• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Soil preparation
 Hot-water treatment
 Spray schedules
 Bacterial leaf spot and neck rot...
 Insect control






Group Title: Mimeo report - Agricultural Research & Education Center - BR71-5
Title: Suggestions for controlling gladiolus diseases and pests in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067668/00001
 Material Information
Title: Suggestions for controlling gladiolus diseases and pests in Florida
Series Title: Mimeo report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Magie, R. O ( Robert Ogden ), 1906-
Poe, S. L ( Sidney LaMarr ), 1949-
Agricultural Research & Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Magie and S.L. Poe.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1971."
Funding: Bradenton AREC mimeo report
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067668
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71816367

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Soil preparation
        Page 1
    Hot-water treatment
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Spray schedules
        Page 3
    Bacterial leaf spot and neck rot control
        Page 3
    Insect control
        Page 4
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




loo


& Cs 7/-5
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
Braderton, Florida

Mimeo Report AREC-BR71-5 .------ March, 1971


SUGGESTIONS FOR CONTROLLING GLADIOLtS DISEASES 4ND PJTS IN LORIDA

R. 0. Magie and L. Poe

Soli Prepara A .S. ~J

Soil fumigation to control diseases, pests, and nematbdes and for
planting in soil previously planted to gladiolus Use methyl bromide and
chloropicrin mixtures, combinations of chloropicrin with DD or with EDB,
Vorlex, or Vorlex 201. Except for methyl bromide, these fumigants may be
used without tarping the treated soil. To be most effective and economical,
soil to be fumigated must be prepared properly, well in advance of the
application. Specific instructions are given in Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Bulletin 664A and by the product manufacturers.

Treat soil with 5 pounds of 40% WP or 20 pounds of 10% granular chlor-
dane per acre, applied broadcast and tilled in before planting if cutworms
or wireworms are known to be present and land is not fumigated. Infestations
of cutworms in growing plants may be controlled with poison baits containing
chlordane.

Corm and Cormel Treatments to Control Diseases and Pests

Hot-water treatment:

1) Hold small corms and cormels at 70-80 F for 6 to 8 weeks after digging.

2) Soak both corms and cormels in water at room temperature for a day be-
fore treatment.

3) Hold in heated water for 30 minutes: corms at 131-1350 and cormels at
133-1370. Add 3/4 Ib Benlate or Mertect 160 for each 100 gallons of
hot water. Agitate water during treatment.

4) Persons inexperienced with the hot-water treatment should make
small acale tests with hot-water treatment'to determine"
whether injury occurs at the suggested temperatures. A week or more
before treatment time, test small samples of corms and cormels of the
varieties grown using Benlate or Mertect in the water. Lower the
temperature if corms or cormels become soft or discolored by the treat-
ment.

5) Place the hot corms or cormels on screens in thin layers to cool. When
surface dried, hold them in cool storage in thin layers until 2 to 3
weeks before planting. If root "buds" do not show at that time, hold
them at room temperature, or up to 85e F, until root swellings begin
to develop on the larger cormels and corms. Corms should not be plant-
ed until root swellings begin to appear on most of the corms.




loo


& Cs 7/-5
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
Braderton, Florida

Mimeo Report AREC-BR71-5 .------ March, 1971


SUGGESTIONS FOR CONTROLLING GLADIOLtS DISEASES 4ND PJTS IN LORIDA

R. 0. Magie and L. Poe

Soli Prepara A .S. ~J

Soil fumigation to control diseases, pests, and nematbdes and for
planting in soil previously planted to gladiolus Use methyl bromide and
chloropicrin mixtures, combinations of chloropicrin with DD or with EDB,
Vorlex, or Vorlex 201. Except for methyl bromide, these fumigants may be
used without tarping the treated soil. To be most effective and economical,
soil to be fumigated must be prepared properly, well in advance of the
application. Specific instructions are given in Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Bulletin 664A and by the product manufacturers.

Treat soil with 5 pounds of 40% WP or 20 pounds of 10% granular chlor-
dane per acre, applied broadcast and tilled in before planting if cutworms
or wireworms are known to be present and land is not fumigated. Infestations
of cutworms in growing plants may be controlled with poison baits containing
chlordane.

Corm and Cormel Treatments to Control Diseases and Pests

Hot-water treatment:

1) Hold small corms and cormels at 70-80 F for 6 to 8 weeks after digging.

2) Soak both corms and cormels in water at room temperature for a day be-
fore treatment.

3) Hold in heated water for 30 minutes: corms at 131-1350 and cormels at
133-1370. Add 3/4 Ib Benlate or Mertect 160 for each 100 gallons of
hot water. Agitate water during treatment.

4) Persons inexperienced with the hot-water treatment should make
small acale tests with hot-water treatment'to determine"
whether injury occurs at the suggested temperatures. A week or more
before treatment time, test small samples of corms and cormels of the
varieties grown using Benlate or Mertect in the water. Lower the
temperature if corms or cormels become soft or discolored by the treat-
ment.

5) Place the hot corms or cormels on screens in thin layers to cool. When
surface dried, hold them in cool storage in thin layers until 2 to 3
weeks before planting. If root "buds" do not show at that time, hold
them at room temperature, or up to 85e F, until root swellings begin
to develop on the larger cormels and corms. Corms should not be plant-
ed until root swellings begin to appear on most of the corms.








- 2 -


6) Another Benlate or Mertect dip (1 1/2 lb/100 gal) may be given before
planting. This dip would be most important for cormels which have
been soaked in water in preparation for planting.

7) Unless soil is treated with a broad-spectrum fumigant or is "new"
for gladiolus, spray Botran in furrow before planting as suggest-
ed below.

Dust and dip treatments for corms not treated in hot water: The
treatments listed below are most effective when used on corms cleaned
immediately after harvest or after a period of curing, however they may
be used also on corms before planting. Dusts are most effective and con-
venient to use on freshly cleaned corms, especially on planting stocks.
Freshly lifted corms too small to be green-cleaned may be washed in
running water, then dipped in Mertect or Benlate, roots and all, and
dusted after curing and cleaning. A pre-plant treatment would not be
necessary for corms dusted after cleaning. Where bulb mites or Botrytis
corm rot are potential problems, Benlate is preferred to Mertect as a dust
or dip for corms.

A. To control corm rot and latent infections of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
gladioli, apply one of the following to corms, preferably after clean-
ing.

1) Benlate 50W at 1 1/2/100 gal or 4 level teaspoons per gal. Soak
5 to 30 minutes; agitate to prevent settling.

2) Mertect 160 at 1 1/2 lb/100 gal or 2 level tablespoons per gal-
lon. Soak 15 min to 1 hour and agitate.

3) Benlate as a dust at 10 to 15% active ingredient.

4) Mertect as a dust at 10 to 15% active ingredient. Apply dusts
out-of-doors unless effective exhaust hood is used.

B. To control Stromatinia dry rot on corms and on plantings in "old land".

1) Add Botran to the dips or dusts listed above. Use 5 lb Botran
75W per 100 gallons or 7.5% of the active ingredient in a dust.

2) Unless soil is fumigated for disease control, mix Botran into
top six inches of soil at 100 to 150 lb active/acre.

3) As further protection against Stromatinia dry rot, spray into
open furrow one pound Botran 75W per 750 feet of row and mix
into soil before planting.

4) Mites are frequently associated with fungus disease and corm
decay. Populations of these mites can be eliminated most easily
by hot water treatment followed by drying of the corms before
cool storage.







-3 -


Spray Schedules

Sprays for flowering stocks To control Curvularia and Botrytis
diseases of leaves and flowers. -

May through October: Maneb fungicides such as Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200
at 1 1/2 lb/100 gallons once each week. Spray twice weekly in wet wea-
ther or when fungus infections are present in the planting.

November through April: Maneb fungicides such as Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200
at 1 1/2 lb/100 gallons twice weekly. Continue spraying after flower har-
vest and up to corm harvest in order to prevent Botrytis from spreading
to younger plantings and to the corms. If a Botrytis epidemic develops,
alternate a Botran (2 lb/100) or Benlate (1/2 lb/100) spray with a maneb
spray each week for protection against corm infections. Corm infections
occur before lifting but visible rotting may not develop until corms have
been in cool storage several days or weeks. When Stemphylium leaf spot
disease is present, substitute Dyrene at 1 1/2 lb/100 gal for one maneb
spray per week on susceptible varieties.

Sprays for planting stocks and cormel plantings are essentially the
same as for flowering plants but it is important to begin the spraying as
soon as the leaves emerge.

Bacterial Leaf Spot and Neck Rot Control

Bacterial diseases of gladiolus are epidemic during warm, rainy wea-
ther. Bactericidal sprays have not been effective alone. Some practices
that reduce spread of infection are listed below.

1) Use of spray pressures under 200 Ib/sq. inch. Fungicidal sprays,
as well as rain and overhead irrigation water spread the bacteria
and drive them into the leaf pores.

2) Avoid overhead irrigation during daylight hours when pores are
open. Irrigate early in the morning before daylight whenever
possible.

3) Avoid cutting flowers, cultivating, etc. when plants are wet.

4) Plant susceptible varieties in separate area where irrigations
can be made in the early morning hours and where a Morsodren spray
may be applied most economically. Morsodren is used at 4 ounces/
100 gal immediately after flower cutting and topping and after
vacating workers from area. Keep workers out of sprayed fields
for a day.

5) Add Streptomycin to the water soak for cormels before the hot-
water treatment. Streptomycin at 500 ppm active is used as a 3
hour soak.







-3 -


Spray Schedules

Sprays for flowering stocks To control Curvularia and Botrytis
diseases of leaves and flowers. -

May through October: Maneb fungicides such as Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200
at 1 1/2 lb/100 gallons once each week. Spray twice weekly in wet wea-
ther or when fungus infections are present in the planting.

November through April: Maneb fungicides such as Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200
at 1 1/2 lb/100 gallons twice weekly. Continue spraying after flower har-
vest and up to corm harvest in order to prevent Botrytis from spreading
to younger plantings and to the corms. If a Botrytis epidemic develops,
alternate a Botran (2 lb/100) or Benlate (1/2 lb/100) spray with a maneb
spray each week for protection against corm infections. Corm infections
occur before lifting but visible rotting may not develop until corms have
been in cool storage several days or weeks. When Stemphylium leaf spot
disease is present, substitute Dyrene at 1 1/2 lb/100 gal for one maneb
spray per week on susceptible varieties.

Sprays for planting stocks and cormel plantings are essentially the
same as for flowering plants but it is important to begin the spraying as
soon as the leaves emerge.

Bacterial Leaf Spot and Neck Rot Control

Bacterial diseases of gladiolus are epidemic during warm, rainy wea-
ther. Bactericidal sprays have not been effective alone. Some practices
that reduce spread of infection are listed below.

1) Use of spray pressures under 200 Ib/sq. inch. Fungicidal sprays,
as well as rain and overhead irrigation water spread the bacteria
and drive them into the leaf pores.

2) Avoid overhead irrigation during daylight hours when pores are
open. Irrigate early in the morning before daylight whenever
possible.

3) Avoid cutting flowers, cultivating, etc. when plants are wet.

4) Plant susceptible varieties in separate area where irrigations
can be made in the early morning hours and where a Morsodren spray
may be applied most economically. Morsodren is used at 4 ounces/
100 gal immediately after flower cutting and topping and after
vacating workers from area. Keep workers out of sprayed fields
for a day.

5) Add Streptomycin to the water soak for cormels before the hot-
water treatment. Streptomycin at 500 ppm active is used as a 3
hour soak.








- 4- ----- '


Insect Control

Spring, summer, and fall crops should be sprayed weekly or as needed
for foliage feeding larvae, aphids, and thrips. Methomyl (8 oz of SP per
100 gallons water), endosulfan (2 qts of 2E or 2 Ibs of 50WP/100 gal), or
carbaryl (2 Ibs 50WP) have been effective. Thrips and aphids may also be
treated with Meta-Systox-R, Diazinon, dimethoate or malathion. Winter crops
can be sprayed as needed for chewing larvae since infestations are usually
light during cooler'periods. Aphids may thrive in cool weather and should
be considered a year-round threat in central and southern areas of West
Florida.

Care should be exercised in spraying spikes with slightly open flowers
since many chemicals may result in injury to the blossom.

Compatibilities of fungicides and insecticides when tank-mixed can be
ascertained by use of standard spray compatibility charts. This will in-
clude most commonly used materials.




Trade names are mentioned solely to provide specific information.
No endorsement, guarantee or warranty of named products is in-
tended, nor is criticism implied of similar products not men-
tioned.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs