• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Introduction
 Sucking insects
 Mites
 Chewing insects
 General recommendations
 References
 Insects found on chrysanthemums...






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station - 59-1
Title: Insect and other pests of chrysanthemums
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067649/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insect and other pests of chrysanthemums
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 11, 5 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kelsheimer, E. G ( Eugene Gillespie ), 1902-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1959
Edition: Rev. ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Chrysanthemums -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Chrysanthemums -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.G. Kelsheimer.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "Sept. 1958"--Leaf 11.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067649
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71442789

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Sucking insects
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Mites
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Chewing insects
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    General recommendations
        Page 11
    References
        Page 11
    Insects found on chrysanthemums in Florida
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




GULF COAST EXPERIMENT STATION MIMEO REPORT 59-1
Bradentoh, Florida

INSECT AND OTHER PESTS OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS (Revise -

E. G. K1esheimer /

Introduction :~

The chrysanthemum industry in Florida has become one of0a o w~ r

producing groups. Many of the gladiolus growers have a few acres as a1l~dded en-

deavor. The flowering schedule is from November to June, although a few grow

throughout the year. According to Smith and Brooke (4), of the 233 acres of chrys-

anthemums grown in the 1955-56 season, 222 are in pompons and 11 acres in standards.

Slightly more than half of the acreage is under shade, the remainder in the open.

The writer was first introduced to outdoor culture of mums in 1945 at Brad-

enton. From that time on a list of insects has been assembled with their control

measures.

No chrysanthemum grower can hope to grow a crop and escape the attack from in-

sects and mites, hence his rigid control program (1, 2, 3). Because of his spray

program a good share of the enemies described are never given a second thought.

However, the home owner, who grows a few for his own enjoyment may during the year

have had all of the insect pests herein described. Mums are subject to heavy dam-

age by a few serious pests but specific measures, both preventitive and control

give satisfactory results.

Sucking Insects
Aphis
Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/16 inch. There may be many

species of aphis that attack mums but we have two that are pests, the melon aphis,

Aphis gossypii (Glover) and the chrysanthemum aphis, Macrosiphoniella sanborni

(Gill). They are soft bodied plant bugs, pale green to dark red or nearly black

in color. They may be winged or wingless, generally the latter (See Fig. 1).

Nature of injury. Aphis feeding causes the plants to become weak and produce small

distorted leaves (See Fig. 2). They usually infest the new growth, causing the top

to be deformed. The leaves curl inward, and when the flower terminal is infested,

the blooms will be deformed. They will infest open flowers. Shasta, blue chip,

heyday and dandee are very susceptible to aphid attacks.




GULF COAST EXPERIMENT STATION MIMEO REPORT 59-1
Bradentoh, Florida

INSECT AND OTHER PESTS OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS (Revise -

E. G. K1esheimer /

Introduction :~

The chrysanthemum industry in Florida has become one of0a o w~ r

producing groups. Many of the gladiolus growers have a few acres as a1l~dded en-

deavor. The flowering schedule is from November to June, although a few grow

throughout the year. According to Smith and Brooke (4), of the 233 acres of chrys-

anthemums grown in the 1955-56 season, 222 are in pompons and 11 acres in standards.

Slightly more than half of the acreage is under shade, the remainder in the open.

The writer was first introduced to outdoor culture of mums in 1945 at Brad-

enton. From that time on a list of insects has been assembled with their control

measures.

No chrysanthemum grower can hope to grow a crop and escape the attack from in-

sects and mites, hence his rigid control program (1, 2, 3). Because of his spray

program a good share of the enemies described are never given a second thought.

However, the home owner, who grows a few for his own enjoyment may during the year

have had all of the insect pests herein described. Mums are subject to heavy dam-

age by a few serious pests but specific measures, both preventitive and control

give satisfactory results.

Sucking Insects
Aphis
Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/16 inch. There may be many

species of aphis that attack mums but we have two that are pests, the melon aphis,

Aphis gossypii (Glover) and the chrysanthemum aphis, Macrosiphoniella sanborni

(Gill). They are soft bodied plant bugs, pale green to dark red or nearly black

in color. They may be winged or wingless, generally the latter (See Fig. 1).

Nature of injury. Aphis feeding causes the plants to become weak and produce small

distorted leaves (See Fig. 2). They usually infest the new growth, causing the top

to be deformed. The leaves curl inward, and when the flower terminal is infested,

the blooms will be deformed. They will infest open flowers. Shasta, blue chip,

heyday and dandee are very susceptible to aphid attacks.






Control, Spray with parathion mixed at the rate of 1 pound of 15W to 100 gallons

of water. Apply enough of the spray to thoroughly cover the leaves with a fine

mist. The size of plants and size of beds determine the amount of spray necessary.

Do not spray if showing color.

If demeton is used, mix at the rate of 1 1/2 pints of 2 pound active material

per gallon to 100 gallons of water and apply at the rate of 100 gallons per acre

as a spray. Applied as a sprinkling, this is 1 gallon of mixed solution to 435

square feet. If used as a soil application, more water is required and the solu-

tion may be weaker. Use at the rate of 1 pint to 200 gallons of water.

Thrips

Description of the destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/32 to 1/16 inch long. There

are many species that may attack mums, but the records show the chrysanthemum thrips,

Thrips nigropilosus Uzel, Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa (Morg.),

the composite thrips, Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawf.), tobacco thrips,

Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Gowdeys thrips, Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin)

to be the most commonly found infesting mums. The young vary in color from light

to dark yellow with some greenish cast. The adults vary from light brown to brown-

ish yellow. No specific study has been made of the species.

Nature of Injury. Infest foliage and open flowers. The insects cause general brown-

ing of blooms, especially in warm weather. (See Fig. 3).

Control. The grower has the choice of using dieldrin 50 percent WP at 1/2 pound to

100 gallons throughout the season or of using parathion 1 pound of 15 percent WP to

100 gallons of water up to the time of coloring. At first sign of coloring use

dieldrin at recommended rate. Records so far show no petal burn when dieldrin is

used properly. More recent tests have proven dieldrin to be superior.

Mealy bugs

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/8 inch. They are soft bodied

sluggish insects. One species is the citrus mealy bug, Pseudococus citri (Risso).

They are pure white and have a wax coating over them. They are generally found in

clusters on the underneath side of the leaves or in the leaf axils.






-3-

Nature of Injury. Injury is caused to the stems and leaves resulting in a discolor-

ing and deforming of the foliage.

Control. Spray with parathion 1 pound of 15 percent WP to 100 gallons of water.

The waxy covering on the insects may make penetration of insecticide difficult so

it may be necessary to add a wetting agent or some good detergent.

Tarnished Plant Bug

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/4 inch long. The tarnished

plant bug adult, Lygus lineolaris (P. de B) is of a general brown color with a mott-

ling of white, yellow, reddish brown and black.

Nature of Injury. Small grayish dead areas are left where the insects have fed.

The sucking beak pierces the tissue of the plant, often causing deforming of the

growth and bending of the tip. The wilting of the tips is a fairly sure indication

of the presence of this pest. Almost invariably the shoots which have been stung

produce no flowers. A flower bud pierced by a tarnished plant bug will not open.

Control. A thorough coverage with a spray of 2 pounds of 50 percent WP DDT to 100

gallons of water is an effective control.

Southern Green Stink Bug (Pumpkin Bug)

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/2 inch long and almost as broad.

The full grown southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), is of a light green

color. The immature stages are bluish, with some red markings.

Nature of Injury. Both adult and immature stages damage the foliage and stems by

sucking the juice. Injured plants may turn brown and wither.

Control. Spray with parathion 15 percent WP at 1 pound to 100 gallons of water or

chlordane 40 percent WP 2 1/2 pounds to 100 gallons of water.

Spittle Bugs
Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/8 inch long. The undetermined

species belong to the Cercopidae. Bits of saliva-like material adhering to the stems

of mum plants denote the presence of the greenish or yellowish insects. This is the

immature form of the spittle bug. (See Fig. 4, 5).





-4-.

Nature of Injury. The tips of the leaves us ally curl where these saliva masses

are present.

Control. DDT applied at the rate of 1.5 pounds active ingredient per acre which

is 3 pounds of 50 percent wettable, has given good economic control. Lindane at the

rate of 1 pint of 25 percent emulsion per acre gives even better control. The wet-

table powder is applied at the rate of 0.2 pound gamma isomer per acre. Toxaphene

at the rate of 1 quart of 60 percent emulsift-ble concentrate (1.5 pound active) per

acre has proven equally as effective. The 40 percent wettable powder is applied

at the rate of 1.5 pounds per acre.

White flies

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/6 inch. There are several spe-

cies of white flies (Aleyrodidae) that infest citrus and some of these may infest

pompons. The larvae of these flies are small, light green scale-like organisms

that feed on leaves. They are sucking insects. The adults are winged and white

in color.

Nature of injury. Plants grown near trees that harbor white flies may become in-

fested with small white flies that suck the juice of the plant causing it to turn

yellow and die. The larvae exude a honeydew which gives the foliage a glazed appear-

ance.

Control. Spray with a parathion 15 percent WP at the rate of 1 pound to 100 gallons

of water.

Leafhoppers

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/20 to 1/4 inch rarely larger

than 1/4. These small yellowish-green insects are particularly troublesome because

they are attracted to lights which are an essential part of chrysanthemum growing.

There are no records of the species involved.

Nature of Injury. The insects produce damage to the leaf by sucking out the juice

from the underneath of the leaf, leaving a tiny yellow spot on the upper surface.

Leafhoppers besides producing damage to the leaves, may carry virus disease from

plant to plant, Spray thoroughly with DDT at recommended strengths several times




-5-

during the season. Keep premises free from weeds and grass or else keep them

sprayed with DDT regularly.

Leafhoppers are worse from the latter part of May until the middle of July.

They come in from surrounding vegetation and damage is always greater on the out-

side rows and gradually works in toward the center of the planting. Maintain a

clean barren strip around the shade houses.

Mites

Of the plant feeding mites, the Tetranychidae are the most widespread and the

most important economically. There is hardly a plant that is free of at least one

species and all species appear to be pests. Mites are distributed by wind and by

man, being carried on clothing from one part of the shade to another. Varieties

differ in their susceptibility. Iceberg, blue chip and portrait are quite suscepti-

ble to mite attack. Since there are so many varieties grown at different seasons

it is difficult to establish a definite resistance/and or tolerance for these

varieties.

The northern or green two-spotted mite, Tetranychus telarius (L) and the south-

ern lobed mite T. lobosus Boudreaux are two common species. These mites are found

on many weeds, and cultivated plants, so infestation is simple. The host plants

for T. lobosus are gladiolus, geranium, eggplant, clover, sweet potato, bean, straw-

berry, hibiscus and many others. The green two-spotted mite was formerly reported

as T. cinnabarinus (Boisduval). Boudreaux (6) of L.S.U. in correspondence says he

has not seen this species from Florida. The two-spotted mite has been found on

nightshade, pokeweed, hairy indigo, strawberry, eggplant and many other plants.

(See Fig. 6).

Description of destructive stage. -- They are very small, the actual size about 1/64

inch. They are generally more greenish or orange than red. They are usually found

on the under surface of the leaf. (See Fig. 7).

Nature of injury. The first sign of injury on the foliage is the pale green mo t-

ling of upper leaf surface. The mites damage the plants by piercing the leaves with

their stylet-like mouthparts and sucking out the plant juice near the puncture.





-6-

Mites produce at such rapid rates that the populations reach fantastic proportions

if left uncontrolled. Wilson (5) reporting on T. telarius says that the average

time for completion of a generation is 15 days with approximately 24 generations

per year. T. telarius will produce fine webs. Mite damage to the open flower

ready for the market resembles a spray injury which in the case of the blue chip or

portrait variety is a browning and withering of the petals (the flowers look old or

past their prime). On iceberg and pristine a heavy mite population causes a brown-

ing of the white petals sometimes compared with thrips damage. Examination of a

flower under a glass will disclose the presence of the mites.

Control. Control measures vary in effectiveness as regards species, location,

season of year and abundance of the pest. The establishment of another species, T.

lobosus has helped to eliminate some of the confusion due to failures of miticides

to control all mite infestation. Some infestations that were almost pure cultures'

of T. telarius responded very well to phosphatic miticides. Varying degrees of

success depended on the preponderance of other species. Plantings infested with

T. lobosus did not respond to the phosphatic miticides. Demeton applied at the

rate of 1 1/2 pints per 100 gallons of water (4-6 oz, active ingredient) has proven

successful upon certain occasions. Parathion 15W applied at 1 1/2 pounds to 100

gallons of water has been effective under the same conditions as those listed for

demeton. Aramite used at 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 pounds to 100 gallons of water has proven

effective but to a much lesser degree at times under the same conditions as demeton

and parathion. Kelthane WP applied at 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water has proved

the most effective against all species of mites so far encountered and is recommended

for mite control.

Assuming 15 days for a complete generation, two sprays at weekly intervals

with the third (clean up) gave control of the mites. A well established and flour-

ishing population is hard to control.

Plant susceptible varieties together because they will require more careful

spraying than less susceptible ones and there will be less spread of the mites

throughout the shade.







Greenhouse Orthezia

Description of the destructive stage. -- Actual size hard to describe as the long

white fluted egg sac of the female may reach a length of 3/4 inch in length. The

actual insect, the greenhouse orthezia, Orthezia insignis Douglas is about 1/8 inch

in length.

Nature of injury. The insects settle on the leaves and stems of the plants sucking

the juice and causing the plant to become yellow, sickly and finally to die if not

treated.

Control. Spray with parathion 1 pound of 15 percent WP to 100 gallons of water. Add

a wetting agent or detergent to facilitate penetration of the waxy covering.

Chewing Insects

Leaf tier

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size, 1/2 inch. This undetermined spe-

cies ties the foliage together with a web; it ruins the foliage appearance. Its

name is derived from its habit of spinning a light web enclosing two or more leaves

or tying together the parts of a single leaf. The caterpillar is very active, and

when disturbed will wiggle off the leaf, often backwards, lowering itself on a silk-

like strand.

Nature of injury. When first hatched, the larvae eat out shallow holes on the under

side of the leaves. As they grow, they enlarge these holes but usually do not cut

through to the upper surface. The result is that the leaf is skeletonized. When

the leaves are webbed together over the bud a misshapen flower can result.

Control. Direct the spray against the underside of the foliage. Use DDT or para-

thion or a combination of the two especially if the insect has rolled or tied the

leaves together. Parathion acts as the fumigant causing the insect to crawl out of

the webbed leaves.

Corn Earworm

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of larvae 1 1/2 to 2 inches. The

full grown larvae of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) are of variable colors

ranging from pink, green or yellow to almost black. There is a dark stripe along





-8-

the middle of the back divided longitudinally by a narrow white line.

Nature of injury. They chew the flower buds and also enter and chew the petals

from an opened flower. (See Figs. 10, 11, 12.)

Control. Spray with 2 pounds 50 percent DDT to 100 gallons of water plus 1 pound

of 15W parathion before buds show color. After the buds show color use dieldrin

at 1/2 pound per 100. Dieldrin can be used at 1 pound per 100 without injury to

bud or petals.

Cutworms and Armyworms

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1 1/2 to 2 inches. These are of

various colors and markings. There are several species.

Nature of injury. Cutworms cut off the young plant and armyworms eat the foliage

and chew buds. (See Figs. 13, 14, 15).

Control. Chlordane applied to the soil at the rate of 2 1/2 pounds of 40 percent

wettable to 100 gallons of water or a 5 percent dust will control the larvae. Hep-

tachlor applied at the rate of 2-3 pounds of 25W per 100 gallons or dieldrin applied

at the rate of 1 pound of the 50W are also excellent controls. In commercial plant-

ings, soil sterilization keeps these pests under control.

Salt-marsh caterpillar, Woolly bear

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of full grown larvae of the woolly

bear, Estigmene acraea (Drury) is 2 inches in length. The larvae are hairy or

woolly brown to dark brown in color.

Nature of injury. The pest may move in rapidly from adjoining fields and overnight

ruin blocks of chrysanthemums. Because the pest is migratory and capable of fast

locomftbon, it can damage considerable areas in a short time. Migrating larvae

are heavy feeders and are difficult to control.

Control. This pest is the one exception where a dust is advisable, despite the

stage of growth of the mums because of the voraciousness of the insect. A thor-

ough dusting of 10 percent DDT will control the pest. It is necessary to repeat

the dusting within a day or so to kill caterpillars missed by the first dusting.





-9-

Geometrid measuring worms

Description of destructive stage. -- The larvae of this group are called measuring

worms, spanworms or loopers because of their method of locomotion, which is one of

looping or measuring. Identification is made easier because these larvae do not

have any legs in the middle of the body, only at the head end and rear end. They

can attach themselves by their rear legs and assume the likeness to a dry twig.

One species known to attack mums is Synchlora rubrifrontaria Pack.

Nature of injury. Injury results from their eating leaves or florets.

Control. Apply DDT 50 percent WP at rate of 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water.

Cabbage looper

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of full grown larva is 1 1/4 in-

ches. (See Fig. 16). The pale green larvae have a narrow white stripe along each

side of the body and two others along the middle line of the back. They travel

with a looping measuring motion of the body.

Nature of injury. The young larvae eat small holes in the leaf but do not complete-

ly penetrate the leaf. As the larvae increase in size they eat the more tender

leaves and frequently ruin the bud.

Control. DDT applied at the rate of 3 pounds of 50 percent WP to 100 gallons of

water or toxaphene at 1 1/2 pounds of 40 percent WP will control the insect. Do

not dust because of danger of spotting the petals.

Leaf miners

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/16-1/4 inch long. The adult is

a tiny shining black fly marked with yellow in various ways. Larvae of the serpen-

tine leaf miner, Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.) are yellow or orange colored and do the

tunneling.

Nature of injury. Most common injury is the serpentine mines made by the small bright

yellow to orange larvae (See Fig. 8). The tunnel leaves the upper and lower leaf

surface intact. Another type of leaf mine is made by an undetermined species. (See

Fig. 9). The injury begins as an irregular tunnel which is widened to form a large

blotch.





-10-

Control. Spray with parathion 15 percent WP at the rate of 1 pound to 100 gallons

of water.

Grasshoppers

Description of destructive stage. -- Various sizes up to the large lubberly.

There are several species.

Nature of injury. Grasshoppers can move in suddenly and cause severe damage to

flowering plants by eating foliage, flowers and tender growth.

Control. Aldrin applied at the rate of 1/2 pint of the emulsifiable concentrate

per acre is effective. Toxaphene sprayed at rate of 1.5 to 2 pounds of the 40

percent wettable per acre is effective.

Sowbugs

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/8 to 5/8 inch. They are dark

gray with a lighter gray underneath. They are crustaceans, related to crayfish and

crabs, and are not insects. They are found in moist areas usually near some de-

cayed matter. They seldom appear during the daytime.

Nature of injury. They feed on the roots and tender portions of the plant.

Control. Chlordane applied to the soil as a spray at the rate of 2.5 pounds of 40

percent WP to 100 gallons of water or 30 pounds of 5 percent dust or granules will

control these pests.

Termites "white ants"

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size variable about 3/16-3/4 inches.

The destructive stage are wingless, usually pale-colored, soft bodied and possess

chewing mouthparts. They are called white ants but are not an ant or related to

ants.

Nature of injury. Termites have caused the loss of many chrysanthemum plants around

the home. They injure or kill a plant by tunnelling the stem. Around the home, a

wilted plant is a likely suspect for termite injury. Cutting across the stem will

frequently reveal the presence of the termites. Nothing can be done for the plant

once the termite attack has progressed this far.





-11

Control. Termites can be eliminated from the soil by the use of chlordane, dieldrin

or certain gaseous soil fumigants, such as MC-2, DD or EDB. The chlordane or diel-

drin is applied to the soil at the rate of 1 ounce of active material to 100 square

feet.

General Recommendations

All dosages, if a spray, are given for a certain poundage of the insecticide

per 100 gallons of water. Normally, an acre of pompons requires 2400 gallons of

spray. There are certain right and wrong methods of application depending upon the

type of pest to be controlled. For most purposes a spray directed upward through

the foliage is much more effective because very few if any growers will apply an in-

secticide alone; they are generally in conjunction with a fungicide and a nutrient.

A three nozzled spray jet is the most satisfactory. It is very important that the

nozzles be the same type and the size of the orifices the same or uneven spraying

will result,causing irregular control patterns.

References

1. Ball, George J. Inc., Ball Mum Guide. 1955.

2. Gloeckner, Fred C. & Co., Gloeckner's Chrysanthemum Manual. 1952.

3. Kiplinger, D. C. Greenhouse and Garden Chrysanthemum. 1954.

4. Smith, Cecil N. and Brooke, Donald L. The Florida Chrysanthemum Industry.
Agr. Ec. Mimeo Report 56-10. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. 1956.

5. Wilson J. W. The two-spotted mite on asparagus plumosus. Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 234. 1931.

6. Boudreaux, H. Bruce correspondence. L.S.U. 1956-7-8.














300 copies
Sept. 1958





-11

Control. Termites can be eliminated from the soil by the use of chlordane, dieldrin

or certain gaseous soil fumigants, such as MC-2, DD or EDB. The chlordane or diel-

drin is applied to the soil at the rate of 1 ounce of active material to 100 square

feet.

General Recommendations

All dosages, if a spray, are given for a certain poundage of the insecticide

per 100 gallons of water. Normally, an acre of pompons requires 2400 gallons of

spray. There are certain right and wrong methods of application depending upon the

type of pest to be controlled. For most purposes a spray directed upward through

the foliage is much more effective because very few if any growers will apply an in-

secticide alone; they are generally in conjunction with a fungicide and a nutrient.

A three nozzled spray jet is the most satisfactory. It is very important that the

nozzles be the same type and the size of the orifices the same or uneven spraying

will result,causing irregular control patterns.

References

1. Ball, George J. Inc., Ball Mum Guide. 1955.

2. Gloeckner, Fred C. & Co., Gloeckner's Chrysanthemum Manual. 1952.

3. Kiplinger, D. C. Greenhouse and Garden Chrysanthemum. 1954.

4. Smith, Cecil N. and Brooke, Donald L. The Florida Chrysanthemum Industry.
Agr. Ec. Mimeo Report 56-10. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. 1956.

5. Wilson J. W. The two-spotted mite on asparagus plumosus. Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 234. 1931.

6. Boudreaux, H. Bruce correspondence. L.S.U. 1956-7-8.














300 copies
Sept. 1958






Insects Found on Chrysanthemums in Florida*


Scales, mealy bugs and white flies

Orthezia insignis Douglas Greenhouse orthezia
Coccus sp.
Pseudococcus citri (Risso) citrus mealy bug
Common mealy bug
Icerya purchase Mask Cottony Cushion Scale
Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targ.) hemispherical scale
Aspidiotus lataniae Sign. latania scale
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morg.) Dictyospermum scale
Aleyrodidae sp. white flies

Aphids

Aphis sp.
Rhopalosiphum sp.
Myzus persicae (Sulzer) I greep,peachaphid
Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gill) Chrysanthemum aphid
Aphis padi Linn. Plum aphid
Aphis gossypii Glover melon aphid

Thrips

Frankliniella bispinosa (Morg.)
Thrips nigropilosus Uzel chrysanthemum thrips
Frankliniella cubensis iHod .
Frankliniella tritici Fitch 4 Flowew thrtps
Haplothrips gowdeyi Franklin Gowdeye.thbrpe.
Frankliniella cephalica melanomatta Wtmas.
Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawf.) the composite thrips
Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) Tobacco thrips

Mites

Tetranychus telarius (L.)
Tetranychus lobosus Boudreaux

Miscellaneous Insects

Centrinus sp. (weevil)
Membracidae treehopperr)
Synchlora denticularia (Walker)
Synchlora rubrifrontaria Pack measuring worm
Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst.) sunflower moth
Lygus lineolaris (P. de B) Tarnished plant bug
Nezara viridula (L.) Southern green stink bug (pumpkin bug)
Cercopidae sp. spittle bugs
Leafhoppers
Leaf tier
Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.) serpentine leaf miner.
Heliothis zea (Boddie) corn earworm
Estigmene acraea (Drury) Woolly bear
Prodenia eridania (Cram) Southern armyworm
Feltia subterranea (F.) Granulate cutworm
Grasshoppers
Trichoplusia ni(Hbn.)- Cabbage looper
Termites
Sowbugs
*The Florida State Plant Board


















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