Soil fumigation procedures

Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Experiment Station - 62-5
Title: Soil preparation for gladiolus bulb production
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067658/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil preparation for gladiolus bulb production
Series Title: Gulf Coast Experiment Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Overman, A. J ( Amegda J )
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1962
Subject: Gladiolus -- Propagation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gladiolus -- Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: A.J. Overman.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067658
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71781706

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Soil fumigation procedures
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Gulf Coast Experiment Station Mimeo Report 62-5

A. J. Overman
Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Bradenton, Fla.

Clean soil is essential to production of quality gladiolus bulbs for the
commercial cut-flower industry. It is the purpose of this report to chart the
procedures by which bulb growers in Florida may insure their crops against loss
by nematodes. aoil-borne diseases and weeds. This information should be co-
ordinated with the seasonal scheduling of operations illustrated in Mimeo Report
62-4 which deals with the handling of bulblets prior to planting.

The hot-water treated bulblets planted by the grower must be set in clean
soil. Though land may be "new" to gladiolus and free of Fusarium and Sclero-
tinia disease fungi, previous crops or the native cover may have contributed
populations of weeds, diseases and nematodes that complicate bulb production.
Soil pests must be eliminated as a problem before planting because there is little
that can help a crop after it has become infected with soil-borne diseases and
nematodes. Even though bulb production may proceed normally during the season,
rootknot nematodes may invade the tissue of the new bulb and be carried through
curing and storage to affect the flower grower's crop the following season.
Therefore, some type of preplanting soil fumigation is generally necessary.

Regardless of whether chemical soil treatment is to be used, growers should
control soil conditions of the field for as long before the planting date as
possible. Certain management practices can preserve the production value of
gladiolus land. Plowing and disking to keep the field clean-fallow for at least
2 months prior to planting starves out many organisms that attack gladiolus.
Moisture should be maintained in the soil during this period to germinate weeds
which are then killed by cultivation. Moisture and cultivation also assist in
rotting old plant debris which harbors many plant pests.

Where soil fumigation is to be used, all handling of the soil should be com-
pleted before time to treat. Drainage, irrigation and roadways should be estab-
lished. Soil amendments should be applied several months before planting time and
seedbed tilth and moisture should be maintained consistently for at least two
weeks before fumigation. At the time the fumigant is applied, fertilizer may be
included as the bed is formed. The bed should not be disturbed after placement
of the fumigant. This is important in order to obtain maximum benefit from the

At the time that the need for fumigating the soil is established, growers
must make several decisions: (1) which pests must be controlled; (2) which
chemical to use; (3) which planting pattern is to be used for the crop, since
the placement of the chemical depends on how gladiolus are to be planted and
(4) which method of application is suitable, Choice can be made from the
following recommendations:

,., ** -'' '
;Ir i'
Pis "Pi

Soil Fumigation Procedures



r _A j -1


n0 A

3 Ibs.
per 100
sq. ft.

MLh.forud *

Gas released
under plastic


48 hours


control of
pests. Short

_ _ i- I-



75 gal.
per acre

1 1/2 pt.
per 100
ft. fur-

4- --

Broadcast as
a drench in
1-5 dilution
followed by
1/4 inch over-
head irrigation.,
Injected in
bands 6 inches
apart 5 inches
below finished

Injected in
single band
5 inches
below plan-
ned crop row.
Soil compacted.

2 weeks
in warm,
dry weath-
er; 3 week
in cold,
wet weath-

S-- S--- S; S-- -

300 Ibs.
per acre

Broadcast and
rototilled to
depth of 6
inches follow-
ed by 1/4 inch

_ l___ .7

3/4 lb.
per 100
ft. fur-

Single band
in planned
crop row 6
inches be-
low surface
of compacted

Same as

control of
pests. Less
than methyl

as granular
material for
easy handling.
In hot weath-
er more de-
pendable than
Vapam. Spec-
ial equipment
available but
not required
for applicat-

Broadcast as Short waiting
Fungi, Allyl 25 gal. a drench in period. Leaves
7eeds alcohol per acre 1-200 dilut- 3 days no toxic re-
ion. sides in soil
Injected in 10 days
Ethylene bands 12 in warm,
Nematodes dibromide 6 gal. inches apart dry wea- Low in cost.
(EDB/W-85) per acre 8 inches be- their; 3 Excellent
low compact- weeks in nematode
ed soil sur- wet, cold control.
___face. weather.
* The benefits derived from Vapam, Mylone and EDB should be insured in warm weather by
daily overhead irrigation with 1/8 inch water for the first 3 days following soil
treatment. Weed control with Vapam and Mylone can be improved by covering the soil
for 5 days with a plastic sheet.


ontrolled- .Material ea

-- ------- --- --- '


------~~--. -

For Bulblets

On previously
n.rnfnAd I dA

On newly
ceI13Pt lan"A

On previously
ronnre l nd

On newly
cleared land

UDisaLvantages p ___
hazardous to handle.
cannot be used at
temperatures be-
ow 500 F. Expensive
because hand labor
s required unless Yes
special equipment
s available to
ay plastic

control of soil
moisture and
ompaction is
critical to pre-
ent premature
scape of gases
rom the soil.
n hot weather
difficult to
obtain maximum

requires moisture
to fumigate. Not
effective in
excessively dry


Does not kill
!Hazardous to Yes Yes
handle; it is
a lacrimator.

gowth of Yes Yes Yes

For Bulbs

nj _-J..-_ ^d

Since so many factors influence the results obtained with any fumigant a table of
precautions to be observed.during preparation of'the soil. for treating
and planting is included for the growers convenience-

__X __

--- --- Lj t I J

CiUM ,

S--I /l /

^-u --,

i i i i

'. .


1. By one or a combination of the following opera-
tions keep populations of soil pests as low as
possible between gladiolus crops:
(1) clean cultivation, (2) crop rotation,
(3) alternate flooding and drying.
2. Recognize the pests which must be controlled
(fungi, nematodes, weeds).

3. Choose the proper fumigant for the job.

4. Prepare soil in advance so old plant debris will
be well rotted at treatment time.

5. Add fertilizers and soil conditioners before or
at the same time as the fumigant.

6. Maintain a good soil moisture for at least 2
weeks prior to treatment,

7. Test the soil temperature at a 4 inch depth to
be sure it is above 600 F.
8. Choose the proper method of application.

9. Use recommended rates of fumigants for the
method of application to be used.

10. Observe proper waiting period before planting.

11. Plant disease and nematode-free bulblets and

12. Retain the treated soil volume during and after



- -- ---

1, Do destroy plants after harvest, Do remove Do not expect these short term cul-
infected plant parts from the field where tural operations to replace fumiga-
practical. tion.

2. Do consult your County Agent, State Bureau Do not assume that abandoning "old"
of Plant Industry or Experiment Stations land infested with nematodes or dis-
for diagnosis of problems, ease organisms to weeds for several
seasons eliminates the problem.
3. Do base choice on pests to be controlled, Do not expect elimination of soil
cost related to crop value, method of appli- pests with present day fumigants,
cation and equipment available. Do consid- rather an economic degree of tempo-
er desirability of controlling as many pests rary control. Do not repeatedly use
as possible in one operation: ie., money a material which permits accumula-
invested in nematode control can be lost if tion in soil of phytotoxic residues,
crop is destroyed by Stromatinia disease. ____
4, Do establish uniform porosity to 8-10 inch Do not expect fumigant to penetrate
depth to permit uniform passage of fumigant deeply into masses of unrotted plant
vapors through soil. debris.
5. Do complete all operations except planting Do not mulch area with untreated ma-
by time of treating, trials after initial treatment. Do
not combine fumigants with other
6. Do wet to surface to encourage germination Do not water-log the soil.
of weed seed,spores, sclerotia, and hatch-
ing of nematode eggs.
7. Do not fumigate when soil is below
600 F.
8. Do use in-the-row for widely spaced crops. Do not treat in-the-row shallower
Do use broadcast for bulblets. than 5 inches or deeper than 8 in-
Do use drenches where feasible when maxi- ches.
mum control of disease organisms and weeds
are essential.
9. Do insure maximum benefit of dose by employ- Do not increase recommended dosage
ing a water seal, with compaction or plastic expecting double benefits; toxic res-
cover. dues may Inlure crop.
10. Do increase waiting period if soil is con- Do not plant as long as odor of chem-
sistently below 650 F., or if excessive ical remains in soil. Do not till
rainfall follows treatment. Do check soil soil to dissipate fumigant vapors,
for odor of chemical before planting. _
11. Do dip diseased and nematode-infested Do not contaminate treated area at
stocks, planting with plant containers, con-
rtaminated tools or workers' feetetc.
12. Do recognize boundaries of zone of con- Do not mix untreated soil into treat-
trol so that recontamination can be held ed soil by breaking up beds or cul-
to minimum, tivating deeply.
Do plant over injection point. Do press a Do not plant between 2 lines of fum-
bulb furrow in the bed and press bed back igant. Do not throw untreated soil
together to cover bulbs. on top of the bed.
Do construct beds at time of treatment. Do not expect maximum control if
Sbeds are constructed after treatment.

250 copies
Jan. 1962

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs