• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Varieties
 Source of bublets
 Hot-water treatments
 Preparation of bulbs for plant...
 Chart of bulb treatment
 Culture of planting stock
 Weed control
 Frost and wind damage
 Diseases and other disorders of...
 Checklist of symptoms on harvested...
 Harvesting
 Curing and grading bulbs
 Bulb storage
 Bulb yields
 Marketing of bulbs






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station - 62-7
Title: Gladiolus bulb production (second part)
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067659/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gladiolus bulb production (second part)
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 11eaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Magie, R. O ( Robert Ogden ), 1906-
Overman, A. J ( Amegda J )
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Gladiolus -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gladiolus -- Propagation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Magie, A.J. Overman, and W.E. Waters.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June, 1962"--Leaf 11.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067659
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71781344

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Varieties
        Page 1
    Source of bublets
        Page 1
    Hot-water treatments
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Preparation of bulbs for planting
        Page 2
    Chart of bulb treatment
        Page 3
    Culture of planting stock
        Page 4
    Weed control
        Page 4
    Frost and wind damage
        Page 5
    Diseases and other disorders of plants and bulbs
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Checklist of symptoms on harvested bulbs
        Page 7
    Harvesting
        Page 8
    Curing and grading bulbs
        Page 9
    Bulb storage
        Page 9
    Bulb yields
        Page 10
    Marketing of bulbs
        Page 10
        Page 11
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




-. 4 -'- Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 62-7
L,/ -2 GLADIOLUS BULB PRODUCTION (second part)

R. 0, Maste, A, J. Overman, and W. E. taters


Information on gladiolus bulb production not included in Gulf Coast Station's
Mimeo Reports 62-4 and 62-5 is presented for the use of the new growers who are pre-
paring to harvest their first bulb crops. A revised chart of the various steps in
bulb production is included.

Varieties

Varieties most in demand are those grown in Florida for commercial production
of flowers, A listing of varieties used on one farm would seldom be the same as on
another farm; and the quantity needed in any variety changes from year to year.
Plantings of each variety should be revised yearly according to the needs of the
market. Such information may be obtained from flower growers and bulb brokers.

Approximately 28 percent of the flower production is from white varieties, main-
ly June Bells, White Excelsior, T-500, and White Friendship; 27 percent from pink
varieties, predominantly Spic and Span, Friendship, and Traveler; 20 percent from
red varieties, principally Valeria; 10 percent from yellow varieties, primarily Hop-
mane Glory; 10 percent from the lavender and rose varieties, mainly Elizabeth the
Queen, Rose Spire, Wild Rose, and Van Zanten's Glory; and 5 percent from other
colors.
Source of bulblets

Bulbs are propagated from bulblets which grow in clusters at the base of the
developing bulb. Bulblets are usually divided into four sizes: large over 3/8
inch in diameter, medium 1/4 to 3/8 inch, small 3/16 to 1/4 inch, and very
small less than 3/16 inch. The number of bulblets per bushel is about 25,000 to
40,000 for large size; 40,000 to 100,000 for medium, 100,000 to 150,000 for small;
and as many as 250,000 for the very small size. The weight of bulblets per bushel
averages 45 pounds.

Bulblets may be purchased from flower growers who have good stocks of desirable
varieties. Arrangements to purchase bulblets should be made before harvesting be-
gins. To find the best stocks, the fields should be inspected for virus diseases
and variety purity when plants are blooming. Bulb growers may become the best
source of clean uniform stocks by establishing "mother" blocks and removing dis-
eased and off-type plants at blooming time.

Bulblet stocks should be chosen carefully to obtain healthy bulbs since bulb-
lets carry the seme disease organisms as their parent bulbs. These organisms in-
clude viruses, fungi, and root-knot nematodes. One method of obtaining a good stock
of any variety is to collect bulblets fro= several sources, keeping each stock sep-
arately identified. The best of these stocks, chosen for variety purity, health and
flower production, should be used for future propagation and gradually im roved by
roguing.
Hot-water Treatment

To grow quality bulbs with a good degree of health, one sh d sta with
water treated bulblets. The hot-water treatment reduces the Fu ium an ~elimi
the Curvularia and Stromatinia fungi carried by bulbs and bulblea1 The ,.eatet'
danger of bringing untreated bulblets to the farm is that the di funa i 'e-
come established in the soil. Even though gladiolus are not reple a L
surviving in the soil for many years make the area hazardous for fut id lus
production.




-. 4 -'- Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 62-7
L,/ -2 GLADIOLUS BULB PRODUCTION (second part)

R. 0, Maste, A, J. Overman, and W. E. taters


Information on gladiolus bulb production not included in Gulf Coast Station's
Mimeo Reports 62-4 and 62-5 is presented for the use of the new growers who are pre-
paring to harvest their first bulb crops. A revised chart of the various steps in
bulb production is included.

Varieties

Varieties most in demand are those grown in Florida for commercial production
of flowers, A listing of varieties used on one farm would seldom be the same as on
another farm; and the quantity needed in any variety changes from year to year.
Plantings of each variety should be revised yearly according to the needs of the
market. Such information may be obtained from flower growers and bulb brokers.

Approximately 28 percent of the flower production is from white varieties, main-
ly June Bells, White Excelsior, T-500, and White Friendship; 27 percent from pink
varieties, predominantly Spic and Span, Friendship, and Traveler; 20 percent from
red varieties, principally Valeria; 10 percent from yellow varieties, primarily Hop-
mane Glory; 10 percent from the lavender and rose varieties, mainly Elizabeth the
Queen, Rose Spire, Wild Rose, and Van Zanten's Glory; and 5 percent from other
colors.
Source of bulblets

Bulbs are propagated from bulblets which grow in clusters at the base of the
developing bulb. Bulblets are usually divided into four sizes: large over 3/8
inch in diameter, medium 1/4 to 3/8 inch, small 3/16 to 1/4 inch, and very
small less than 3/16 inch. The number of bulblets per bushel is about 25,000 to
40,000 for large size; 40,000 to 100,000 for medium, 100,000 to 150,000 for small;
and as many as 250,000 for the very small size. The weight of bulblets per bushel
averages 45 pounds.

Bulblets may be purchased from flower growers who have good stocks of desirable
varieties. Arrangements to purchase bulblets should be made before harvesting be-
gins. To find the best stocks, the fields should be inspected for virus diseases
and variety purity when plants are blooming. Bulb growers may become the best
source of clean uniform stocks by establishing "mother" blocks and removing dis-
eased and off-type plants at blooming time.

Bulblet stocks should be chosen carefully to obtain healthy bulbs since bulb-
lets carry the seme disease organisms as their parent bulbs. These organisms in-
clude viruses, fungi, and root-knot nematodes. One method of obtaining a good stock
of any variety is to collect bulblets fro= several sources, keeping each stock sep-
arately identified. The best of these stocks, chosen for variety purity, health and
flower production, should be used for future propagation and gradually im roved by
roguing.
Hot-water Treatment

To grow quality bulbs with a good degree of health, one sh d sta with
water treated bulblets. The hot-water treatment reduces the Fu ium an ~elimi
the Curvularia and Stromatinia fungi carried by bulbs and bulblea1 The ,.eatet'
danger of bringing untreated bulblets to the farm is that the di funa i 'e-
come established in the soil. Even though gladiolus are not reple a L
surviving in the soil for many years make the area hazardous for fut id lus
production.




-. 4 -'- Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 62-7
L,/ -2 GLADIOLUS BULB PRODUCTION (second part)

R. 0, Maste, A, J. Overman, and W. E. taters


Information on gladiolus bulb production not included in Gulf Coast Station's
Mimeo Reports 62-4 and 62-5 is presented for the use of the new growers who are pre-
paring to harvest their first bulb crops. A revised chart of the various steps in
bulb production is included.

Varieties

Varieties most in demand are those grown in Florida for commercial production
of flowers, A listing of varieties used on one farm would seldom be the same as on
another farm; and the quantity needed in any variety changes from year to year.
Plantings of each variety should be revised yearly according to the needs of the
market. Such information may be obtained from flower growers and bulb brokers.

Approximately 28 percent of the flower production is from white varieties, main-
ly June Bells, White Excelsior, T-500, and White Friendship; 27 percent from pink
varieties, predominantly Spic and Span, Friendship, and Traveler; 20 percent from
red varieties, principally Valeria; 10 percent from yellow varieties, primarily Hop-
mane Glory; 10 percent from the lavender and rose varieties, mainly Elizabeth the
Queen, Rose Spire, Wild Rose, and Van Zanten's Glory; and 5 percent from other
colors.
Source of bulblets

Bulbs are propagated from bulblets which grow in clusters at the base of the
developing bulb. Bulblets are usually divided into four sizes: large over 3/8
inch in diameter, medium 1/4 to 3/8 inch, small 3/16 to 1/4 inch, and very
small less than 3/16 inch. The number of bulblets per bushel is about 25,000 to
40,000 for large size; 40,000 to 100,000 for medium, 100,000 to 150,000 for small;
and as many as 250,000 for the very small size. The weight of bulblets per bushel
averages 45 pounds.

Bulblets may be purchased from flower growers who have good stocks of desirable
varieties. Arrangements to purchase bulblets should be made before harvesting be-
gins. To find the best stocks, the fields should be inspected for virus diseases
and variety purity when plants are blooming. Bulb growers may become the best
source of clean uniform stocks by establishing "mother" blocks and removing dis-
eased and off-type plants at blooming time.

Bulblet stocks should be chosen carefully to obtain healthy bulbs since bulb-
lets carry the seme disease organisms as their parent bulbs. These organisms in-
clude viruses, fungi, and root-knot nematodes. One method of obtaining a good stock
of any variety is to collect bulblets fro= several sources, keeping each stock sep-
arately identified. The best of these stocks, chosen for variety purity, health and
flower production, should be used for future propagation and gradually im roved by
roguing.
Hot-water Treatment

To grow quality bulbs with a good degree of health, one sh d sta with
water treated bulblets. The hot-water treatment reduces the Fu ium an ~elimi
the Curvularia and Stromatinia fungi carried by bulbs and bulblea1 The ,.eatet'
danger of bringing untreated bulblets to the farm is that the di funa i 'e-
come established in the soil. Even though gladiolus are not reple a L
surviving in the soil for many years make the area hazardous for fut id lus
production.








STEPS IN BULB PRODUCTION


(\ 0



, CLEAN.iEALLOW for
2 months before planting


HOT WATEI
treated












CURED
2 months


DRIED \
/ -- SOIL MOIST for
STORED 2\ weeks before
cold fumigation
S40* room
F
L/ r2-4 months




R Captan + \I
R ni,-
Parathion \
DIPPED FUMIGATED
2 weeks before
planting



INCUBA ED


V "e


SOARED
GRADED 2-3
Says


Cleaned




DIPPED
RVESTED /' in
Elcide 73





PLANTED








The high temperatures of the hot-water treatment are needed to kill most of
the Fusarium fungus which is carried in bulbs and bulblets as latent infection.
The high degree of dormancy required for bulbs and bulblets to tolerate these high
temperatures is developed in those grown and harvested in warm weather. All bulbs
and bulblets must be cured for 2 or 3 mouths, preferably at temperatures between
75 and 850 F, before they are treated in hot water. The smaller bulbs and bulblets
become more dormant than the larger ones. Large bulbs are killed by the heat treat-
ment. Planting stock bulbs have been successfully treated but must first be tested
as suggested below.

A test should be made on small samples of bulblets and bulbs 1-2 weeks before
they are to be treated. Using a laboratory water bath or other device to hold con-
stant temperature, soak a handful of bulblets or bulbs wrapped in cheesecloth.for
30 minutes at 1360 F and another handful at 1330 F. Hold them in a moist warm
place at least 5 days, then examine, If the larger bulbs or bulblets from the 136
sample are white and firm,the whole lot may be safely treated, If the base of some
bulbs or bulblets turns brown after treatment at 1360 F and those of 1330 F remain
white and firm, treat the whole lot at 133 F. The latter temperature is effective
against nematodes, Curvularia and Stromatinia.

The standard treatment is a 30-minute soak in water held closely to 136 F
(57.8 C) and stirred or recirculated continuously. Bulblets smaller than 1/4 inch
diameter may be treated at 1380 F (58.90 C). Two important operations are to pre-
soak the bulblets and to cool the hot bulblets immediately. Two days before treat-
ing in hot water, place loose bulblets in vats of water and discard the floaters
which consist mainly of diseased and injured bulblets. Many of the good ones will
also float if they have been dried excessively. Place the good bulblets in mesh
sacks, only two-thirds filled, and soak in vaeer for two days. Soaking time can be
reduced to one day by adding two ounces Triton X-100 per 100 gallons water. Remove
and drain about an hour before heat treatment.

Immediately after the 30-minute soak in hot water, the sacks of bulblets must
be plunged in cold running water or into ice water until cooled. Dry the bulblets
quickly with warm air before placing them in common or cold storage. When forced-
air types of seed dryers are used, bulblets may be dried in the sacks. Usually they
are placed in shallow layers in screen-bottom trays for drying and storing. Bulb-
lets should not be stored in sacks because moisture is trapped and bulblets become
moldy. Bulblets killed by the heat treatment, but not thoroughly dried, become
moldy and sour unless air passes through the bulblet layers freely.

Preparation of Bulbs for Planting

Bulbs should not be planted unless they have been held in cold storage and show
signs of root development before or after removal from storage. The reason for not
planting bulbs which appear to be dormant is that sprouting would be delayed and a:es
ceptibility to soil pests and diseases world be increased. At least three weeks of
storage at 38-42 F helps to break dormancy and makes the bulbs sprout and flower
more uniformly. Summer-harvested bulbs usually are held at least two months in sold
storage.

Planting-stock bulbs seldom develop root swellings in cold storage and any lots
that do not show root "buds" in storage should be removed at least one week before
time to plant. Small, summer-harvested bulbs should be removed about 3 weeks before
planting time. In cool weather, they should be held in a heated building at temper-
atures about 100 F higher than the highest daily temperature. A temperature of 750
to 850 F and relative humidity between 60 and 70 percent are effective in accelerat-
ing root development.





CHART of BULB TREATMENTS


nd of Stock Treatment after Harvest Hot-water Treatment Chemical Din Treatments
1. Bulblets Cure 2 to 3 months at tem- Make test to deter- Soak one hour in Elcide a day or two before planting.
peratures of 70 to 90* F. mine safe tempera- Use 2 pts. of Elcide 73 -per 100 gal water and add 3
ture for treatment, tablespoons ( 1 1/2 oz,) Triton X-100'-"
2. Small planting Cure 2 to 3 months at tem- Make test to deter.- Same dip as for bulblets (above)
stock bulbs dug peratures of 75 to 850 F. mine safe tempera-
in warm weather ture for treatment.
3. Larger bulbs Cure in seed driers or in None Immediately after bulb cleaning and grading, soak 15
harvested care- front of fans. to 30 min tes in 5 lb. captain 75W-- plus 1 pt. para-
___thion EC4--+ t3.qts. lynca-..
fully by hand. thio__________________ __________
4. Machine-harves- Within 1 day after digging Make test as above No further treatment needed before planting except for
ted bulbs, dip or dust bulbs in cape on the smaller diseased lots. Bulb stocks showing signs of Fusarium,
tan. First wash in run- bulbs and treat at Curvularia or Stromatinia diseases should be soaked 30
ning water,if necessary, safe temperature. minutes in Elcide 73, 2 pts. per 100 gal. If bulbs
Use 10% captain dust or, were dusted, soak them for 30 minutes in 1 pt, parathion
preferably, dip in the cap- EC4 per 100 gal., then in the Elcide dip.
tan-parathion-Plyac mixture
listed above. .
5. All other bulbs Cure in seed driers or in None Just before planting, soak 30 minutes in 7 lb. captain
not treated be- front of fans. 75W (or 12 lb.captan 50W) + 1 pt. parathion EC4 per
fore storage. 1_00 gal.
L-. Elcide 73 (Elanco Products of Eli Lilly and Co,) contains 12% Thimerosal in solution. Dip mixture should be made in
clean vat with deep well or city water and nothing elUe added except Triton X-100. Make up a new solution for each day
or follow manufacturer's suggestions regarding enrichment with extra Elcide liquid after the first and second day of use.
/~ Triton X-100 is a penetrating-detergent concentrate made by Rohrn & .ass Co.
i. Captan 75W is a special seed-treating formulation that stays in suspension better than the 50W formulation. Captan dips
may be used for several days, or until dirt and trash accumulate. Make sure captain is stirred entirely off the floor of
the vat each day before use. A pump is used to keep the captain in suspension. Trays or crates to hold bulbs in the dip
are preferable to bags which strain out the captain.
L Parathion emulsifiable concentrate, 4 lb. active ingredient per gal. Do not use the water-base (flowable) parathion con-
centrate. One-half pint of parathion EC8 would be equal to 1 pint of the EC4. Whenever the dip is re-used an additional
day, add another pint of parathion EC4 for each 100 gal. of dip preparation. Follow the manufacturer's directions and
precautions regarding the use of parathion. Monthly blood tests for workmen, starting before contact with chemical, are
advised. Only responsible, trained workmen should be allowed to handle parathion or to work around the dip mixture. To
reduce the hazard of disposing of the parathion dip, stir in 10 Ibs. of hydrated lime per 100 gal, before dumping into
a ditch.
L. Plyac is a polyethylene plastic emulsion which forms a film to hold chemicals on bulbs.




-4-
Roots develop first on the inner bulbs of a tray, where the-humidity is high.
To prevent rapid growth of soft roots, force air through bulb masses continuously.
Examine the inner bulbs every other day. As soon as root swellings abow,l) aerate
the bulbs by pouring into shallow layers, 2) plant them, or 3) return them to cold
storage. The goal is to develop hard root "buds" on most of the bulbs in each lot
before they are planted. Treat the bulbs as recommended on the Bulb Treatment Chart.

Culture o Planting Stock

Small bulbs grown for bulb production are generally planted in one or two rows
per bed with rows running north and south. Depth of planting is 2 1/2 to 3 inches.
The number of bulbs planted per foot df row varies from 30 in a wide furrow to 18
in a narrow furrow. The larger planting stock bulbs are planted more thinly, from
12 to 20 per foot of row.

The soil should be kept moist, but not as moist as for bulblets. The control
of weeds by cultivation alone is about as difficult as with bulblets until the third
month when the plants become strong enough to have soil worked up into the row. The
use of herbicides is recommended under the section on weed control.

In order to check the purity of a variety, or to obtain the percentage of va-
riety admixture, the flower heads are left to open 1 or 2 florets before being re-
moved. To improve the size and quality of bulbs the flower heads are removed while
immature. Two or three mowings are usually required. The cutting bar should remove
as little of the top leaves as possible. Leaving a small percentage of short flowers
to bloom out is preferable to cutting off more than an inch or two of the leaf tips.
In order to reduce the danger of Botrytis infection, the discarded flowers should be
removed from the field and destroyed in the late fall, winter or early spring. Leav-
ing cut flowers in the field is not a disease hazard 4n warm weather unless Curvu-
laria infection is present.

Weed Control

Chemical weed control for gladiolus bulblets planted on old agricultural land
is absolutely essential. Sesone may be safely used on bulblets and planting stock
at the rate of 4.5 lbs. of the 90 percent material per acre of treated area. The
first treatment should be applied immediately following planting or after the beds
are boarded-off. The treatment may be repeated every 4 to 6 weeks as needed.

Dacthal at the rate of 18.5 Ibs. of 75W powder per acre of treated area may be
used for bulblets, planting stock, or bulbs. The first application should be made
immediately following planting or boarding-off. The treatment may be repeated in 8
to 10 weeks.

Diuron is recommended for bulbs of size 4 or larger and should be applied imme-
diately following planting, or after the beds are boarded off, at the rate of 1.25
Ibs. of diuron 80W per acre of treated area. A lay-by application of 1.25 Ibs. of
80W diuron may also be applied when the spikes first appear. If no pre-emergence
treatment is applied, 2.5 Ibs. of 80W diuron may be applied as a lay-by treatment.
Lay-by applications of diuron should be directed to the base of the plant.

Sesone, Dacthal, and diuron are more effective when applied to a moist soil;
therefore these herbicides should be applied immediately following overhead irriga-
tion or a rain. Sufficient water should be applied to wet the upper 3 or 4 inches
of soil. Before any of these herbicides are applied, the field should be freed of
all weeds. The chemicals are effective only against germinating seeds.

These herbicides may be applied with a knapsack sprayer or with a power sprayer,
using not less than 30 gallons of water per acre of treated area and the sprayer pres-
sure should not exceed 70 p.s.i. The spray equipment should be thoroughly cleaned




-4-
Roots develop first on the inner bulbs of a tray, where the-humidity is high.
To prevent rapid growth of soft roots, force air through bulb masses continuously.
Examine the inner bulbs every other day. As soon as root swellings abow,l) aerate
the bulbs by pouring into shallow layers, 2) plant them, or 3) return them to cold
storage. The goal is to develop hard root "buds" on most of the bulbs in each lot
before they are planted. Treat the bulbs as recommended on the Bulb Treatment Chart.

Culture o Planting Stock

Small bulbs grown for bulb production are generally planted in one or two rows
per bed with rows running north and south. Depth of planting is 2 1/2 to 3 inches.
The number of bulbs planted per foot df row varies from 30 in a wide furrow to 18
in a narrow furrow. The larger planting stock bulbs are planted more thinly, from
12 to 20 per foot of row.

The soil should be kept moist, but not as moist as for bulblets. The control
of weeds by cultivation alone is about as difficult as with bulblets until the third
month when the plants become strong enough to have soil worked up into the row. The
use of herbicides is recommended under the section on weed control.

In order to check the purity of a variety, or to obtain the percentage of va-
riety admixture, the flower heads are left to open 1 or 2 florets before being re-
moved. To improve the size and quality of bulbs the flower heads are removed while
immature. Two or three mowings are usually required. The cutting bar should remove
as little of the top leaves as possible. Leaving a small percentage of short flowers
to bloom out is preferable to cutting off more than an inch or two of the leaf tips.
In order to reduce the danger of Botrytis infection, the discarded flowers should be
removed from the field and destroyed in the late fall, winter or early spring. Leav-
ing cut flowers in the field is not a disease hazard 4n warm weather unless Curvu-
laria infection is present.

Weed Control

Chemical weed control for gladiolus bulblets planted on old agricultural land
is absolutely essential. Sesone may be safely used on bulblets and planting stock
at the rate of 4.5 lbs. of the 90 percent material per acre of treated area. The
first treatment should be applied immediately following planting or after the beds
are boarded-off. The treatment may be repeated every 4 to 6 weeks as needed.

Dacthal at the rate of 18.5 Ibs. of 75W powder per acre of treated area may be
used for bulblets, planting stock, or bulbs. The first application should be made
immediately following planting or boarding-off. The treatment may be repeated in 8
to 10 weeks.

Diuron is recommended for bulbs of size 4 or larger and should be applied imme-
diately following planting, or after the beds are boarded off, at the rate of 1.25
Ibs. of diuron 80W per acre of treated area. A lay-by application of 1.25 Ibs. of
80W diuron may also be applied when the spikes first appear. If no pre-emergence
treatment is applied, 2.5 Ibs. of 80W diuron may be applied as a lay-by treatment.
Lay-by applications of diuron should be directed to the base of the plant.

Sesone, Dacthal, and diuron are more effective when applied to a moist soil;
therefore these herbicides should be applied immediately following overhead irriga-
tion or a rain. Sufficient water should be applied to wet the upper 3 or 4 inches
of soil. Before any of these herbicides are applied, the field should be freed of
all weeds. The chemicals are effective only against germinating seeds.

These herbicides may be applied with a knapsack sprayer or with a power sprayer,
using not less than 30 gallons of water per acre of treated area and the sprayer pres-
sure should not exceed 70 p.s.i. The spray equipment should be thoroughly cleaned






with water immediately after herbicides are applied and before the equipment is
used for other purposes.

Frost and Wind Damage

Overhead irrigation equipment should be set up and in working condition for all
plantings subject to frost. Irrigation should be started when the air temperature
(obtained with standard equipment nearground level) reaches 320 F. As the water
freezes on leaves, much latent heat is released. The ice does not protect leaves
from freezing, therefore sprirkliing must be continued until the ice melts from leaves.
The pump should deliver 50 gallons or more per minute for each acre to be protected.
Two tenths of an inch per hour may be enough to protect at temperatures as low as
23-24o F when the air is still. In windy weather more water is required. Most com-
mercial irrigation sprinklers can be adapted to deliver as low as one-tenth per hour
by using smaller nozzles, however, the sprinkler head should revolve at least once
every minute.

At the approach of frosty weather, avoid cultivating the soil; moisten the soil,
preferably by overhead irrigation, and also moisten a 100-foot strip of soil sur-
rounding gladiolus planting. Warming of air by the earth's heat rays is more effec-
tive when soil is moist to the surface. Running water down the rows or in rim dit-
ches during freezing weather is effective in warming the surrounding air.

Wind-blown sand may cut off plants. Wind may also blow the soil off the :ops
of beds, uncovering buiblets and bulbs. Thinly-planted bulblets are especially li-
able to wind blown sand injury during the first two months of growth. The sand may
be held in place by keeping the soil surface moist and by using herbicides to con-
trol weeds without cultivation. Windbreaks around or through bulblet platings are
recommended.

Diseases and Other Disorders of Plants and Bulbs

Gladiolus plants grown from bulblets and planting stock are more often injured
by diseases and insects than the larger plants grown for flowers. The Curvularia
disease made the growing of bulblets a hazardous business in Florida until the hot
water treatment of bulblets was generally practiced. Fungicides recommended in
Mimeo Report 62-4 are generally effective against the common leaf diseases except
for Curvularia, The best and least expensive control programs depend for their suc-
cess on early and correct diagnosis of the trouble and prompt application of the
recommended spray schedule. The following charts are designed to help in the diag-
nosis of most disorders of gladiolus.

CHECK LIST OF SYMPTOMS ON GROWING PLANTS

ABNORMAL APPEARANCE CAUSE OF
OF PLANTS TROUBLE COMMENTS
1. Yellow bands across young Bright sun after Yellow areas usually turn
leaves, often marking daily cool night with green after several days,but
growth, good growing con- occasionally leaf is
editions. "pinched" in at yellow band
and does not recover.
2. Isolated holes in leaves plus Wireworms Vertical row of holes is
underground damage and leaves caused by daily (or success-
cut off at soil surface. Dark ive) feedings on emerging
brown rot or yellow-brown spot- leaf. (Cutworms and small
ting of inner leaves of large chewing larvae seldom damage
plants. Late-season neck rot. leaves below ground). The
very small wireworms cause
neck rot of large plants in
wet weather.






with water immediately after herbicides are applied and before the equipment is
used for other purposes.

Frost and Wind Damage

Overhead irrigation equipment should be set up and in working condition for all
plantings subject to frost. Irrigation should be started when the air temperature
(obtained with standard equipment nearground level) reaches 320 F. As the water
freezes on leaves, much latent heat is released. The ice does not protect leaves
from freezing, therefore sprirkliing must be continued until the ice melts from leaves.
The pump should deliver 50 gallons or more per minute for each acre to be protected.
Two tenths of an inch per hour may be enough to protect at temperatures as low as
23-24o F when the air is still. In windy weather more water is required. Most com-
mercial irrigation sprinklers can be adapted to deliver as low as one-tenth per hour
by using smaller nozzles, however, the sprinkler head should revolve at least once
every minute.

At the approach of frosty weather, avoid cultivating the soil; moisten the soil,
preferably by overhead irrigation, and also moisten a 100-foot strip of soil sur-
rounding gladiolus planting. Warming of air by the earth's heat rays is more effec-
tive when soil is moist to the surface. Running water down the rows or in rim dit-
ches during freezing weather is effective in warming the surrounding air.

Wind-blown sand may cut off plants. Wind may also blow the soil off the :ops
of beds, uncovering buiblets and bulbs. Thinly-planted bulblets are especially li-
able to wind blown sand injury during the first two months of growth. The sand may
be held in place by keeping the soil surface moist and by using herbicides to con-
trol weeds without cultivation. Windbreaks around or through bulblet platings are
recommended.

Diseases and Other Disorders of Plants and Bulbs

Gladiolus plants grown from bulblets and planting stock are more often injured
by diseases and insects than the larger plants grown for flowers. The Curvularia
disease made the growing of bulblets a hazardous business in Florida until the hot
water treatment of bulblets was generally practiced. Fungicides recommended in
Mimeo Report 62-4 are generally effective against the common leaf diseases except
for Curvularia, The best and least expensive control programs depend for their suc-
cess on early and correct diagnosis of the trouble and prompt application of the
recommended spray schedule. The following charts are designed to help in the diag-
nosis of most disorders of gladiolus.

CHECK LIST OF SYMPTOMS ON GROWING PLANTS

ABNORMAL APPEARANCE CAUSE OF
OF PLANTS TROUBLE COMMENTS
1. Yellow bands across young Bright sun after Yellow areas usually turn
leaves, often marking daily cool night with green after several days,but
growth, good growing con- occasionally leaf is
editions. "pinched" in at yellow band
and does not recover.
2. Isolated holes in leaves plus Wireworms Vertical row of holes is
underground damage and leaves caused by daily (or success-
cut off at soil surface. Dark ive) feedings on emerging
brown rot or yellow-brown spot- leaf. (Cutworms and small
ting of inner leaves of large chewing larvae seldom damage
plants. Late-season neck rot. leaves below ground). The
very small wireworms cause
neck rot of large plants in
wet weather.







CHECK LIST OF SYMPTOMS (continued)


ABNORMAL APPEARANCE
AV PLTANC


CAUSE OF
ImoTTTL T?


I OMMPwN


_ j ,fl~v U_ 1 a. i -A I A1


3. Diseasedleaf spots:
A. Brown oval spots on young
leaves; spots enlarge, es-
anecall alonWo d ao


Curvularia
fungus


Note the "black pepper" or
groups of spores near center
of spots. This is a hot
weather dasle-


Numerous round brown spots Botrytis Note gray mEld (spores) on
of all sizes, mostly srmll; fungus dead flowers, on rotted necks
the smallest are visible and on the large leaf spots
only on top side of leaf. (easily seen when wet with
dew). Cool weather disease.
Brown, medium-size spots Septoria Not found in central or
scattered with black, pim- fungus south Florida.
ple-like spore bodies. __ __
Small, reddish brown spots Stemphylium Attacks older leaves of a
surrounded by ring of clear leaf spot few varieties. This is a
(translucent) yellowish tis- fungus warm weather disease.
sue; usually numerous. Plus
large, oval, light brown
spots found on come varieties _____ ___


E. Watersoaked streaks found
between veins.


Bacteria


Rarely found in north or cen-
tral Florida; not yet found
in south Florida. Limited
to small plants bulbletss or
planting stock).


4. Yellow older leaves, and bulbs Pusarium fungus Usually found scattered uni-
or bulblets with soft brown rot, carried in bulbs formly through planting, or
(Top is easily pulled off of or bulblets. more severely in wet areas.
bulb). Does not usually seem to
sp____redd.dfrom bulb to'bflb.
5. Neck rot spreading along row Stromatinia In "clean" soil, infection
of bulblet plants; not spread- (Sclerotinia) comes from bulbs; in "old"
ing much in large plants. Very dry rot fungus gladiolus soil, infection
small, black, pimple-like scle- usually comes from soil.
rotia found in dead tissue.
6. Short spikes from large plants, Stromatinia Infection came from soil.
occasional neck rot, and roots (Sclerotinia) Probably occurs only on "old'!
mostly rotted. Sclerotia seen dry rot fungus, gladiolus soil in cool wea-
in dead roots, their. Condition always worse
in lower and moist areas of
planting.
7. Light green or yellowish fleck- Virus Stocks with much virus dis-
ing (mosaic) on leaves; blotchy diseases ease infection should be dis-
flower petals or flecked with carded or carefully rogued
darker color; or short plants, for at least 2 years at
blooming time.
8. Leaf tip burn and scorch. Many causes includ-
ing: low soil pH;
drying wind +~.dry
soil or poor roots;
fertilizer salts
concentrated in dr3
soil; super-phos-
phate fertilizer
clinging to wet
leaves; and fluo-
rine scorch. _____.







OF PLANTS TROUBLE COMMENTS
9. Silvery scars on leaves and Gladiolus Seen in cool weather, seldom
.flower buds; inactive, small thrips after May in south Florida
butter-jl6low'thrips Inder
leaf folds.
10. Small brown spots on side of Undetermined Does not spread.
leaf where spray and dew col-
lect, and where leaf faces sun
more directly.
*Soil in which gladiolus not previously grown.


CHECK LIST OF SYMPTOMS ON HARVESTED BULBS

ABNORMALITIES CAUSE OF TROUBLE COMMENTS
1. Discolored areas, especially Bruises and cuts Bruises do not significantly
around the base and where bulb reduce value of bulbs unless
is not protected by husk. Un- followed by fungus infection
derlying tissue is often chal- and rotting. However, bruis-
ky. ing of small bulbs may result
in extreme drying and death.
2. Small round scabs that, when Bacterial scab; -Value of bulbd for flower
lifted, leave a smooth, bowl- usually results production not materially re-
shaped depression, where wireworms duced by scab infection.
injured bulbs.
3. Light brown tissue progressing Subburn of'bilbs. Usually seen on bulbs exposed
from rubbery to leathery tex- to summer sun; but may occur
ture. Sometimes covered with just before digging and after
black mold. cleaning off bed top, leaving
1 to 2 inches of dry hot soil
to cover bulbs.
4. Jelly-like rot at base of small Root-knot nematode Jelly-like condition disap-
bulbs, later becoming chalky. pears rapidly after harvest.
5. Cores either rotted out or de- Fusarium, penicil- Commonly seen when bulbs are
pressed ("Doughnut bulbs"). lium and probably dug from wet soil in summer,
other fungi and especially where harvesting
____________ bacteria, was delayed.


6. Firm, tough rot extending into
bulb, usually deeper along
veins. Mostly found around
base or core of bulb; in stor-
age, reducing entire bulb to
stone-like "mummy".


Fusarium brown rot.


There are several kinds of Fu-
sarium infections and symptoms,
The most troublesome kind is
not visible but lies dormant
near core and causes poor
flower production or later
bulb rot.


7. Dark-stained husks, sometimes Stromatinia dry Bulbs usually smaller than
shredded at top; small black rot. others in same lot because
spots or shallow rotted areas tops died early from neck rot.
grouped along the lines of
husk attachment on top and
shoulders of bulb.
8. A soft watery rot which change Botrytis soft rot. Appears only after bulbs have
into a spongy rot. Found in been in cool storage (below
core, in vascular tissues or 55 F) for a few weeks or
in whole bulb; eventually caus. more.
ing light weight, unshriveled
bulb.
9. Dull or dark husks. Delay in digging Often an indication of dis-
mature bulbs from eased or poor bulbs.
moist soil; also
bulb diseases.


-7-


ABNORMAL APPEARANCE


CAUSE OF







ABNORMALITIES CAUSE OF TROUBLE COMMENTS
10. Greenish rot sometimes ex- Penicillium fungus. Seen only in bulbs harvested
tending into core or vascu- in cool moist weather and
lar tissues. cured under poor drying con-
ditions.
11. Bulbs partly or completely Freezing injury Found on outer bulbs of pack-
soft and watery, ages shipped in freezing
___________________weather.
12. Moldy bulbs in storage, Common molds that Soft root sprouts are killed
usually a green mold, grow at higher hu- by the molds but otherwise
midities in cold little damage is done.
storage and where
air movement is
reduced. ________
13. Light-colored, spongy or Physiological break.May occur spontaneously in
chalky pits, shallow or deep down that may be very large bulbs, similar to
in bulb. caused by bruising bitter pit in apple.
and close confine-
ment of bulbs dur-
ing shipping and
storage. ______ _


Special precautions in gladiolus culture are necessary because the plants react
differently than most crops to certain chemicals. These precautions are 1) Avoid
the use of any of the following compounds on gladiolus because they usually burn the
leaves severely: (a) copper fungicides, spray or dust; (b) calcium cyanamide; (c)
pesticides containing fluorine. 2) Avoid spreading superphosphate fertilizer where
the dust may drift onto wet gladiolus leaves. 3) Recommendations developed for
gladiolus culture on sand lands should be used with caution in other soil types and
areas of Florida, Concentrations of chemicals that are safe and effective in light
sandy soils may be injurious or ineffective in heavier soils.
Harvesting

Bulbs are usually dug before the leaves turn yellow, since they are more suscep-
tible to disease infections when left in the soil after the roots or tops die. Max-
imum bulb size is generally attained in 6 to 7 months from bulblets planted in win-
ter. A shorter growing season (5 to 6 months) is sufficient for late spring plant-
ings. Bdlbb maturing in cool weather "size up" rapidly as compared to warm-weather
bulbs. Bulbs from planting stock as well as from bulblets are usually ready to har-
vest 3 weeks after the larger bulblets darken but while the smaller bulblets are
still white. The soil should be allowed to dry during the last 3 weeks.

For best utilization of labor and equipment, harvesting may be started early,
before maximum bulb size is made, or about 5 1/2 months after a winter planting of
bulblets. Nearly maximum bulb size will be obtained if harvest is delayed another
month, but more of the bulblets will be lost by shattering unless special digging
equipment is used. Vibrating sieves or screens that separate bulbs from bulblets
and allow the soil to pass through are valuable in saving bulblets as well as labor.

Potato diggers or specially-designed bulb diggers are used to harvest large
bulbs unless the bulblets are to be saved, in which case hand-labor or the sieves
are used. Turning the bulbs out with a small plow or half sweep and picking them
up by hand reduces bruising and allows most of the bulblets to be saved.

The summer sun scorches bulbs quickly, therefore plow up no more bulbs than can
be picked up in ten minutes and place them in the shade. Harvesting, grading and
cleaning operations cause small bruiaeasand punctures that may result in rotting








even though the injuries may be unnoticed. Slowly cured bulbs are most susceptible
to infections. Captan, as a dust or dip applied within a day after harvesting, con-
trols these infections and protects the bulbs later when they are bruised in the
cleaning and grading operations. Follow the recommendations on the Chart of Bulb
Treatments (page 3).
Curing and Grading Bulbs

Curing is the drying of bulbs after harvest. Prompt curing reduces disease
losses. Optimum conditions for drying bulbs are temperatures of 80 to 900 F and
a relative humidity between 40 and 50 percent. Bulbs can be killed by drying too
rapidly, especially after the second day of curing. The heating of air may be
unnecessary (except at night) in modern forced-air driers. Bulbs can not be cured
well in bulk unless air is forced through them. When cured in stacked trays with
air circulated by afan, bulb layers should be only three bulbs deep.

Quick curing allows cleaning of the bulbs about one week after digging, "Clean-
ing" involves removal of the roots and the "mother" bulb. Large bulbs are cleaned
by hand but only the roots need to be removed from bulblet-grown bulbs. When very
dry, the roots may be broken off by running the bulbs over screens, or over a sha-
ker sieve used in harvesting. If not previously treated, dip or dust bulbs with
captain after the roots or old bulbs are removed (See Chart of Bulb Treatments on
page 3).

Immediately after bulbs are cleaned they are run through grading machines or
sieves and separated into the following sizes:

Jumbo size bulbs are over 2 inches in diameter
No. 1 bulbs are 1 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter
No. 2 bulbs are 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter
No. 3 bulbs are 1 to 1 1/4 inches in diameter
No. 4 bulbs are 3/4 to 1 inch in diameter
No. 5 bulbs are 1/2 to 3/4 inch in diameter
No. 6 bulbs are 3/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter

Planting stocks are No. 4, 5 and 6 bulbs grown from bulblets; flowering stocks are
No. 3 bulbs and larger. Bulbs to be sold are counted either by hand or by mechan-
ical or electronic counters with an endless-belt conveyor. The number of small
bulbs is approximated by applying the average weight per thousand bulbs to the to-
tal weight.

In handling bulbs and bulblets much care must be taken to AVOID MIXING of va-
rieties or mixing of different stocks of the same variety. Carelessness or lack of
supervision at each step of planting, harvesting, curing and storing often results
in variety mixing. One variety or stock should be handled at a time. Bulb trays
and bags should be tight enough to prevent escape of the smallest bulblets into
another package. Labels which are placed inside and outside of each package, as
well as field stakes, should be marked with weather-proof pencils or special water-
proof ink markers.
Bulb Storage

Bulbs and bulblets are generally placed in cold storage to break their dormancy.
Bulbs matured in cool soils (before March in south Florida) have very little dorman-
--y and, if harvesting is delayed, may begin to sprout before digging. Such bulbs
are placed in cold storage to prevent early sprouting and to make them sprout uni-
formly after planting. These bulbs need at least two weeks storage at about 40`
F to make them flower as nearly as possible at the same time. A short flowering
period is desired by flower growers. Cool-weather bulbs should be held at temper-








even though the injuries may be unnoticed. Slowly cured bulbs are most susceptible
to infections. Captan, as a dust or dip applied within a day after harvesting, con-
trols these infections and protects the bulbs later when they are bruised in the
cleaning and grading operations. Follow the recommendations on the Chart of Bulb
Treatments (page 3).
Curing and Grading Bulbs

Curing is the drying of bulbs after harvest. Prompt curing reduces disease
losses. Optimum conditions for drying bulbs are temperatures of 80 to 900 F and
a relative humidity between 40 and 50 percent. Bulbs can be killed by drying too
rapidly, especially after the second day of curing. The heating of air may be
unnecessary (except at night) in modern forced-air driers. Bulbs can not be cured
well in bulk unless air is forced through them. When cured in stacked trays with
air circulated by afan, bulb layers should be only three bulbs deep.

Quick curing allows cleaning of the bulbs about one week after digging, "Clean-
ing" involves removal of the roots and the "mother" bulb. Large bulbs are cleaned
by hand but only the roots need to be removed from bulblet-grown bulbs. When very
dry, the roots may be broken off by running the bulbs over screens, or over a sha-
ker sieve used in harvesting. If not previously treated, dip or dust bulbs with
captain after the roots or old bulbs are removed (See Chart of Bulb Treatments on
page 3).

Immediately after bulbs are cleaned they are run through grading machines or
sieves and separated into the following sizes:

Jumbo size bulbs are over 2 inches in diameter
No. 1 bulbs are 1 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter
No. 2 bulbs are 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter
No. 3 bulbs are 1 to 1 1/4 inches in diameter
No. 4 bulbs are 3/4 to 1 inch in diameter
No. 5 bulbs are 1/2 to 3/4 inch in diameter
No. 6 bulbs are 3/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter

Planting stocks are No. 4, 5 and 6 bulbs grown from bulblets; flowering stocks are
No. 3 bulbs and larger. Bulbs to be sold are counted either by hand or by mechan-
ical or electronic counters with an endless-belt conveyor. The number of small
bulbs is approximated by applying the average weight per thousand bulbs to the to-
tal weight.

In handling bulbs and bulblets much care must be taken to AVOID MIXING of va-
rieties or mixing of different stocks of the same variety. Carelessness or lack of
supervision at each step of planting, harvesting, curing and storing often results
in variety mixing. One variety or stock should be handled at a time. Bulb trays
and bags should be tight enough to prevent escape of the smallest bulblets into
another package. Labels which are placed inside and outside of each package, as
well as field stakes, should be marked with weather-proof pencils or special water-
proof ink markers.
Bulb Storage

Bulbs and bulblets are generally placed in cold storage to break their dormancy.
Bulbs matured in cool soils (before March in south Florida) have very little dorman-
--y and, if harvesting is delayed, may begin to sprout before digging. Such bulbs
are placed in cold storage to prevent early sprouting and to make them sprout uni-
formly after planting. These bulbs need at least two weeks storage at about 40`
F to make them flower as nearly as possible at the same time. A short flowering
period is desired by flower growers. Cool-weather bulbs should be held at temper-





-10-


atures below 45 F and relative humidity below 75 percent to prevent sprouting dur-
ing prolonged storage.

Bulbs and bulblets dug in warm soils (after May 1 in south Florida) develop a
high degree of dormancy and must be held several weeks in cold storage to break dor-
mancy. Cold storage temperatures may be from 36 to 450 F with relative humidity
from 65 to 75 percent. The temperature must be controlled so that little variation
occurs and freezing temperature must be avoided. With temperatures above 450 F and
a humidity below 40 percent, bulbs may be killed by drying. Bulbs dug in warm
weather may be stored temporarily for several weeks at temperatures of 55-650 F
and relative humidity between 60 and 70 percent.

Circulation of air to all parts of the storage room and through all containers
of bulbs or bulblets is very important, because insufficient air movement causes
localized build-up of humidity, resulting in bulb rot, mold and sprouting. Stacks
of bulb trays should be separated by about 2 inches from walls, floor, and other
stacks. Ventilation or occasional renewal of air is also important to prevent ac-
cumulation of respiration by-products of the bulbs, especially of bulbs that are
rotting or sprouting. These gaseous by-products are poisonous to bulbs, predis-
posing them to rotting and physiological breakdowns such as chalky pit. Storage
room doors should be opened for an hour or two once or twice per week, especially
during the first 2 weeks and the last 2 weeks of storage period. Severe crop
losses have occurred due to effects of toxic gases produced by sprouting bulbs in
a closed room when refrigeration failed for several days.

Bulb Yields

About 30 bulbs larger than 1/2 inch in diameter can be dug per foot of row in
a well-managed bulblet planting. With some varieties planted in single rows on 3
foot centers, about 500,000 bulbs are harvested per acre; with double rows, about
1 million bulbs; and from closely planted seedbeds, about 2 million bulbs. The
size of bulbs produced depends mainly on variety, season, and growing conditions.
The number of flowering-size bulbs produced per acre from bulb sizes No. 5 and 6
is about 175,000 for single rows to 350,000 for double-row beds with 3-foot centers.
Marketing of Bulbs

Bulbs may be grown under contract for a sole owner. Those not so grown are
often sold within 4 to 6 weeks after harvest. Flower growers generally prefer to
take delivery as soon as bulbs are cured so that their dormancy may be broken in
time for the bulbs to be most useful in the planting schedule. Cold storage space
on flower farms is seldom available until after early plantings are made in August
and September. If not sold within a few weeks after harvest, bulbs should be
placed in cold storage for fall and winter sales or held in common warehouse stor-
age for spring sales. In either case, moderate but continuous air movement through
the stacks of bulb trays is necessary to retard molding and sprouting. To keep
bulbs from freezing in mid-winter, warehouses should be heated when necessary.

Cured bulbs of size No. 3 and larger may be temporarily stored and then deliv-
ered to the buyer in Bruce boxes, or wooden crates, provided the boxes are stacked
so that air circulates through them. Smaller bulbs and bulblets are held in screen
bottom trays with no more than 3 1/2 inches of bulbs per tray. Insufficient aera-
tion due to deeper layers of small bulbs results in moldy or prematurely-rooted
bulbs.

Bulbs may be sold through bulb brokers or directly to flower growers. Large-
size bulbs are generally sold for late summer, fall and winter plantings, whereas
smaller bulbs are used for spring and early summer plantings. Many of the larger





-10-


atures below 45 F and relative humidity below 75 percent to prevent sprouting dur-
ing prolonged storage.

Bulbs and bulblets dug in warm soils (after May 1 in south Florida) develop a
high degree of dormancy and must be held several weeks in cold storage to break dor-
mancy. Cold storage temperatures may be from 36 to 450 F with relative humidity
from 65 to 75 percent. The temperature must be controlled so that little variation
occurs and freezing temperature must be avoided. With temperatures above 450 F and
a humidity below 40 percent, bulbs may be killed by drying. Bulbs dug in warm
weather may be stored temporarily for several weeks at temperatures of 55-650 F
and relative humidity between 60 and 70 percent.

Circulation of air to all parts of the storage room and through all containers
of bulbs or bulblets is very important, because insufficient air movement causes
localized build-up of humidity, resulting in bulb rot, mold and sprouting. Stacks
of bulb trays should be separated by about 2 inches from walls, floor, and other
stacks. Ventilation or occasional renewal of air is also important to prevent ac-
cumulation of respiration by-products of the bulbs, especially of bulbs that are
rotting or sprouting. These gaseous by-products are poisonous to bulbs, predis-
posing them to rotting and physiological breakdowns such as chalky pit. Storage
room doors should be opened for an hour or two once or twice per week, especially
during the first 2 weeks and the last 2 weeks of storage period. Severe crop
losses have occurred due to effects of toxic gases produced by sprouting bulbs in
a closed room when refrigeration failed for several days.

Bulb Yields

About 30 bulbs larger than 1/2 inch in diameter can be dug per foot of row in
a well-managed bulblet planting. With some varieties planted in single rows on 3
foot centers, about 500,000 bulbs are harvested per acre; with double rows, about
1 million bulbs; and from closely planted seedbeds, about 2 million bulbs. The
size of bulbs produced depends mainly on variety, season, and growing conditions.
The number of flowering-size bulbs produced per acre from bulb sizes No. 5 and 6
is about 175,000 for single rows to 350,000 for double-row beds with 3-foot centers.
Marketing of Bulbs

Bulbs may be grown under contract for a sole owner. Those not so grown are
often sold within 4 to 6 weeks after harvest. Flower growers generally prefer to
take delivery as soon as bulbs are cured so that their dormancy may be broken in
time for the bulbs to be most useful in the planting schedule. Cold storage space
on flower farms is seldom available until after early plantings are made in August
and September. If not sold within a few weeks after harvest, bulbs should be
placed in cold storage for fall and winter sales or held in common warehouse stor-
age for spring sales. In either case, moderate but continuous air movement through
the stacks of bulb trays is necessary to retard molding and sprouting. To keep
bulbs from freezing in mid-winter, warehouses should be heated when necessary.

Cured bulbs of size No. 3 and larger may be temporarily stored and then deliv-
ered to the buyer in Bruce boxes, or wooden crates, provided the boxes are stacked
so that air circulates through them. Smaller bulbs and bulblets are held in screen
bottom trays with no more than 3 1/2 inches of bulbs per tray. Insufficient aera-
tion due to deeper layers of small bulbs results in moldy or prematurely-rooted
bulbs.

Bulbs may be sold through bulb brokers or directly to flower growers. Large-
size bulbs are generally sold for late summer, fall and winter plantings, whereas
smaller bulbs are used for spring and early summer plantings. Many of the larger







-11-


surplus bulbs are packaged to be sold to home gardeners through chain stores.

Information that the grower should furnish with the sale of bulbs includes
1) date and place of harvest; 2) cold storage treatment, if any; 3) variety and
variety mixture, if any; and 4) number and size of bulbs.










































350 copies
June, 1962




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