• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Fusarium disease
 Recommendations for treating large...
 Recommendations of treating small...
 Cautions to use with parathion
 Care of corms dug in cold...
 Tests on removing husks and cutting...
 Spraying to control curvularia...
 Soil treatment






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station - 59-2
Title: Gladiolus disease research
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067650/00001
 Material Information
Title: Gladiolus disease research discussion and recommendations
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 5 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Magie, R. O ( Robert Ogden ), 1906-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Magie.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "Nov. 14, 1958"--Leaf 5.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067650
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71443031

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Fusarium disease
        Page 1
    Recommendations for treating large corms
        Page 1
    Recommendations of treating small corms before planting
        Page 2
    Cautions to use with parathion
        Page 2
    Care of corms dug in cold weather
        Page 3
    Tests on removing husks and cutting corms in "half"
        Page 3
    Spraying to control curvularia on flowers
        Page 3
    Soil treatment
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






GULF COAST STATION MIMEO REPORT 59-2


\ADIOLUS DISEASE RESEARCH: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

oR. 0. Magie

S /'is is a report on the past year's research on gladiolus disease control.
RTe hC n controlling the Fusarium disease showed again that peeling off the corm
W{i creases flower production and that Elcide is outstanding as a corm dip fun-
gicide. Good results were secured again with parathion added to the corm dip. Two
new methods of controlling Botrytis bud rot were investigated; 1) spraying with anti-
biotic and systemic fungicides and 2) spraying with eradicative fungicides to sup-
press spore production. The second method is discussed and recommendations are made.
Although antibiotic sprays and flower dips helped to control bud rot, they were not
effective on all varieties.

Commercial flower production was greatly reduced after the freeze of De-
cember 13, 1957, not only by cold weather and repeated frosts, but also by the worst
epidemic of Botrytis bud rot on record, Some growers cut less than 20 percent of a
normal crop from December 13 through March. Several hundred acres of flowering
stock were frozen so badly that the corms were not harvested. About 20 percent of
the corms from over 1200 acres rotted in cold storage from Botrytis infection.

Fusarium Disease

Fusarium disease has continued to reduce flower production, not so much
by rotting the corms, but mostly by weakening the plants and reducing the number
and size of spikes. The disease has increased considerably in Spic and Span in the
past two years, reducing yields so much that most old stocks of this variety should
be replaced with new stocks from hot water-treated cormels. Elizabeth the Queen
could be grown profitably again in our opinion if cormels from virus stunt-free
stocks wore hot-water treated,

A commercial operation of building up relatively healthy stocks of Corona
and Leading Lady from hot water-treated cormels has been underway for two years and
appears to be successful. The heat treatments have not eliminated Fusarium but the
corms are vigorous, productive and fairly healthy where the corms and cormels were
grown in soil that had not been planted previously with gladiolus. The cormels from
these stocks will be hot-water treated each summer for 2 or 3 years to learn whether
the stocks can be gradually improved and if Corona can be grown profitably on soils
that are Fusarium infested.

The best corm-treatment chemical from the standpoint of both disease con-
trol and flower production was Elcide 70, a 6 percent liquid formulation of thimer-
osal recommended for trial last year. Elcide will not be available on the market
this year. The manufacturers, Eli Lilly & Company, will not be able to obtain a
lebel to sell Elcide as a corm dip fungicide until they have statements from growers
that Elcide was used successfully. They are supplying test samples of Elcide gratis
through one or more pesticide retailers in Florida so that growers may test it this
fall.

Corms may be dipped in Elcide one or more days before planting. For a
15-minute dip use 4 pints per 100 gallons; for 30 to 60 minute dip use 3 pints
per 100 gallons. Add 2 oz. or 4 tablespoons Triton X-100 per 100 gallons or 1 cup
per 400 gallons.


Recommendations for Treating Large Corms

Until Elcide is available, growers have the following corm treatment pro-
grams from which to choose. Each of the programs, listed below has been outstanding






GULF COAST STATION MIMEO REPORT 59-2


\ADIOLUS DISEASE RESEARCH: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

oR. 0. Magie

S /'is is a report on the past year's research on gladiolus disease control.
RTe hC n controlling the Fusarium disease showed again that peeling off the corm
W{i creases flower production and that Elcide is outstanding as a corm dip fun-
gicide. Good results were secured again with parathion added to the corm dip. Two
new methods of controlling Botrytis bud rot were investigated; 1) spraying with anti-
biotic and systemic fungicides and 2) spraying with eradicative fungicides to sup-
press spore production. The second method is discussed and recommendations are made.
Although antibiotic sprays and flower dips helped to control bud rot, they were not
effective on all varieties.

Commercial flower production was greatly reduced after the freeze of De-
cember 13, 1957, not only by cold weather and repeated frosts, but also by the worst
epidemic of Botrytis bud rot on record, Some growers cut less than 20 percent of a
normal crop from December 13 through March. Several hundred acres of flowering
stock were frozen so badly that the corms were not harvested. About 20 percent of
the corms from over 1200 acres rotted in cold storage from Botrytis infection.

Fusarium Disease

Fusarium disease has continued to reduce flower production, not so much
by rotting the corms, but mostly by weakening the plants and reducing the number
and size of spikes. The disease has increased considerably in Spic and Span in the
past two years, reducing yields so much that most old stocks of this variety should
be replaced with new stocks from hot water-treated cormels. Elizabeth the Queen
could be grown profitably again in our opinion if cormels from virus stunt-free
stocks wore hot-water treated,

A commercial operation of building up relatively healthy stocks of Corona
and Leading Lady from hot water-treated cormels has been underway for two years and
appears to be successful. The heat treatments have not eliminated Fusarium but the
corms are vigorous, productive and fairly healthy where the corms and cormels were
grown in soil that had not been planted previously with gladiolus. The cormels from
these stocks will be hot-water treated each summer for 2 or 3 years to learn whether
the stocks can be gradually improved and if Corona can be grown profitably on soils
that are Fusarium infested.

The best corm-treatment chemical from the standpoint of both disease con-
trol and flower production was Elcide 70, a 6 percent liquid formulation of thimer-
osal recommended for trial last year. Elcide will not be available on the market
this year. The manufacturers, Eli Lilly & Company, will not be able to obtain a
lebel to sell Elcide as a corm dip fungicide until they have statements from growers
that Elcide was used successfully. They are supplying test samples of Elcide gratis
through one or more pesticide retailers in Florida so that growers may test it this
fall.

Corms may be dipped in Elcide one or more days before planting. For a
15-minute dip use 4 pints per 100 gallons; for 30 to 60 minute dip use 3 pints
per 100 gallons. Add 2 oz. or 4 tablespoons Triton X-100 per 100 gallons or 1 cup
per 400 gallons.


Recommendations for Treating Large Corms

Until Elcide is available, growers have the following corm treatment pro-
grams from which to choose. Each of the programs, listed below has been outstanding









in flower production with June Bells, Valeria, Picardy, Spotlight and Morning Kiss.

1) Remove mother corms or "clean" the corms as they are dug. Within 48
hours, dip for 10 minutes in Dowicide B, 2 ibs. to 100 gallons. (If the weather
is cool, use 3 lbs.; if hot, use 1 1/2 lbs.) Corms cleaned and treated after dig-
ging are easier to cure and may be put in cold storage two or three weeks after
digging. Before planting, dip the corms for 15 to 30 minutes in captain 50W, 12
lbs. to-100 gal. plus 1 pint emulsifiable parathion (1 gal, equals 4 lbs. of in-
secticide). The captain dip must be stirred.

2) Dust corms immediately after cleaning with a mixture containing equal
parts by weight of captain 50W, wettable Spergon, Arasan, and 10 percent DDT. If
the Arasan (Thylate) is irritating or harmful to the workers, omit it and in its
place use Spergon or 10 percent DDT. Pyrophyllite (the common dust diluent) may
be substituted for DDT dust. Just before planting, dip for 15 minutes in N.I.Cere-
san 1-100 plus 1 pint emulsifiable parathion. Half of the usual concentration of
Ceresan is used so that the dip can be lengthened to 10-15 minutes to make the par-
athion more effective. Do not use N.I.Ceresan on rough, scabby corms.

3) Within a day after grading the corms, dip them for 15 minutes in Dowi-
cide B, 4 Ibs. to 100 gal. (More or less, according to temperature.) Dry the corms
before placing in storage. Before planting, dip in captain plus parathion as above.

4) After storage, dip corms for 15 minutes in Dowicide B, 5 Ibs. to 100
gallons. In hot weather use 4 Ibs. to 100 gal. Add 2 oz. Triton X-100.

Treatments before storage and again before planting (as in the first
three programs) are recommended over the single treatments on old corm stocks.
If corms have long or soft roots, treat them with captain.

Ceresan M is believed to be more effective than N.I.Ceresan, Dowicide B,
or captain against Curvularia (dark sunken spots) and Stromatinia "dry rot" (black
scab). A 15-minute preplanting dip in 1 lb. Ceresan M per 100 gal. is recommended
in the control of these diseases. Ceresan M is also effective against Fusarium.
Ceresan M is not soluble and, like captain, must be stirred for best results.

Recommendations for Treating Small Corms Before Planting

The standard 15 minute dip in N.I.Ceresan, 2 lbs. to 100 gal. plus 1 pt.
emulsifiable parathion is recommended for small corms and cormels. N.I.Ceresan is
harmful to corms if they are scabby. Treat scabby and rough corms in captain 50W,
12 lbs. to 100 gals. plus the parathion, or dust them with the mixture given above.

Cautions to Use With Parathion

Parathion-treated corms are safe to handle if they are held two days be-
fore planting. (Ceresan-treated corms should be planted the same day they are
treated).

Any one who works with parathion must understand the danger and the pre-
cautions to take. Those who handle it over a period of weeks should observe the
following:

1) Get a cholinesterase test from the Poison Control Center at your medi-
cal center as often as the physician recommends.









in flower production with June Bells, Valeria, Picardy, Spotlight and Morning Kiss.

1) Remove mother corms or "clean" the corms as they are dug. Within 48
hours, dip for 10 minutes in Dowicide B, 2 ibs. to 100 gallons. (If the weather
is cool, use 3 lbs.; if hot, use 1 1/2 lbs.) Corms cleaned and treated after dig-
ging are easier to cure and may be put in cold storage two or three weeks after
digging. Before planting, dip the corms for 15 to 30 minutes in captain 50W, 12
lbs. to-100 gal. plus 1 pint emulsifiable parathion (1 gal, equals 4 lbs. of in-
secticide). The captain dip must be stirred.

2) Dust corms immediately after cleaning with a mixture containing equal
parts by weight of captain 50W, wettable Spergon, Arasan, and 10 percent DDT. If
the Arasan (Thylate) is irritating or harmful to the workers, omit it and in its
place use Spergon or 10 percent DDT. Pyrophyllite (the common dust diluent) may
be substituted for DDT dust. Just before planting, dip for 15 minutes in N.I.Cere-
san 1-100 plus 1 pint emulsifiable parathion. Half of the usual concentration of
Ceresan is used so that the dip can be lengthened to 10-15 minutes to make the par-
athion more effective. Do not use N.I.Ceresan on rough, scabby corms.

3) Within a day after grading the corms, dip them for 15 minutes in Dowi-
cide B, 4 Ibs. to 100 gal. (More or less, according to temperature.) Dry the corms
before placing in storage. Before planting, dip in captain plus parathion as above.

4) After storage, dip corms for 15 minutes in Dowicide B, 5 Ibs. to 100
gallons. In hot weather use 4 Ibs. to 100 gal. Add 2 oz. Triton X-100.

Treatments before storage and again before planting (as in the first
three programs) are recommended over the single treatments on old corm stocks.
If corms have long or soft roots, treat them with captain.

Ceresan M is believed to be more effective than N.I.Ceresan, Dowicide B,
or captain against Curvularia (dark sunken spots) and Stromatinia "dry rot" (black
scab). A 15-minute preplanting dip in 1 lb. Ceresan M per 100 gal. is recommended
in the control of these diseases. Ceresan M is also effective against Fusarium.
Ceresan M is not soluble and, like captain, must be stirred for best results.

Recommendations for Treating Small Corms Before Planting

The standard 15 minute dip in N.I.Ceresan, 2 lbs. to 100 gal. plus 1 pt.
emulsifiable parathion is recommended for small corms and cormels. N.I.Ceresan is
harmful to corms if they are scabby. Treat scabby and rough corms in captain 50W,
12 lbs. to 100 gals. plus the parathion, or dust them with the mixture given above.

Cautions to Use With Parathion

Parathion-treated corms are safe to handle if they are held two days be-
fore planting. (Ceresan-treated corms should be planted the same day they are
treated).

Any one who works with parathion must understand the danger and the pre-
cautions to take. Those who handle it over a period of weeks should observe the
following:

1) Get a cholinesterase test from the Poison Control Center at your medi-
cal center as often as the physician recommends.






-3-


2) Wear rubber gloves, boots, goggles, and rubber apron to avoid unneces-
sary contact.

3) Do not smoke, chew or eat while working with parathion.

4) Wash hands carefully with soap and running water after working with
parathion. Change clothes and bathe as soon as possible. Wear clean clothes each
day because parathion residue on clothing may be absorbed by your skin.

5) Some people are especially sensitive to parathion and similar insecti-
cides and should not work with these insecticides or near them.

Care of Corms Dug in Cold Weather

Corms matured in cool soil have very little dormancy and often begin to
sprout before they are dug. Corms of old stocks that have lost one or more sets of
roots often are not worth planting. In order to help the curing of jumbo corms dug
in cool weather and avoid root growth in the trays before cleaning, clean the corms
as they are dug and dip them for 10 minutes in Dowicide B, 3 lbs. to 100 gals. Use
only 2 lbs. if day-time temperatures are over 700 F. and 1 1/2 lbs. if temperatures
are over 800 F. Fill the trays only one-third or 2 corms deep until corms are cured
and ready for grading and storage. If artificial heat is not available, use fans
to help the curing process.

Tests on Removing Husks and Cutting Corms in "Half"

For the third year results of tests on peeling corms were outstanding.
Halving the husked bulbs and planting them in the same length of furrow used for
the uncut bulbs resulted in many more flowers. An average increase in flower pro-
duction of 100 percent over whole unpeeled corms was obtained for the three varie-
ties: June Bells, Valeria, and Picardy. The increase for peeling alone was about
45 percent. No recommendations on peeling or cutting corms will be made until tests
are carried out on growers' farms. Last year's cooperative tests were ruined by
freezes.

Spraying to Control Curvularia on Flowers

We do not have a fungicide that is specific against Curvularia leaf and
flower spot. When the weather is warm and moist, the disease spreads in spite of
the usual weekly spraying. It is more important to spray when the plants are be-
ginning to spike and when there are Curvularia infections on the leaves. Then, it
is necessary to spray two or three times weekly with maneb. If rain or dew is apt
to keep the freshly sprayed plants wet for several hours, use zineb in place of maneb.

In growing cormels and small planting stock, regular spraying is recommend-
ed to prevent development of the disease. Spray twice a week, once with maneb 2 to
100 and once with zineb 2 to 100. After the disease begins to spread, spray three
times a week with maneb. Add 2 ounces of Triton B-1956 per 100 gals.

Spraying to Control Botrytis on Flowers

Bud rot is impossible to control with protective sprays such as zineb when
Botrytis spores are being washed into the tight buds. It is necessary to prevent Bo-
trytis infections of the leaves so that spores will not be produced in abundance.
Generally, it is not difficult to protect leaves by spraying every five days with zi-
peb. But after leaves are injured by frost or other cause, the usual sprays will not
prevent the Botrytis fungus from growing in the dead tissue.






-3-


2) Wear rubber gloves, boots, goggles, and rubber apron to avoid unneces-
sary contact.

3) Do not smoke, chew or eat while working with parathion.

4) Wash hands carefully with soap and running water after working with
parathion. Change clothes and bathe as soon as possible. Wear clean clothes each
day because parathion residue on clothing may be absorbed by your skin.

5) Some people are especially sensitive to parathion and similar insecti-
cides and should not work with these insecticides or near them.

Care of Corms Dug in Cold Weather

Corms matured in cool soil have very little dormancy and often begin to
sprout before they are dug. Corms of old stocks that have lost one or more sets of
roots often are not worth planting. In order to help the curing of jumbo corms dug
in cool weather and avoid root growth in the trays before cleaning, clean the corms
as they are dug and dip them for 10 minutes in Dowicide B, 3 lbs. to 100 gals. Use
only 2 lbs. if day-time temperatures are over 700 F. and 1 1/2 lbs. if temperatures
are over 800 F. Fill the trays only one-third or 2 corms deep until corms are cured
and ready for grading and storage. If artificial heat is not available, use fans
to help the curing process.

Tests on Removing Husks and Cutting Corms in "Half"

For the third year results of tests on peeling corms were outstanding.
Halving the husked bulbs and planting them in the same length of furrow used for
the uncut bulbs resulted in many more flowers. An average increase in flower pro-
duction of 100 percent over whole unpeeled corms was obtained for the three varie-
ties: June Bells, Valeria, and Picardy. The increase for peeling alone was about
45 percent. No recommendations on peeling or cutting corms will be made until tests
are carried out on growers' farms. Last year's cooperative tests were ruined by
freezes.

Spraying to Control Curvularia on Flowers

We do not have a fungicide that is specific against Curvularia leaf and
flower spot. When the weather is warm and moist, the disease spreads in spite of
the usual weekly spraying. It is more important to spray when the plants are be-
ginning to spike and when there are Curvularia infections on the leaves. Then, it
is necessary to spray two or three times weekly with maneb. If rain or dew is apt
to keep the freshly sprayed plants wet for several hours, use zineb in place of maneb.

In growing cormels and small planting stock, regular spraying is recommend-
ed to prevent development of the disease. Spray twice a week, once with maneb 2 to
100 and once with zineb 2 to 100. After the disease begins to spread, spray three
times a week with maneb. Add 2 ounces of Triton B-1956 per 100 gals.

Spraying to Control Botrytis on Flowers

Bud rot is impossible to control with protective sprays such as zineb when
Botrytis spores are being washed into the tight buds. It is necessary to prevent Bo-
trytis infections of the leaves so that spores will not be produced in abundance.
Generally, it is not difficult to protect leaves by spraying every five days with zi-
peb. But after leaves are injured by frost or other cause, the usual sprays will not
prevent the Botrytis fungus from growing in the dead tissue.






-3-


2) Wear rubber gloves, boots, goggles, and rubber apron to avoid unneces-
sary contact.

3) Do not smoke, chew or eat while working with parathion.

4) Wash hands carefully with soap and running water after working with
parathion. Change clothes and bathe as soon as possible. Wear clean clothes each
day because parathion residue on clothing may be absorbed by your skin.

5) Some people are especially sensitive to parathion and similar insecti-
cides and should not work with these insecticides or near them.

Care of Corms Dug in Cold Weather

Corms matured in cool soil have very little dormancy and often begin to
sprout before they are dug. Corms of old stocks that have lost one or more sets of
roots often are not worth planting. In order to help the curing of jumbo corms dug
in cool weather and avoid root growth in the trays before cleaning, clean the corms
as they are dug and dip them for 10 minutes in Dowicide B, 3 lbs. to 100 gals. Use
only 2 lbs. if day-time temperatures are over 700 F. and 1 1/2 lbs. if temperatures
are over 800 F. Fill the trays only one-third or 2 corms deep until corms are cured
and ready for grading and storage. If artificial heat is not available, use fans
to help the curing process.

Tests on Removing Husks and Cutting Corms in "Half"

For the third year results of tests on peeling corms were outstanding.
Halving the husked bulbs and planting them in the same length of furrow used for
the uncut bulbs resulted in many more flowers. An average increase in flower pro-
duction of 100 percent over whole unpeeled corms was obtained for the three varie-
ties: June Bells, Valeria, and Picardy. The increase for peeling alone was about
45 percent. No recommendations on peeling or cutting corms will be made until tests
are carried out on growers' farms. Last year's cooperative tests were ruined by
freezes.

Spraying to Control Curvularia on Flowers

We do not have a fungicide that is specific against Curvularia leaf and
flower spot. When the weather is warm and moist, the disease spreads in spite of
the usual weekly spraying. It is more important to spray when the plants are be-
ginning to spike and when there are Curvularia infections on the leaves. Then, it
is necessary to spray two or three times weekly with maneb. If rain or dew is apt
to keep the freshly sprayed plants wet for several hours, use zineb in place of maneb.

In growing cormels and small planting stock, regular spraying is recommend-
ed to prevent development of the disease. Spray twice a week, once with maneb 2 to
100 and once with zineb 2 to 100. After the disease begins to spread, spray three
times a week with maneb. Add 2 ounces of Triton B-1956 per 100 gals.

Spraying to Control Botrytis on Flowers

Bud rot is impossible to control with protective sprays such as zineb when
Botrytis spores are being washed into the tight buds. It is necessary to prevent Bo-
trytis infections of the leaves so that spores will not be produced in abundance.
Generally, it is not difficult to protect leaves by spraying every five days with zi-
peb. But after leaves are injured by frost or other cause, the usual sprays will not
prevent the Botrytis fungus from growing in the dead tissue.







Several sprays, including maneb (Manzate and Dithane M-22) and CM-19
(Guardian Chemical Co., Long Island City), were found to be effective in killing
out infections in the dead leaves and in reducing Botrytis sporulation. It is
recommended, therefore, that the usual spraying of zineb at five-day intervals be
started about December 1. Immediately after leaves are frozen or damaged in any
way, spray heavily twice each week, first with maneb at 2 to 100, then in 3 or 4
days with CM-19 at 2 pints per 100 gallons. The leaves and spikes may be injured
by maneb unless the plants dry off before night. In cool, moist weather use zineb
or CM-19 on plants in spike. Add 1 1/2 oz. or 3 tablespoons Triton X-100 per 100
gallons.

If Botrytis infections become established and gray mold is found on dead
leaves or on neck-rotted plants, increase the spray concentrations to 3 to 100 for
maneb and 3 pints to 100 for CM 19. These higher concentrations should be used
only in cut-over fields and plantings that were frozen. Maneb and CM-19 are more
effective in eradicating infections if sprays are applied when the dead tissues are
dry late in the day so they will remain wet with the spray over night. This proced-
ure is not recommended on young or blooming plants because of a possible leaf burn.
Use a low-pressure, drenching spray and double-spray, if necessary, to thoroughly
wet the gray-molded leaves and necks. In warm weather, reduce the concentration of
CM-19 to 1 pint per 100 gallons to avoid possible plant injury.

Soil Treatment

In-the-row fumigation with Mylone and Vapam, recommended last year for con-
trolling Stromatinia root rot, is being tested by a few growers. The cost of treat-
ment is justified if the soil is infested with Stromatinia and the planting is made
between October 15 and January 1. As suggested last year, the soil should be tested
for Stromatinia in November, a year before planting, by growing small corms in soil
samples of each old gladiolus field to be planted. Mylone and Vapam (VPM) are effec-
tive against some weeds, certain diseases and nematodes if the following points are
carried out:

1) Use enough chemical to do the job. Skimping on the recommendation will
give imperfect disease control. A good job will cost on the average about twice as
much as in-the-row treatment with EDB or DD.

2) Prepare (moisten and aerate) soil ten days to two weeks before treatment.
If heavy rain occurs, aerate again. This procedure is necessary to break dormancy of
some weed seeds.

3) Avoid escape of gases before soil surface is sealed. Mylone may be ap-
plied to the dry soil surface and tilled in or applied in bands about 5 inches deep.
Vapam should be injected at 5 or 6 inch depth.

4) Surface sealing should be done with a bed shaper, rather than a flat
board.

5) In order to plant corms in treated beds without pulling untreated soil
into the furrow, the present methods of opening and closing the furrow must be modi-
fied. Disks can not be used in the usual way. We recommend that growers delay test-
ing Vapam or Mylone until they have proper equipment to open and close furrow and un-
til the above points can be carried out.

Terraclor (75 percent pcnb) is also effective against Stromatinia disease
but is ineffective against most weeds and nematodes. Terraclor is more fool-proof
than Vapam or Mylone because the chemical remains in the soil for months and recon-
tamination is not a serious factor. Terraclor should be mixed into the soil; it is
not a gas. Band treatment would be largely ineffective. In-the-row treatment (80











Ibs. per acre) is recommended where rotary tillers are used to mix the Terraclor
with the soil. Corms may be planted immediately. Because of the problems involved
in planting in the treated strips, the broadcast treatment of 160 lbs. per acre is
also recommended.

In-the-row treatment of soil to control nematodes in fields previously
planted with gladiolus is recommended especially for August, September and October
plantings. It is during these months that nematodes are most damaging to gladiolus,
especially after a relatively dry summer and where the soil was not kept fallow and
turned about every two weeks for two summer months before planting. EDB or DD fumi-
gants are generally used for in-the-row treatment against nematodes. The usual
methods of opening and closing the planting furrow contaminate the treated soil.
Work has started on a new method. Corms planted in treated soil should always be
dipped in parathion (1 pint emulsifiable concentrate per 100 gal.) to reduce the
chances of introducing parasitic nematodes in treated soil. Nematode damage would
usually be increased if nematode-infested corms were planted in treated soil.






450 copies
Nov. 14, 1958




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