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 Symptoms
 Cause of the disease
 Conditions favoring disease...
 Control recommendations






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station - 60-1
Title: Yellow strapleaf disease of chrysanthemums
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067651/00001
 Material Information
Title: Yellow strapleaf disease of chrysanthemums discussion and control recommendations
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Woltz, S. S
Jackson, Curtis R
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1960
 Subjects
Subject: Chrysanthemums -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Chrysanthemums -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.S. Woltz and C.R. Jackson.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067651
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71517289

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Symptoms
        Page 1
    Cause of the disease
        Page 1
    Conditions favoring disease development
        Page 1
    Control recommendations
        Page 2
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 60-1

YELLOW STRAPLEAF DISEASE OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS
Discussion and Control Recommendations

S. S. Woltz and C. R..Jackeon


The yellow strapleaf disease has continued to appear in flower and
stock plantings during the Summer. It may be expected to show up in Fall plant-
ings since it is usually associated with high soil temperatures. The fill6wing
interim report has been prepared to advise growers of the information gathered
from numerous observations and to suggest measures which may afford some con-
trol of the disease. The information in this report is based on observations
of the results of growers' tests and Station experiments carried out in small
field plots, greenhouse, and in commercial plantings on the west coast of
Florida.


SYMPTOMS


During warm weather the disease usually appears one or two weeks after
the pinch. The new foliage of the "breaks" usually becomes yellow or ivory in
color, narrow, and incurved. The time of onset and severity of symptoms varies
greatly. New buds may fail to develop for 2-3 weeks after the pinch or buds may
develop normally for 2-4 weeks before showing symptoms. No other disease is suf-
ficiently similar to be confused with yellow strapleaf (YSL). When plants re-
cover from the disease the strap-shaped leaves become green but do not grow to
normal size or shape. If recovery occurs soon after the plants become diseased,
flowers will be normal, but a delay in recovery of 4-6 weeks may affect the qual-
ity of the flowers. Cuttings taken from diseased plants grow normally but root
more slowly than healthy cuttings. About 15-20 varieties have been observed with
the disease, however, Blue Chip, Shasta, Iceberg, and White Top are most commonly
affected.


CAUSE OF THE DISEASE


The cause of the disease is not known but has been tentat ,r ed to
soil microbiological conditions.


t9 ^onjzj
CONDITIONS FAVORING DISEASE DEVELOPMENT '9 1959


The disease is usually found in the slightly lower, wet r'prts a
planting. Although the low areas of a bed may have only slightly 'on
than surrounding areas, water from frequent rains or overhead irrigate on tends
to collect in the low parts of the bed. The maintenance of a seep-water level
that is optimum or slightly high for the majority of beds may saturate the root-
zone soil in the low areas. The association of the disease with high moisture-
poor aeration soil conditions has been very consistent on the west coast of
Florida. In potted greenhouse plants growing in field soil taken from around
diseased plants, the disease has developed only when plastic pots were used and
the soil was kept very wet. While the disease has not developed in plants in
clay pots, the nature of the pot apparently is important only in its influence
on the moisture content and aeration of the soil.







Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 60-1

YELLOW STRAPLEAF DISEASE OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS
Discussion and Control Recommendations

S. S. Woltz and C. R..Jackeon


The yellow strapleaf disease has continued to appear in flower and
stock plantings during the Summer. It may be expected to show up in Fall plant-
ings since it is usually associated with high soil temperatures. The fill6wing
interim report has been prepared to advise growers of the information gathered
from numerous observations and to suggest measures which may afford some con-
trol of the disease. The information in this report is based on observations
of the results of growers' tests and Station experiments carried out in small
field plots, greenhouse, and in commercial plantings on the west coast of
Florida.


SYMPTOMS


During warm weather the disease usually appears one or two weeks after
the pinch. The new foliage of the "breaks" usually becomes yellow or ivory in
color, narrow, and incurved. The time of onset and severity of symptoms varies
greatly. New buds may fail to develop for 2-3 weeks after the pinch or buds may
develop normally for 2-4 weeks before showing symptoms. No other disease is suf-
ficiently similar to be confused with yellow strapleaf (YSL). When plants re-
cover from the disease the strap-shaped leaves become green but do not grow to
normal size or shape. If recovery occurs soon after the plants become diseased,
flowers will be normal, but a delay in recovery of 4-6 weeks may affect the qual-
ity of the flowers. Cuttings taken from diseased plants grow normally but root
more slowly than healthy cuttings. About 15-20 varieties have been observed with
the disease, however, Blue Chip, Shasta, Iceberg, and White Top are most commonly
affected.


CAUSE OF THE DISEASE


The cause of the disease is not known but has been tentat ,r ed to
soil microbiological conditions.


t9 ^onjzj
CONDITIONS FAVORING DISEASE DEVELOPMENT '9 1959


The disease is usually found in the slightly lower, wet r'prts a
planting. Although the low areas of a bed may have only slightly 'on
than surrounding areas, water from frequent rains or overhead irrigate on tends
to collect in the low parts of the bed. The maintenance of a seep-water level
that is optimum or slightly high for the majority of beds may saturate the root-
zone soil in the low areas. The association of the disease with high moisture-
poor aeration soil conditions has been very consistent on the west coast of
Florida. In potted greenhouse plants growing in field soil taken from around
diseased plants, the disease has developed only when plastic pots were used and
the soil was kept very wet. While the disease has not developed in plants in
clay pots, the nature of the pot apparently is important only in its influence
on the moisture content and aeration of the soil.







Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 60-1

YELLOW STRAPLEAF DISEASE OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS
Discussion and Control Recommendations

S. S. Woltz and C. R..Jackeon


The yellow strapleaf disease has continued to appear in flower and
stock plantings during the Summer. It may be expected to show up in Fall plant-
ings since it is usually associated with high soil temperatures. The fill6wing
interim report has been prepared to advise growers of the information gathered
from numerous observations and to suggest measures which may afford some con-
trol of the disease. The information in this report is based on observations
of the results of growers' tests and Station experiments carried out in small
field plots, greenhouse, and in commercial plantings on the west coast of
Florida.


SYMPTOMS


During warm weather the disease usually appears one or two weeks after
the pinch. The new foliage of the "breaks" usually becomes yellow or ivory in
color, narrow, and incurved. The time of onset and severity of symptoms varies
greatly. New buds may fail to develop for 2-3 weeks after the pinch or buds may
develop normally for 2-4 weeks before showing symptoms. No other disease is suf-
ficiently similar to be confused with yellow strapleaf (YSL). When plants re-
cover from the disease the strap-shaped leaves become green but do not grow to
normal size or shape. If recovery occurs soon after the plants become diseased,
flowers will be normal, but a delay in recovery of 4-6 weeks may affect the qual-
ity of the flowers. Cuttings taken from diseased plants grow normally but root
more slowly than healthy cuttings. About 15-20 varieties have been observed with
the disease, however, Blue Chip, Shasta, Iceberg, and White Top are most commonly
affected.


CAUSE OF THE DISEASE


The cause of the disease is not known but has been tentat ,r ed to
soil microbiological conditions.


t9 ^onjzj
CONDITIONS FAVORING DISEASE DEVELOPMENT '9 1959


The disease is usually found in the slightly lower, wet r'prts a
planting. Although the low areas of a bed may have only slightly 'on
than surrounding areas, water from frequent rains or overhead irrigate on tends
to collect in the low parts of the bed. The maintenance of a seep-water level
that is optimum or slightly high for the majority of beds may saturate the root-
zone soil in the low areas. The association of the disease with high moisture-
poor aeration soil conditions has been very consistent on the west coast of
Florida. In potted greenhouse plants growing in field soil taken from around
diseased plants, the disease has developed only when plastic pots were used and
the soil was kept very wet. While the disease has not developed in plants in
clay pots, the nature of the pot apparently is important only in its influence
on the moisture content and aeration of the soil.









The results of one test using small blocks of diseased Blue Chip with a
soil pH of about 6.5, suggested that practices, such as liming, that tend to in-
crease soil pH may result in increased disease severity. The effects of increas-
ing the pH may depend on the original pH of the soil as well as the amount of in-
crease.

The influence of nutrition on the development of the disease is not com-
pletely known. In small field plots at the Station five fertilizers were applied
at two rates. Only 46 percent as many plants became diseasedat the high applica-
tion rates as were affected at the low rates. Considerably fewer plants were af-
fected in treatments involving the weekly application of a soluble 20-20-20 fer-
tilizer containing trace elements including chelated iron.

There is evidence that iron applied to the soil as ferrous sulphate re-
duced the severity of the disease. The effect is believed to be indirect rather
than the correction of a simple iron deficiency. Its effectiveness may be due
in part to a lowering of soil pH. Analyses of tissues of diseased and healthy
plants of the same varieties and cultural history have shown that the nutrient
content of YSL plants is approximately the same as healthy plants.


CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS


The most effective control procedure at present involves lifting the
plant root ball and replanting in the same location. This has been best accom-
plished by lifting as much of the root ball as can be held in both hands. This
assumes that the plants are small (3-5 weeks) and that care will be taken af-
ter lifting to prevent excessive wilting. Lifting plants results in soil aera-
tion and slight root pruning, both of which are believed to be important features
of this procedure. Benefit has been-obtained from the use of a dry application
of ferrous sulfate at the rate of 3/4 lb. per 100 sq. ft. of bed, subsequently
watered in with 15 gal. water. The use of iron nutritional sprays at time of
lifting has not been fully evaluated but may be of some value; foliar sprays alone
have not given control of the disease.

Preventive measures include any steps to insure best soil drainage and
aeration and avoid high soil pH. There are also indications that use of large
amounts of organic nitrogen should be avoided.




250 copies
August 21, 1959




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