be
different from those now used in the salvage operation.

The future for canning tomato production in Florida is presently somewhat dis-
mal. There are numerous aspects over which one can be optimistic and if a progres-
sive tomato grower teams up with an innovative canner and they cooperate in solving
the numerous problems which will arise, the Florida tomato canning industry may
survive despite all the predictions to the contrary.









-"..PROBLEMS IN VARIETY DEVELOPMENT.

A canning variety which will perform satisfactorily using the cultural methods
and practices outlined in Table 2 is not available. The University of Florida has
been instrumental in providing the fresh market tomato industry of Florida with vari-
eties but development of canning varieties has been for the most part ignored. This
is primarily because those qualities which are desirable in a fresh market tomato
are generally undesirable in a processing tomato. Likewise, a processing tomato
must have certain attributes which are most undesirable in a fresh market variety.
The objectives of a fresh market tomato breeding program are, therefore, totally
different from the objectives of a processing tomato breeding program. The pri-
mary objective of the University of Florida tomato breeding program has been to
develop fresh market varieties and relatively little effort has been expended on
development of processing types because there has been no production of processing
tomatoes in Florida.

The Florida Canners Association requested the University of Florida tomato
breeding program in early 1972 to initiate research to develop a multiple disease
resistant variety suitable for whole-pack. The request from the association was
accompanied with grant funds to partially support such research. A very limited
breeding program is now underway at the Agricultural Research and Education Center-
Bradenton with the specific objective to develop a tomato variety which will be
suitable for Florida tomato canners. For such a variety to be successful it must
be developed in a very short period of time. If the variety is not developed the
future for Florida tomato canners is bleak and the industry cannot survive for long
as it now exists.

SUMMARY AND PROGNOSIS

Data are not available from which to accurately predict the success or demise
of the Florida tomato canning industry. The information presented in this report
are estimates based on very few available facts assembled from the bibliography
listed at the back of this report. If tomato canners are willing to pay a field
price of $35.00 per ton and a farmer produces 30 tons per acre, this results in
the farmer receiving gross sales receipts of $1050.00 per acre. If the farmer
incurs the production costs developed in Table 2 less the harvesting costs which
will be borne by the cannery he will have a gross profit of $1050.00 minus
$391.00 = $659.00. The actual net profit or loss will vary considerably with each
farmer and the individual farming operation.

The future for whole pack canning tomatoes is not a bright one in Florida
based upon these estimates and conjectures, but may improve considerably as more
research is accumulated, as farmers become more interested in growing canning
tomatoes, and as the canneries learn more about processing tomatoes grown speci-
fically for their purposes. Techniques used by the cannery will definitely be
different from those now used in the salvage operation.

The future for canning tomato production in Florida is presently somewhat dis-
mal. There are numerous aspects over which one can be optimistic and if a progres-
sive tomato grower teams up with an innovative canner and they cooperate in solving
the numerous problems which will arise, the Florida tomato canning industry may
survive despite all the predictions to the contrary.









BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Anon. Kilgore's Florida planting guide. 1966-1967. The Kilgore Seed Company,
Plant City, Florida. 88 pages.

2. Brook, D. L. 1972. Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida season
1970-1971 with comparisons. Univ. of Florida. IFAS Ag. Econ. Report 31:
23-28. 29 pages.

3. Burgis, D. S. 1971. Herbicide tests on tomato transplants and seeded tomatoes.
Proc. So. Heed Sci. Soc. 24:241-245.

4. Crill, P. and B. Villalon. 1970. Genetic control of tomato diseases and
pests. Florida Grower and Rancher 63:18. April 1970.

5. Deen, W. 0., Jr., N. C. Hayslip, H. H. Bryan and P. H. Everett. 1970. Recent
advances in mechanization of fresh market tomato harvesting in Florida. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 33:131-135.

6. Everett, P. H. 1972. Cultural practices for fresh market machine harvested
tomatoes. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Mimeo Report SF-1972-1. 5 pages.

7. Geraldson, C. M. 1970. Precision nutrient gradients a component for opti-
mal production. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 1:317-331.

8. Geraldson, C. M. 1971. The I and B concept an approach to optimal crop
production. Agri-Chemical Age 14:6-8.

9. Hayslip, N. C. 1972. A plug-mix seeding method for field planting tomatoes
and other small-seeded hill crops. Univ. of Fla., IFAS Mimeo Report
RL1972-2. 3 pages.

10. Hipp, Timothy. 1971. Factors in decision making what will it cost -
will it pay. Lecture at Univ. of Florida peanut growers short course.
Feb. 11, 1971. Hilliston, Fla. 9 pages.

11. Jones, J. P., G. F. Weber, D. G. A. Kelbert. 1969. Tomato diseases in Flor-
ida. Univ. of Florida. IFAS. Bull 731. 87 pages.

12. Jones, J. P. and S. S. Woltz. 1972. Effect of soil pH and micronutrients
on Verticillium and Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Dis. Reptr. 56:151-153.

13.. Overman, A. J., J. P. Jones and C. Ii. Geraldson. 1971. Soil preparation
for tomatoes on old sand land. Univ. of Fla. IFAS, Mimeo Report GCS-71-6.

14. Poe, S. L. 1973. Selective applications of insecticides for management
of tomato insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 66: in press.









Table 1. Estimated per acre cost of producing canning tomatoes with present
varieties on sand land in Florida for machine harvest on cleared land with
well, ditches and pump already installed. Estimates are based upon informa-
tion cited in the bibliography.


Item Comments Cost per Acre

Land Preparation
disking $20.00
bed formation 4.00
herbicides 8.00
fumigation (Vorlex) 260.00
mulching (plastic) 80.00
(paper) $135.00
lime (2 tons/acre) 22.00
fertilizer (1500 Ibs 18-0-25)
( 500 Ibs 0-20-0) 92.00

tw-total $486.00

l-'iLts and Planting
transplants (7000 plants 0 $.015) 105.00
transplanting (mechanical tronsplanting should be less) 100.00

1b-total $205.00

Di.erse and Insect Control
praying (20 applications per zcason alternating maneb and
cygon with zineb & lannnte) 250.00

Sub-total $250.00

Irrigation (excluding pine and major ditching costs)
power to pump water 10.00
lateral ditches and control structur- 40.00

Sub-total $ 50.00

Harvesting and Hauling
mechanical harvesting ($10.00/'tlo at 30 tons/acre) 300.00
transportation to cannery (va.::i,-;
Sub-total $300.00


Total Costs $1383.00


THE GIIi l:1.' TIO; AND PRODUCTS DESCRIBED IHREIN DO NOT CONSTITUTE A RECOMMENDATION BY
THE AUTHORS OR THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA.









-6- AGRI-
CULTURAI
Table 2. Estimated per acre cost of producing canning tomatoes with adapted multi- LIBRAR
ple disease resistant varieties on sand land in Florida for machine harvest on /Lj
cleared land with well, ditches and pump already installed. Estimates are based
upon information cited in the bibliography.


Item __ Comments Cost per acre

Land Preparation
disking $20.00
bed formation 4.00
herbicides 15.00
strip mulching 20.00
lime (2 tons/acre @ $11.00/ton) 22.00
fertilizer (1000 pounds 18-0-25)
( 350 pounds 0-20-0) 65.00

Sub-total $146.00

Plants and Planting
plugmix seeding (6000 hills/acre C $.0075) 45.00

Sub-total .45.00

Disease and Insect Control
spraying (reduced applications based on Poe and Jones data) 150.00

Sub-total 150.00

Irrigation (excluding pipe and major ditching costs)
power to pump water 10.00
lateral ditches and control structures 40.00

Sub-total 50.00

Harvesting and Hauling
mechanical harvesting 300.00
transportation (variable)

Sub-total 300.00


total Co'ts $691.00



THJ! INFOi.:I.TIGi AND PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN DO NOT CONSTITUTE A RECOMMENDATION
3Y THE AUTHORS OR THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA.




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