• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Preparation of bulblets for...
 Soil preparation and wireworm...
 Methods of planting
 Drainage and irrigation
 Sanitation
 Fertilization
 Weed control
 Spraying






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Experiment Station - 62-4
Title: Gladiolus bulblet culture
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067657/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gladiolus bulblet culture
Series Title: Gulf Coast Experiment Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Magie, R. O ( Robert Ogden ), 1906-
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Overman, A. J ( Amegda J )
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Gladiolus -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gladiolus -- Propagation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Magie, W.E. Waters and A.J. Overman.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "Jan. 1962"--Leaf 6.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067657
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71781592

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Preparation of bulblets for planting
        Page 1
    Soil preparation and wireworm control
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Methods of planting
        Page 3
    Drainage and irrigation
        Page 4
    Sanitation
        Page 4
    Fertilization
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Weed control
        Page 6
    Spraying
        Page 6
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Gulf Coast Experiment Station Mimeo Report 62-4


Gladiolus Bulblet Culture

R. 0. Magie, W. E. Waters and A. J. Overman


This report was prepared to guide new growers in the planting and growing of
gladiolus bulblets in Florida. A more complete guide to bulb production is being
prepared for publication; and information on harvesting, curing and other bulb
handling practices will be available before harvest time.

One purpose of this report is to acquaint new growers with the seasonal cycle
of operations involved in growing bulbs. A chart showing the coordinated steps in
handling bulblets and field soil is illustrated on the next page.


Preparation of bulblets for planting ,--

Bulblets which are dried after the hot-water treatment are held for 3 or 4
months at about 400 F to break dormancy; then they may be placed in a warm room
for 2 or 3 weeks before planting to condition the bulblets to sprout promptly.
Care must be taken to allow movement of air through the bulblets which are held
in screen-bottom trays. A temperatures of 800 E and a relative humidity of 80
percent are very effective in accelerating development of root swellings and sprouts.
Smaller bulblets seldom show root swellings, but when they show on larger bulblets
the smaller ones of same lot are also ready to plant.

About five days before planting time, place bulblets in mesh sacks or burlap
bags and soak in cool water for 2 or 3 days. A water-resistant label is put inside
the bag and another is attached to the outside of each bag for identification. Af-
ter draining overnight, bulblets should be soaked one hour in two pints of Elcide
73 per 100 gallons water plus 1 1/2 ounces (3 tablespoons) Triton X-100 and drained
overnight before planting.

The Elcide solution must be made in a clean tank not previously used for other
solutions. Use well or city water, not surface water, and make up a fresh solution
for each day's use. Bulblets not treated in hot water should have one pint emulsi-
fiable parathion (4E) added per 100 gallons of dip in order to control rootknot ne-
matodes carried in the bulblets. All precautions listed by the manufacturer includ-
ing the wearing of rubber gloves and aprons should be observed in handling parathion
and the treated bulbs.

Instead of placing bulblets in a warm room for several weeks, some growers keep
them moist, but well aerated, until roots begin to appear. Bulblets may be held
in bags or trays, in shallow layers, and sprinkled daily. Examine every other day
for signs of sprouting; have soil ready to plant. Bulblets are then treated with
Elcide and planted immediately. If five percent or more of the larger bulblets
show root swellings, they should not be held wet for more than a few days.


Soil preparation and wireworm control

The control of soil-borne diseases and nematodes by cultu iacti and soil
fumigation is given in Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 62-5. .

One of the most important cultural practices in planting A A ul$blkb s is
wireworm control. Although wireworms are seldom seen attack bulbs, ro6tiad
leaves, their chewing scars are often seen in unprotected pl n gs. Bulbtplant-
ings are damaged severely because wireworms cut off leaves be w found cause





Gulf Coast Experiment Station Mimeo Report 62-4


Gladiolus Bulblet Culture

R. 0. Magie, W. E. Waters and A. J. Overman


This report was prepared to guide new growers in the planting and growing of
gladiolus bulblets in Florida. A more complete guide to bulb production is being
prepared for publication; and information on harvesting, curing and other bulb
handling practices will be available before harvest time.

One purpose of this report is to acquaint new growers with the seasonal cycle
of operations involved in growing bulbs. A chart showing the coordinated steps in
handling bulblets and field soil is illustrated on the next page.


Preparation of bulblets for planting ,--

Bulblets which are dried after the hot-water treatment are held for 3 or 4
months at about 400 F to break dormancy; then they may be placed in a warm room
for 2 or 3 weeks before planting to condition the bulblets to sprout promptly.
Care must be taken to allow movement of air through the bulblets which are held
in screen-bottom trays. A temperatures of 800 E and a relative humidity of 80
percent are very effective in accelerating development of root swellings and sprouts.
Smaller bulblets seldom show root swellings, but when they show on larger bulblets
the smaller ones of same lot are also ready to plant.

About five days before planting time, place bulblets in mesh sacks or burlap
bags and soak in cool water for 2 or 3 days. A water-resistant label is put inside
the bag and another is attached to the outside of each bag for identification. Af-
ter draining overnight, bulblets should be soaked one hour in two pints of Elcide
73 per 100 gallons water plus 1 1/2 ounces (3 tablespoons) Triton X-100 and drained
overnight before planting.

The Elcide solution must be made in a clean tank not previously used for other
solutions. Use well or city water, not surface water, and make up a fresh solution
for each day's use. Bulblets not treated in hot water should have one pint emulsi-
fiable parathion (4E) added per 100 gallons of dip in order to control rootknot ne-
matodes carried in the bulblets. All precautions listed by the manufacturer includ-
ing the wearing of rubber gloves and aprons should be observed in handling parathion
and the treated bulbs.

Instead of placing bulblets in a warm room for several weeks, some growers keep
them moist, but well aerated, until roots begin to appear. Bulblets may be held
in bags or trays, in shallow layers, and sprinkled daily. Examine every other day
for signs of sprouting; have soil ready to plant. Bulblets are then treated with
Elcide and planted immediately. If five percent or more of the larger bulblets
show root swellings, they should not be held wet for more than a few days.


Soil preparation and wireworm control

The control of soil-borne diseases and nematodes by cultu iacti and soil
fumigation is given in Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 62-5. .

One of the most important cultural practices in planting A A ul$blkb s is
wireworm control. Although wireworms are seldom seen attack bulbs, ro6tiad
leaves, their chewing scars are often seen in unprotected pl n gs. Bulbtplant-
ings are damaged severely because wireworms cut off leaves be w found cause







STEPS IN BULBLET PRODUCTION


( ((


Z/ 2 weeks


HOT WATER
treated
136 F


Captan
DIPPED
v. ^-i


CLEANED




CURED
1 week


o\


6 months


PLANTED
^ C-. ^T.-3T?.


2-4


-a-

CLEAN-FALLOW for
2 months before planting

^PD SOIL MOIST\for
-- ''\ 2 weeks before
-' fumigation

4 months
\ Y


FUMIGATED 2 weeks
before planting


INCUBATED ,a



2-4 weeks






Tr- SOAKED
f 2-3 days



DIPPED I
2 ho-ars







scabby bulbs which may be difficult to sell. Good wireworm control is obtained
by incorporating in the soil before planting a fertilizer containing chlordane
at a concentration to give 8 pounds of actual chlordane per acre. Another good
control is 10 percent parathion granules poured over bulbs or bulbleta just be-
fore the furrow is covered. When placed in the coil parathion frequently stim-
ulates gladiolus growth in an undetermined manner. One pound of granules is
used in 200 feet of row. One acre of double row beds (36 inch centers) requires
145 pounds of the ten percent granules.

Pre-planting fumigation of soil has not controlled wireworms for the duration
of the crop season, New infeetations of small wireworms are very damaging, Re-
sidual-type insecticides ouch as chlordane mixed in the soil before planting, a-
long with the foliar sprays of DDT and parathion applied to the crop have given
protection throughout the crop season,


Methods of planting

Bulblets are generally planted as a field crop although some growers plant in
specially prepared beds. For field culture, one, two or three rows are planted
per bed. High beds are not desirable unless drainage is poor. Rows should be
run north and south, so that both sides receive full sun, and spaced 8 to 12 in-
ches apart on beds. Fu:rows must be made in moist soil just before planting.

Bulblets may be spread out in a wide, flat furrow (3 to 4 inches) in new land
and in fumigated soil. A narrower furrow may be used where close cultivation is
necessary to control weeds. Usually bulb planters or modified onion-set planters
are used. Bulblets should be covered with about three inches of soil which is
thsn leveled and compressed with a board so that bulblets have a final covering
of two to two and one-half inches of soil.

Where it is difficult to keep the soil surface moist, bulblets may be covered
with about 5 inches of soil. Before sprouts have grown an inch, the beds should
be "boarded-off", leaving bulblets with about two inches of soil cover.

About 120 small bulblets (1/4 inch diameter) or 60 large ones (over 3/8 inch)
can be planted per lineal foot of 3-inch-wide furrows. About 2 quarts of large
bulblets are needed per 100 feet; or 18 bushels per acre of double row beds on
3-foot centers. Only 8 to 12 bushels of small bulblets are needed for a similar
planting. The number of bulblets per foot of row is increased in proportion to
the percentage of dead bulblets found in a peeled sample.

Good germination of bulblets depends on keeping the bed moist for several
weeks after planting. Overhead irrigation should be applied as frequently as
necessary to prevent drying of the soil surface; or a high water table can be
held by seep ditches and tile. The soil surface is generally not cultivated ex-
cept to control weeds. Soil is swept to the base of larger gladiolus plants
in order to kill weeds, but plants from bulblets would be pushed over by such
cultivation. Chemical or hand weeding is therefore necessary on weedy soils.

A less expensive way to grow bulblets is to plant rows closely in wide beds
on fumigated soil, This intensive culture reduces costs of controlling nematodes,
weeds and diseases; also costs of fertilizer and labor may be reduced. By plant-
ing rows 8 to 10 inches apart on beds 4 feet wide, 20,000 to 25,000 can be produced
in 100 lineal feet of bed. Short rows should be made across the bed if weeds are
to be controlled by hand. If soil is fumigated to control weeds, rows should be
parallel to the bed. In either case, orient the rows north to south. Extra care
must be given to fertilization and control of water where close culture is used.








Drainage and irrigation

Gladiolus require good aeration of soil and uniform moisture conditions for
maximum growth. With seep irrigation the water table should be held at a uniform
level a3 far as possible. This level ranges from about 12 inches for bulblets to
18 inches for flowering stock. Good soil drainage is necessary to remove excessive
rainfall before roots are damaged.

Overhead irrigation is applied as necessary to maintain a good soil moisture.
It is also applied to seep-irrigated soils during prolonged dry periods in order
to avoid dangerous accumulations of soluble salts in the soil surface. These salts
kill roots when washed down by the first rainfall.

The appearance of gladiolus leaves is not a good guide as to when sprinklers
should be turned on. Other plants which wilt readily may be planted in various
locations among the gladiolus plants to serve as indicator plants. Enough water
should be applied at each sprinkling to wet the soil thoroughly without causing
puddling or saturation.

Overhead irrigation is applied before late afternoon so that leaves will dry
quickly. Prolonged periods of wetting provide favorable conditions for disease
spread. Pesticide sprays should be applied after irrigating and only when plants
are dry. To be safe, irrigate the day before spraying.


Sanitation

The application of sanitary measures helps to avoid introduction or spread of
some important disease, weed and nematode pests. The cost of practicing sanita-
tion is generally minor compared to benefits obtained. Growing only bulblets
treated in hot water and avoiding the introduction of untreated bulblets or plant-
ing stocks rate as primary factors in sanitation. Also important is the destruc-
tion of diseased stocks through elimination of disease by roguing. Stocks showing
more than one percent of virus-infected plants should not be used for propagation.
If the percentage of infected plants is low and if roguing is done both before and
during the flowering period, the stock can usually be cleaned.up'in'2or 3 years.
Healthy "mother-block" stocks should be isolated and maintained carefully,

All refuse from cleaning and sorting of bulbs should be destroyed by burning
or deep burial. Before re-using trays or bags in which bulbs were stored, soak
them for 10 minutes in a solution of 4 pounds of Dowicide B per 100 gallons of
water or in a solution of 1 gallon of commercial formaldehyde in 20 gallons of
water. Cover with plastic or keep wet until the odor of formaldehbde'is gone.

Bulblets to be planted in fumigated soil should not be contaminated with soil
or refuse. Machinery and tools must be cleaned and sterilized by dipping or spray-
ing with the formaldehyde solution mentioned above, so that untreated soil is not
carried to treated beds. Sieves and graders should be sterilized between bulb lots.
After soaking bulblets in plain water, treat them promptly with Elcide 73, unless
they are to be hot-water treated.


Fertilization

Limjing.--The optimum soil pH for gladiolus is in the acid range of 5.5 to 6.5.
Slowly soluble sources of lime such as dolomite or high calcic lime should be ap-
plied at least three months in advance of planting. If the soil is low in magne-
sium, dolomite should be applied. Where fast reaction is desired hydrated lime
may be used. In soils with a desirable pH, but a low calcium level, gypsum may be








Drainage and irrigation

Gladiolus require good aeration of soil and uniform moisture conditions for
maximum growth. With seep irrigation the water table should be held at a uniform
level a3 far as possible. This level ranges from about 12 inches for bulblets to
18 inches for flowering stock. Good soil drainage is necessary to remove excessive
rainfall before roots are damaged.

Overhead irrigation is applied as necessary to maintain a good soil moisture.
It is also applied to seep-irrigated soils during prolonged dry periods in order
to avoid dangerous accumulations of soluble salts in the soil surface. These salts
kill roots when washed down by the first rainfall.

The appearance of gladiolus leaves is not a good guide as to when sprinklers
should be turned on. Other plants which wilt readily may be planted in various
locations among the gladiolus plants to serve as indicator plants. Enough water
should be applied at each sprinkling to wet the soil thoroughly without causing
puddling or saturation.

Overhead irrigation is applied before late afternoon so that leaves will dry
quickly. Prolonged periods of wetting provide favorable conditions for disease
spread. Pesticide sprays should be applied after irrigating and only when plants
are dry. To be safe, irrigate the day before spraying.


Sanitation

The application of sanitary measures helps to avoid introduction or spread of
some important disease, weed and nematode pests. The cost of practicing sanita-
tion is generally minor compared to benefits obtained. Growing only bulblets
treated in hot water and avoiding the introduction of untreated bulblets or plant-
ing stocks rate as primary factors in sanitation. Also important is the destruc-
tion of diseased stocks through elimination of disease by roguing. Stocks showing
more than one percent of virus-infected plants should not be used for propagation.
If the percentage of infected plants is low and if roguing is done both before and
during the flowering period, the stock can usually be cleaned.up'in'2or 3 years.
Healthy "mother-block" stocks should be isolated and maintained carefully,

All refuse from cleaning and sorting of bulbs should be destroyed by burning
or deep burial. Before re-using trays or bags in which bulbs were stored, soak
them for 10 minutes in a solution of 4 pounds of Dowicide B per 100 gallons of
water or in a solution of 1 gallon of commercial formaldehyde in 20 gallons of
water. Cover with plastic or keep wet until the odor of formaldehbde'is gone.

Bulblets to be planted in fumigated soil should not be contaminated with soil
or refuse. Machinery and tools must be cleaned and sterilized by dipping or spray-
ing with the formaldehyde solution mentioned above, so that untreated soil is not
carried to treated beds. Sieves and graders should be sterilized between bulb lots.
After soaking bulblets in plain water, treat them promptly with Elcide 73, unless
they are to be hot-water treated.


Fertilization

Limjing.--The optimum soil pH for gladiolus is in the acid range of 5.5 to 6.5.
Slowly soluble sources of lime such as dolomite or high calcic lime should be ap-
plied at least three months in advance of planting. If the soil is low in magne-
sium, dolomite should be applied. Where fast reaction is desired hydrated lime
may be used. In soils with a desirable pH, but a low calcium level, gypsum may be








Drainage and irrigation

Gladiolus require good aeration of soil and uniform moisture conditions for
maximum growth. With seep irrigation the water table should be held at a uniform
level a3 far as possible. This level ranges from about 12 inches for bulblets to
18 inches for flowering stock. Good soil drainage is necessary to remove excessive
rainfall before roots are damaged.

Overhead irrigation is applied as necessary to maintain a good soil moisture.
It is also applied to seep-irrigated soils during prolonged dry periods in order
to avoid dangerous accumulations of soluble salts in the soil surface. These salts
kill roots when washed down by the first rainfall.

The appearance of gladiolus leaves is not a good guide as to when sprinklers
should be turned on. Other plants which wilt readily may be planted in various
locations among the gladiolus plants to serve as indicator plants. Enough water
should be applied at each sprinkling to wet the soil thoroughly without causing
puddling or saturation.

Overhead irrigation is applied before late afternoon so that leaves will dry
quickly. Prolonged periods of wetting provide favorable conditions for disease
spread. Pesticide sprays should be applied after irrigating and only when plants
are dry. To be safe, irrigate the day before spraying.


Sanitation

The application of sanitary measures helps to avoid introduction or spread of
some important disease, weed and nematode pests. The cost of practicing sanita-
tion is generally minor compared to benefits obtained. Growing only bulblets
treated in hot water and avoiding the introduction of untreated bulblets or plant-
ing stocks rate as primary factors in sanitation. Also important is the destruc-
tion of diseased stocks through elimination of disease by roguing. Stocks showing
more than one percent of virus-infected plants should not be used for propagation.
If the percentage of infected plants is low and if roguing is done both before and
during the flowering period, the stock can usually be cleaned.up'in'2or 3 years.
Healthy "mother-block" stocks should be isolated and maintained carefully,

All refuse from cleaning and sorting of bulbs should be destroyed by burning
or deep burial. Before re-using trays or bags in which bulbs were stored, soak
them for 10 minutes in a solution of 4 pounds of Dowicide B per 100 gallons of
water or in a solution of 1 gallon of commercial formaldehyde in 20 gallons of
water. Cover with plastic or keep wet until the odor of formaldehbde'is gone.

Bulblets to be planted in fumigated soil should not be contaminated with soil
or refuse. Machinery and tools must be cleaned and sterilized by dipping or spray-
ing with the formaldehyde solution mentioned above, so that untreated soil is not
carried to treated beds. Sieves and graders should be sterilized between bulb lots.
After soaking bulblets in plain water, treat them promptly with Elcide 73, unless
they are to be hot-water treated.


Fertilization

Limjing.--The optimum soil pH for gladiolus is in the acid range of 5.5 to 6.5.
Slowly soluble sources of lime such as dolomite or high calcic lime should be ap-
plied at least three months in advance of planting. If the soil is low in magne-
sium, dolomite should be applied. Where fast reaction is desired hydrated lime
may be used. In soils with a desirable pH, but a low calcium level, gypsum may be





-5-


used. A soil test is recommended well in advance of planting to determine the spe-
cific lime needs of each field. These tests are available through the County Agri-
cultural Agent's office.

The fertilization program for gladiolus depends upon several factors, includ-
ing bulb size, variety, soil type and rainfall. Planting stocks and bulblets re-
quire more fertilizer than large flowering bulbs. Bulbs have a much larger stored
reserve of nutrients and develop more extensive root systems than bulblets. Varie-
ties also differ in their response to fertilization. More fertilizer is required
in light sandy soils than on heavier loamy soils. Heavy rains leach much of the
applied fertilizer from sandy soil; therefore frequent applications of moderate a-
mounts of fertilizer are desirable.

Tests on hulblets indicate that 250 to 350 pounds of a mixed fertilizer per
1000 feet of bed with 2 to 3 rows per bed is necessary during the growing season.
The fertilizer is supplied in about 6 equal applications. The first application
should be mixed with the beds prior to planting. The remaining application may
be applied about every 3 weeks and after heavy rains (2 inches or more). The amount
of fertilizer needed will depend to some extent on the number of bulblets planted
per acre. During the first part of the growing season an 8-8-8 fertilizer may be
used, whereas during the last half of the season the nitrogen content of the fer-
tilizer should be decreased. Either a 4-8-8 or 6-8-8 is recommended. Generous
nitrogen fertilization produces large bulbs from bulblets; however, the trade con-
siders them less desirable for flower production than large bulbs grown more slowly
from planting stock. Excessive nitrogen fertilization also increases the severity
of Fusarium bulb rot.

The secondary elements most likely to be needed for gladiolus planting on sandy
soils are boron, iron and copper. Sufficient quantities of zinc and manganese are
usually included in fungicidal sprays. Boron deficiency occurs most often in bulb-
lets and planting stocks. The deficiency appears as a horizontal cracking of the
leaves beginning at the margins and extending inward toward the midrib and as a '**r
blunt curving leaf tip. In some varieties the upper portion of the new leaves, in-
cluding the apex, may become translucent and the veins grow together. For soils
low in boron, the fertilizer should contain 0.2 percent B203. If boron deficiency
occurs, spray the crop 3 or 4 times at one or two week intervals with 1.5 Ibs. of
borax or its equivalent per 100 gallons water per acre. Borax may be added to the
regular pesticide spray. The total boron applied per season should not exceed 15
to 20 lbs. of borax per acre.

Iron deficiency usually results from a combination of factors including high
soil pH and the accumulation of copper and phosphates in the soil. Iron deficiency
appears at first as a yellowing between the veins of new leaves. In severe cases
the new leaves may be completely yellow. Control measures include liming old land
high in copper to pH 6.0 to 6.5 and including 20 to 30 pounds of chelated iron con-
centrate per ton of fertilizer. If iron deficiency occurs, the crop may be side-
dressed immediately with 20 pounds of chelated iron concentrate per acre and sprayed
several times at 5 day intervals with 1 pound of iron oxalate per 100 gallons of
water.

Copper deficiency may occur on new sand land. The deficiency is manifest by
abnormal wilting of the leaves. New sand land to be planted in gladiolus requires
approximately 20 pounds of copper sulfate broadcast per acre. Larger amounts will
be necessary on heavier soil types. If a deficiency develops after planting, the
crop may be sidedressed with 8 to 10 Ibs. of copper sulfate per acre.







Weed Control

Chemical weed control for gladiolus bulblets planted on old agricultural land
is economically advisable. Sesone may be safely used on bulblets at the rate of
4.5 lbs. of 90 percent material per acre of treated area. The first treatment
should be applied immediately following planting or after the beds are boarded-off.
The treatment may be repeated every 4 to 6 weeks as needed. Before each herbicide
application the fields should be freed of all weeds. Sesone is effective only a-
gainst germinating seeds.

Sesone is more effective on moist soil; therefore it should be applied immedi-
ately following overhead irrigation or a rain. Sufficient water should be applied
to wet the top 3 or 4 inches of soil.

The herbicide may be applied with a knapsack sprayer or with a power sprayer
and should be applied in not less than 30 gallons of water per acre of treated
area. The sprayer pressure should not exceed 70 p.s.i. It is important to clean
the spray equipment thoroughly with water immediately after the herbicide is applied
and before the equipment is used for other purposes.


Spraying

Spraying or dusting is necessary to control chewing larvae. At the first sign
of insect damage, spray the leaves with 2 pounds of DDT 50WP plus 1 pound parathion
15WP per 100 gallons. Weekly applications may be necessary in warm weather. Toxa-
phene 40WP at 6 pounds per 100 gallons is more effective than DDT against the lar-
ger "worms" or larvae but is not as safe as DDT on young, tender foliage.

In small plantings, the wettable powders may be applied as dusts, provided a mo-
torized knapsacK duster is available with the proper adjustment for mixing air
with powder. Apply dusts just before dew formation. Two dusting may be as ef-
fective in insect control as one spraying.

Whenever a leaf spot disease (caused by Botrytis, Curvularia or Stemphylium
fungi) appears, begin weekly spraying (not dusting) with 2 pounds maneb 65WP (Pi-
thane M-22 or Manzate) per 100 gallons. Because of the danger of leaf injury by
maneb if the spray does not dry before nightfall, use zineb (Dithane or Parzate)
at the same rate if leaves are wet or must be sprayed late in the day. An insec-
ticide may be mixed with maneb or zineb. Bacterial leaf spot may cause damage in
wet weather and is not controlled with maneb or zineb. Use a streptomycin spray
without copper (sulfate or nitrate formulation) at 200 ppm at weekly intervals un-
til disease is controlled.

Precautions in handling pesticides are necessary to avoid the hazard of poison-
ing. Read the manufacturers' labels and follow directions carefully.








Jan. 1962
250 copies







Weed Control

Chemical weed control for gladiolus bulblets planted on old agricultural land
is economically advisable. Sesone may be safely used on bulblets at the rate of
4.5 lbs. of 90 percent material per acre of treated area. The first treatment
should be applied immediately following planting or after the beds are boarded-off.
The treatment may be repeated every 4 to 6 weeks as needed. Before each herbicide
application the fields should be freed of all weeds. Sesone is effective only a-
gainst germinating seeds.

Sesone is more effective on moist soil; therefore it should be applied immedi-
ately following overhead irrigation or a rain. Sufficient water should be applied
to wet the top 3 or 4 inches of soil.

The herbicide may be applied with a knapsack sprayer or with a power sprayer
and should be applied in not less than 30 gallons of water per acre of treated
area. The sprayer pressure should not exceed 70 p.s.i. It is important to clean
the spray equipment thoroughly with water immediately after the herbicide is applied
and before the equipment is used for other purposes.


Spraying

Spraying or dusting is necessary to control chewing larvae. At the first sign
of insect damage, spray the leaves with 2 pounds of DDT 50WP plus 1 pound parathion
15WP per 100 gallons. Weekly applications may be necessary in warm weather. Toxa-
phene 40WP at 6 pounds per 100 gallons is more effective than DDT against the lar-
ger "worms" or larvae but is not as safe as DDT on young, tender foliage.

In small plantings, the wettable powders may be applied as dusts, provided a mo-
torized knapsacK duster is available with the proper adjustment for mixing air
with powder. Apply dusts just before dew formation. Two dusting may be as ef-
fective in insect control as one spraying.

Whenever a leaf spot disease (caused by Botrytis, Curvularia or Stemphylium
fungi) appears, begin weekly spraying (not dusting) with 2 pounds maneb 65WP (Pi-
thane M-22 or Manzate) per 100 gallons. Because of the danger of leaf injury by
maneb if the spray does not dry before nightfall, use zineb (Dithane or Parzate)
at the same rate if leaves are wet or must be sprayed late in the day. An insec-
ticide may be mixed with maneb or zineb. Bacterial leaf spot may cause damage in
wet weather and is not controlled with maneb or zineb. Use a streptomycin spray
without copper (sulfate or nitrate formulation) at 200 ppm at weekly intervals un-
til disease is controlled.

Precautions in handling pesticides are necessary to avoid the hazard of poison-
ing. Read the manufacturers' labels and follow directions carefully.








Jan. 1962
250 copies




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