Chewing insects
 General recommendations

Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station - 57-3 (Revised)
Title: Insect and other pests of chrysanthemus
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067644/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insect and other pests of chrysanthemus
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 11 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kelsheimer, E. G ( Eugene Gillespie ), 1902-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1957
Subject: Chrysanthemums -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Chrysanthemums -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 11).
Statement of Responsibility: E.G. Kelsheimer.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067644
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71353391

Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Chewing insects
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    General recommendations
        Page 10
        Page 11
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida


E. G. Kelsheimer


The chrysanthemum industry in Florida has become one of the major flower

producing groups. Many of the gladiolus growers have a few acres as an added en-

deavor. The flowering schedule is from November to June, although a few grow .

throughout the year. According to Smith and Brooke (4), of the 233 acres of chrys-

anthemums grown in the 1955-56 season, 222 are in pompons and 11 acres in standards,

Slightly more than half the acreage is under shade, the remainder in the open.

The writer was first introduced to outdoor culture of mums in 1945 at

Bradenton. From that time on a list of insects has been assembled with their con-

zrol measures.

No chrysanthemum grower can hope to grow a crop and escape the attack from

insects and mites, hence his rigid control program (1,2,3). Because of his spray

program a good share of the enemies described are never given a second thought.

However, the home owner, who grows a few for his own enjoyment may during the year

have had all of the insect pests herein described. Mums are subject to heavy dam-

age by a few serious pests but specific measures, both preventitive and control

give satisfactory results.

Sucking Insects

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/16 inch. There may be many spe-

cies of aphis that attack mums but we have two that are pests, the melon aphis,

A.b.isagossypii (Glover) and the chrysanthemum aphis, Macrosiphoniella sanborni

(Gill). They are soft bodied plant bugs, pale green to dark red or nearly black

in color. They may be winged or wingless, generally the latter.

Nature of injury. Aphis feeding causes the plants to become weak and p r e small

distorted leaves. They usually infest the new growth, causing the tip { lde-

formed. The leaves curl inward, and when the flower terminal is infes the blooms

will be deformed. They will infest open flowers. ..-


Control. Spray with parathion mixed at the rate of 1 pound of 15W to 100 gallons

of water. Apply enough of the spray to thoroughly cover the leaves with a fine

mist. The size of plants and size of beds determine the amount of spray necessary.

Do not spray if showing color.

If demeton is used, mix at the rate of 1 1/2 pints of 2 pound active ma-

terial per gallon to 100 gallons of water and apply at the rate of 100 gallons per

acre as a spray. Applied as a sprinkling, this is 1 gallon of mixed solution to

435 square feet. If used as a soil plication, more water is required add the so-

lution may be weaker. Use at the rate of 1 pint to 200 gallons of water.


Description of the destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/32 to 1/16 inch long. There

a:e many species that may attack mums, but the records show the chrysanthemum

thrips, Thrips nigropilosus Uzel, Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa

(Morg.), the composite thrips, Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawf.), tobacco

thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Gowdeys thrips, Haplothrips gowdeyi

(Frankling) to be the most commonly found infesting mums. The young vary in color

from light to dark yellow with some greenish cast. The adults vary from light

brown to brownish yellow. No specific study has been made of the species.

Nature of Injury. Infest foliage and open flowers. The insects cause general

browning of blooms, especially in warm weather.

Control. The grower has the choice of using dieldrin 50 percent WP at 4 pound

to 100 gallons throughout the season or of using parathion 1 pound of 15 percent

WP to 100 gallons of water up to the time of coloring. At first sign of coloring

use dieldrin at recommended rate. Records so far show no petal burn when dieldrin

is used properly. More recent tests have proven dieldrin to be superior.

Mealy bugs

. Decripti~g of destructive stae. -- Actual size 3/8 inch. They are soft bodied

sluggish insects. One species is the citrus mealy bug. Pseudococus citri (Ri.so).

They are pure white and have a wax coating over them. They are generally found in

clusters on the underneath side of the leaves or in the leaf axils.


Nature of Injury. Injury is caused to the stems and leaves resulting in a dis-

coloring and deforming of the foliage.

Control. -- Spray with parathion 1 pound of 15 percent WP to 100 gallons of water.

The waxy covering on the insects may make penetration of insecticide difficult to

it may be necessary to add a wetting agent or some good detergent.

Tarnished Plant Bug

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/4 inch long. The tarnished

plant bug adult, Lygus lineolaris (P. de B) is of a general brown color with a n"~i:-

ling of white, yellow, reddish brown and black.

naturee of Injury Small grayish dead areas are left where the insects have fed.

The sucking beak pierces the tissue of the plant, often causing deforming of the.

growth and bending of the tip. The wilting of the tips is a fairly sure indicrtien

of the presence of this pest. Almost invariably the shoots which have been st.ng

produce no flowers. A flower bud pierced by a tarnished plant bug will not opnr..

Control. A thorough coverage with a spray of 2 pounds of 50 percent WP DDT to

100 gallons of water is an effective control.

Southern Green Stink Bug (Pumpkin Bug)

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size k inch long and almost as broad.

The full grown southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), is of a light g~r.en

color. The immature stages are bluish, with some red markings.

Nature of Injury. Both adult and immature stages damage the foliage and stems by

sucking the juice. Injured plants may turn brown and wither.

Control. Spray with parathion 15 percent WP at 1 pound to 100 gallons of water or

chlordane 40 percent WP 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water.

Spittle Bugs

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/8 inch long. The undetermined

species belong to the Cercopidae. Bits of saliva-like material adhering to t1h

stems of mum plants denote the presence of the greenish or yellowish insects. Thi

is the immature form of the spittle bug.

Nature of Injury. The tips of the leaves usually curl where these saliva masses

are present.


Control. DDT applied at the rate of 1.5 pounds active ingredient per acre which

is 3 pounds of 50 percent wettable, has given good economic control. Lindane at

the rate of 1 pint of 25 percent emulsion per acre gives even better control. The

wettable powder is applied at the rate of 0.2 pound gamma isomer per acre. Toxa-

phene at the rate of 1 quart of 60 percent emulsifiable concentrate (1.5 pound

active) per acre has proven equally as effective. The 40 percent wettable powder

is applied at the rate of 1.5 pounds per acre.

White flies

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/6 inch. There are several spe-

cies of white flies (Aleyrodidae) that infest citrus and some of these may infest

pompons. The larvae of these flies are small, light green scale-like organisms :

feed on leaves. They are sucking insects. The adults are winged and white in coloi

Nature of injury. Plants grown near trees that harbor white flies may become infes-

ted with small white flies that suck the juice of the plant causing it to turn yel-

low and die. The larvae exude a honeydew which gives the foliage a glazed appear.


Control. Spray with a parathion 15 percent WP at the rate of 1 pound to 100 gallci,

of water.


Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/20 to k inch rarely larger

than k. These small yellowish-green insects are particularly troublesome because

they are attracted to lights which are an essential part of chrysanthemum growing

There are no records of the species involved.

Nature of Injury. The insects produce damage to the leaf by sucking out the juices

from the underneath of the leaf, leaving a tiny yellow spot on the upper surface,

Leafhoppers besides producing damage to the leaves, may carry virus disease from

plant to plant. pray thoroughly with DDT at recommended strengths several times

during the season. Keep premises free from weeds and grass or else keep them

spraye- with DDT regularly.

Leafhoppers are worse from the latter part of May until the middle of----'

July. They come 10 from surrounding vegetation and damage is always greater on

the outside rows and gradually works in toward the center of the planting. Main-

tain a clean barren strip around the shade houses.


Of the plant feeding mites, the Tetranychidae are the most widespread

and the most important economica:!y. There is hardly a plant that is free of at

least one species and all species appear to be pests. Mites are distributed by

wind and by man, being carried on clothing from one part of the shade to another.

Varieties differ in their susceptibility. Iceberg, blue chip and portrait are

quite susceptible to mite attack. Since there are so many varieties grown at dif-

ferent seasons it is difficult to establish a definite resistance/and or tolerance

for these varieties.

The northern or green two-spotted mite, Tetranychus telarius (L) and the

southern or carmine two-spotted mite T. cinnabarinus Boisduval are two common spe-

cies. These mites are found on many weeds, so infestation is simple. The host

plants for T. cinnabarinus are unknown. The two-spotted mite has been found on

nightshade, pokeweed, hairy indigo and many other plants.

Description of destructive stage. -- They are very small, the actual size about

1/64 inch. They are generally more greenish or orange than red. They are usually

found on the under surface of the leaf.

Nature of injury. The first sign of injury on the foliage is the pale green mott-

ling of upper leaf surface. The mites damage the plants by piercing the leaves

with their stylet-like mouthparts and sucking out the plant juice near the puncture.

Mites produce at such rapid rates that the populations reach fantastic proportions

if left uncontrolled. Wilson (5) reporting on T. telarius says that the average

time for completion of a generation is 15 days with approximately 24 generations

per year. T. telarius will produce fine webs. Nothing is known of T. cinnabarirnu-

Mite damage to the open flower ready for the market resembles a spray injury which

in the case of the blue chip or portrait variety is a browning and withering of tl-

petals (the flowers look old or past their prime). On iceberg and pristine a henvy

mite population causes a browning of the white petals sometimes compared with thrips


damage. Examination of a flower under a glass will disclose the presence of the


Control. Control measures vary in effectiveness as regards species, location,

season of year and abundance of the pest. The establishment of another species, T.

cinnabarinus has helped to eliminate some of the confusion due to failures of miti-'

cides to control all mite infestation. Some infestations that were almost pure cul-

tures of T. telarius responded very well to phosphatic miticides. Varying degrees

of success depended on the preponderance of other species. Plantings infested with

T. cinnabarinus did not respond to the phosphatic miticides. Demeton applied at the

rate of 1 k pints per 100 gallons of water (4-6 ozs. active ingredient) was proven

successful upon certain occasions. Parathion 15W applied at k pounds to 100 gallons

of water has been effective under the same conditions as those listed for demeton.

Aramiee used at 1 to 1 pounds to 100 gallons of water has proven effective but to

a much lesser degree at times under the same conditions as demeton and parathion.

Kelthane WP applied at 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water has proven quite effective a-

gainst all species of mites so far encountered.

Assuming 15 days for a complete generation, two sprays at weekly intervals

with the third '(clean up) gave control of the mites. A well established and flour-

ishing population is hard to control.

Plant susceptible varieties together because they will require more care-

ful spraying than less susceptible ones and there will be less spread of the mites

throughout the shade.

Greenhouse Orthezia

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size hard to describe as the long white

fluted egg sac of the female may reach a length of 3/4 inch in length. The actual

insect, the greenhouse orthesia, Orthezia insignis Douglas is about 1/8 inch in


Nature' f .Injury. .The insects, settleron;.thet~eaves and _8ems- of] the' plantathking

the juice and causing the plant to become yellow, sickly and finally to die if not



Control. Spray with parathion 1 pound of 15 percent WP to 100 gallons of water.

Add a wetting agent or detergent to facilitate penetration of the waxy covering.

Chewing Insects

Leaf tier

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size, inch. This undetermined species

ties the foliage together with a web; it ruins the foliage appearance. Its name is

derived from its habit of spinning a light web enclosing two or more leaves or tying

together the parts of a single leaf. The caterpillar is very active, and when dis-

turbed will wiggle off the leaf, often backwards, lowering itself on a silk-like


Nature of injury.- When first hatched, the larvae eat out shallow holes on the under

side of the leaves. As they grow, they enlarge these holes but usually do not cut

through to the upper surface. The result is that the leaf is skeletonized. When

the leaves are webbed together over the bud a misshapen flower can result.

Control. Direct the spray against the underside of the foliage. Use DDT or para-

thion or a combination of the two especially if the insect has rolled or tied the

leaves together. Parathion acts as the 'fumigant causing the insect to crawl out of

the webbed leaves.

Leaf miners

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/16-1/4-inch long. The adult is

a tiny shining black fly marked with yellow in various ways. Larvae of the serpen-"

tine leaf miner, Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.) are yellow or orange colored and do the


Nature of injury. Most common injury is the serpentine mines made by the small

bright yellow to orange larvae. The tunnel leaves the upper and lower leaf sur-

face intact.

Control. Spray with parathion 15 percent WP at the rate of 1 pound to 100 gallons

of water.

Corn Earworm

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of larvae 1 to 2 inches. The full


grown larvae of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) are of variable colors

ranging from pink, green or yellow.to almost black. The side is marked with a long-

itudinal stripe consisting of a pale stripe edged above with black. There is a

cark stripe along the middle of theb ack divided longitudinally by a narrow white


ELture of injury. They chew the flower buds.

Control. Spray with 2 pounds 50 percent DDT to 100 gallons of water plus 1 pound

of 15W parathion.

Cutworms and Armyworms

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 14 to 2 inches. These are of va-

rious colors and markings. There are several species.

Feature of injury. Cutworms cut off the young plant and armyworms eat the foliage

and chew buds.

Control. Chlordane applied to the soil at the rate of 2k pounds of 40 percent wet-

table to 100 gallons of water or a 5 percent dust will control the larvae. Hepta-

chlor applied at the rate of 2-3 pounds of a 25W per 100 gallons or dieldrin applied

at the rate of 1 pound of the 50W are also excellent controls. In commercial plant-

ings, soil sterilization keeps these pests under control.


Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/8 to 5/8 inch. They are dark

gray with a lighter gray underneath. They are crustaceans, related to crayfish and

crabs, and are not insects. They are found in moist areas usually near some decayed

matter. They seldom appear during the daytime.

Nature of injury. They feed on the roots and tender portions of the plant.

Control. Chlordane applied to the soil as a spray at the rate of 2.5 pounds of 40

percent WP to 100 gallons of water or 30 pounds of 5 percent dust or granules will

control these pests.

Salt-marsh caterpillar, Woolly bear

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of full grown larvae of the woolly,

bear, Estigmene acraea (Drury) is 2 inches in length. The larvae are hairy or .od'ly

brown to dark brown in color.

Nature of injury. The pest may move in rapidly from adjoining fields and overnight

ruin blocks of chrysanthemums. Because the pest is migratory and capable of fast

locomotion, it can damage considerable areas in a short time. Migrating larvae are

heavy feeders and are difficult to control.

Control. This pest is the one exception where a dust is advisable, despite the

taSe. of growth of the mums because of the voraciousness of the insect. A thorough

dusting of 5 percent DDT will control the pest. It is necessary to repeat the dust-

ing within a day or so to kill caterpillars missed by the first dusting.


Description of destructive stage. -- Various sizes up to the large lubberly. There

are several species.

Nature of injury. Grasshoppers can move in suddenly and cause severe damage to

flowering plants by eating foliage, flowers and tender growth.

Control. Aldrin applied at the rate of k pint of the emulsifiable concentrate per

acre is effective. Toxaphene sprayed at rate of 1,5 to 2 pounds of the 40 percent

wettable per acre is effective.

Geometrid measuring worms

Description of destructive stage. -- The larvae of this group are called measuring

worms, spanworms or loopers because of their method locomotion, which is one of loop-

ing or measuring. Identification is made easier because these larvae do not have

any legs in the middle of the body, only at the head and and rear end. They can at-

tach themselves by their rear legs and assume the likeness to a dry twig. One spe-

cies known to attack mums is Synohlore rubrifrontaria Pack.

Nature of injury. Injury results from their eating leaves or florets.

Ccntrol. Apply DDT 50 percent WP at rate of 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water.

Cabbage looper

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of full grown larva is 1 inches.

The pale green larvae have a narrow white stripe along each side of the body and two

others along the middle line of the back. They travel with a looping measuring mo-

tion of the body.


Nature of injury. The young larvae eat small holes in the leaf but do not completely

penetrate the leaf. As the larvae increase in size they eat the more tender leaves

and frequently ruin the bud.

.'tr7ol. DDT applied at the rate of 3 pounds of 50 percent WP to 100 gallons of

:,iter or toxaphene at 1l pounds of 40 percent WP will control the insect. Do not

d,.st because of danger of spotting the petals.

Termites "white ants"

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size variable about 3/16-3/4 inches.

The destructive stage are wingless, usually pale-colored, soft bodied and possess

chewing mouthparts. They are called white ants but are not an ant or related to


Nature of injury. Termites have caused the loss of many chrysanthemum plants around

the home. They injure or kill a plant by tunnelling the stem. Around the home, a

wilted plant is a likely suspect for termite injury. Cutting across the stem will

frequently reveal the presence of the.termites. Nothing can be done for the plant

once the termite attack has progressed this far.

Control. Termites can be eliminated from the soil by the use of chlordane, dieldrin

or certain gaseous soil fumigants, such as MC-2, DD or EDB. The chlordane or diel-

drin is applied to the soil at the rate of 1 ounce of active material to 1000 square


General Recommendations

All dosages, if a spray, are given for a certain poundage of the insecti-

cide per 100 gallons of water. Normally, an acre of pompons requires 2400 gallons of

spray. There are certain right and wrong methods of application depending upon the

type of pest to be controlled. For most purposes a spray directed upward through the

foliage is much more effective because very few if any growers will apply an insecti-

cide alone; they are generally in conjunction with a fungicide and a nutrient. A

three nozkled spray jet is the most satisfactory. It is very important that the nozT

zles be the same type and the size of the orifices the same or uneven spraying will

result causing irregular control patterns.



1. Ball, George J., Inc. Ball Mum Guide. 1955.

2. Gloeckner, Fred C. & Co., Gloeckner's Chrysanthemum Manual. 1952.

3. Kiplinger, D. C. Greenhouse and Garden Chrysanthemum. 1954.

4. Smith, Cecil N. and Brooke, Donald L. The Florida Chrysanthemum Industry,
Agr. Ec. Mimeo Report 56-10. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. 1956.

5. Wilson, J. W. The two-spotted mite on asparagus plumosus. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 234, 1931.

IRO ncnies

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