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Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Experiment Station - GCS70-2
Title: Check list of fungus diseases on gladiolus
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067661/00001
 Material Information
Title: Check list of fungus diseases on gladiolus
Series Title: Gulf Coast Experiment Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Magie, R. O ( Robert Ogden ), 1906-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Magie.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067661
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71814977

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




'0

3L> -------___
10-. HUME LIBRARY
Mimeo Report GCS70-2 Bradenton, Florida Md~i y 13, 1970

CHECK LIST OF FUNGUS DISEASES ON GLADIOLUS
R. O. Magie I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
Professor (Plant Pathologist)
Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Bradenton, Florida

Members of the North American Gladiolus Council requested a listing of

gladiolus diseases, showing where recommended control chemicals may be obtained.

This Check List includes only fungus diseases because chemicals are important in

their control but are seldom used against diseases caused by bacteria and viruses.

Only the manufacturers or prime sources are listed. The chemicals may not be

available from the manufacturer, but information on distributors in a particular

area may be obtained from them.

The research on diseases of gladiolus in Florida has been concentrated on the

control of Fucarium, Stromatinia, and Botrytis diseases. These fungi cause over

95% of the losses from disease in Florida, or an average annual loss of over 2

million dollars. The Fusarium disease is the major cause of corm and flower

losses. Recent research on corm treatments uncovered a systemic chemical,

Thiabendazole, which is more effective than previously recommended materials.

This Check List gives only abbreviated descriptions of diseases and control

practices. These subjects are covered more completely in Florida Agricultural

Experiment Station Bulletin 664A and other publications in North American Gladio-

lus Council Bulletins and Proceedings of Florida State Horticulture Society. In

most cases the manufacturer's label gives the recommended rates to use, but in

any case, anyone not experienced in using these chemicals should contact their

research or extension people regarding use on gladiolus.




- 2 -


CHECK LIST OF FUNGUS DISEASES ON GLADIOLUS
R. O. Magie
Professor (Plant Pathologist)


Causal
_fungus Principal symptoms


Fusarium
corm rot








Fusarium
yellows
or wilt



Dry rot
and neck
rot









Soft rot
of corms


Fusarium
oxysporumn
f. sp.
gladioli





Fusarium
oxysporum
f. sp.
gladioli


Stromatinia
gladioli










Botrvtis
gladiolorum


Name of
Disease


Large, sunken, rotted areas, drying to stone-like
consistency in storage. The whole corm eventually
rots at higher temperatures. Rotting frequently
starts in root or core area and at injuries. It
is characteristically a basal rot. Occasionally,
the rot is shallow. Usually, the rotted tissue
blends into the healthy, with no corky layer of
separation.

A warm weather disease. Yellowing of older leaves;
rot of corms and roots. Stunting and curving of
leaves, narrow leaves. Poor flower production;
'blind" plants; late, smaller, darker green spikes
and darker colored florets.

A cool weather disease. When fungus is carried on
corms/cormels, small plants turn yellow and die
in scattered groups. Where fungus survives in
soil, infection is more uniform in field, except
that it is worse in wet areas. Small, rounded,
black sclerotia may be seen under transparent
cuticle of dead roots and leaf bases. Sharp,
moldy odor of yellow-rotted neck is also charac-
teristic. Top of corns often show black, scurfy
dry rot along husk attachments.

Watery, then spongy rot of corms in cool storage.
Fungus enters through top, roots, or husks during
cool, wet weather. Watery, then spongy rot of corms
develops in cool storage and spreads from corm to
corm, forming "nest" of white moldy corms. Scler-
otia which develop in diseased tissue ara oval,
flat or rounded black bodies, as large as sweet
pea seed.


Control practices and chemicals to use
(Nos. in () refer to footnotes_ _3)

Use resistant varieties. Clean corms at
digging and dip in Mertect 160 (1). Treat
cormels in hot water and in ilertect 160
dip. Corms may be dipped in Ceresan L (6)
or Morsodren (7) before planting. For
dusting corms after cleaning, instead of
dipping, dilute Mertect 160, one part to
5 parts of inert dust diluent by weight.

See above. Also plant corms in clean or
fumigated soil.* See Fla. Agr. Exp. Ste.
Bulletin 664A and later publications.



Easily controlled by soil fumigation* and
by corm and coraeel treatment with Botran
(2). Treat cormels in hot water and sprey
Botran in furrow. If infested soil is not
to be fumigated, apply Botran to planting
bed and mix into soil before planting,
using 3 or 4 pounds per 1030 square feet.




Most important: Spray well with imaneb (3)
to control disease on growing plants, and
practice sanitation. Bury deeply or burn
rotted plants to destroy sclerotia. Dip
or duct corms in Mertect 160 after dig-
ging and cleaing or dust corins with
JEtran, 3 tc.L% acti-v. Ar a last reLort
to reduce dic.:; spread in storage, hold
cor'.?r at t-o.rvr -'--. e abv 3 16C '-.60?')




- 3 -


Name of
Tf I .


Leaf spot
and flower
rot




Curvularia
leaf spot
and corm
rot

Stemphylium
leaf spot,
or red spot


Causal
Ifnl 01c


Botrytis
gladiolorum






Curvularia
trifolii
f. sp.
gladioli

Stemphylium
sp.


PrincinMl ~'virntoa


Cool weather disease. Small to large, brown,
roundish spots on leaves; gray moldy neck rot;
small water-soaked spots on petals; brown rot
at base of flower bud. The smaller leaf spots
usually show only on the upper side of leaf
where spores fall.

Mostly large, brown, oval spots on leaves,
petals and stems; smaller, sunken, dark brown
corm spots that do not lift out cleanly.


Small, circular, yellowish spots with reddish
brown dot. Spots appear to be translucent and
show on both sides of leaf.


seas-ue s Prncne svir tom-


*Soil fumigation as recommended to control certain fungus diseases of gladiolus (as well as weeds and nematodes) includes
the use of methyl bromide formulations; Vorlex and Vorlex 201 from Nor-Am, Inc., 20 No. Wacker Drive, Chicago, Ill. 60606;
and Mylone (DMTT; Crag Mylone or Miller Mico-Fume) from Union Carbide Corp., Process Chem. Div., 270 Park Lve., New York
City, 10017 and from Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., P.O.B. 311, Hanover, Penna. 17331. Mylone is most convenient
for gardeners to use. Fumigation instructions are given in Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bulletin 6o4A.

(1) Mertect 160 (Thiabendazole or TBZ) Merck and Company, Inc., Product Development, Rahway, N. J. 07063.

(2) Botran (Allisan) (dicloran) Upjohn Company, 301 Henrietta St., Kalamazoo, Michigan 49001.

(3) Maneb (generally available as Dithane M-45 and Manzate 200) Rohm and Haas Co., Pgr. Chemicals Dept., Independence
Mall W., Philadelphia, Penna. 19105; and E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Industrial and Biochem. Dept..Wilmington,
Delaware 19898.

(4) Dyrene Chemagro Corp., P.O.B. 4913, Hawthorn Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64120.

(5) Daconil 2787 Diamond Shamrock Corp., Union Commerce Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio 44115

(6) Ceresan L du Pont product (see footnote 3)

(7) Morsodren Nor-Am product (see footnote on soil fumigation)

FOR SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS Consult your County Agent and research personnel and read the label. Keep all chemicals
in locked compartment, destroy empty containers, and observe all safety precautions.


Control practices and chemicals to use
(Nos. in () refer to footnotes, pF 3)

Starting well before Botrytis season is ex-
pected, spray regularly with maneb (3), es-
pecially after each rain. If plants do not
dry off, sprey with Morsodren (7). Remove
and destroy open flowers and neck-rotted
plants before gray mold appears.

Spray maneb (3). Destroy infected leaves
and flowers. Keep soil pH about 6.5.
Treat corms with Mertect 160 at harvest
or after cleaning.

Spray Dyrene (4) or Daconil 2787 (5) as
soon as disease appears and repeat weekly.




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