• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Controlling fusarium disease
 When to make new dip solutions
 Amount of dip taken up by...
 Hot-wat er treatment of bublet...
 Stromatinia (dry rot) infectio...
 Curvularia leaf spot






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station mimeo report - 56- 3
Title: Notes on gladiolus disease research
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067639/00001
 Material Information
Title: Notes on gladiolus disease research
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Magie, R. O ( Robert Ogden ), 1906-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla.
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gladiolus -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Magie.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067639
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71355456

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Controlling fusarium disease
        Page 1
    When to make new dip solutions
        Page 1
    Amount of dip taken up by bulbs
        Page 2
    Hot-wat er treatment of bublets
        Page 2
    Stromatinia (dry rot) infection
        Page 3
    Curvularia leaf spot
        Page 4
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







GULF COAST STATION' MIMEO RPiPORT 56-3

Bradenton, Florida

NOTES ON GLADIOLUS DISEASE RESEARCH

R. O Magie


CONTROLLING FUSARIUM DISEASE


ji ~~----,, ..,;


In tests with jumbo Picardy bulbs during the past year, the best control

of Fusarium rot and the best flower yields were obtained by soaking the bulbs

before planting for 30 minutes in a solution of 6 pounds Dowicide B in 100 gal-

lons of water plus a cup or more of wetting agent. (Tergitol Dispersant TIMN

wetting agent is not compatible with Dowicide B). With Picardy bulbs, the pre-

planting treatments were more effective than the pre-storage treatments but with

June Bells the pre-storage treatments were generally better. With Valeria bulbs,

pre-storage and pre-planting treatments were equally effective. For large June

Bells, the best control was a double treatment: a 20 minute pre-storage soak in

8 pounds of 75% captain (Orthocide)* per 100 gallons and a 30-minute pre-planting

soak in 4 pounds of Dowicide B pcr 100 gallons plus a wetting agent. This dou-

ble treatment also was effective for large bulbs of Picardy, Valeria and Spotlight.


When to Make New Dip Solutions

1rI.Coresan (10 minutes dip): Discard solution when level drops to three-fourths

of original volume.

N.I.0ropsan (1 minute dip): Discard when level drops to four-fifths of original

volume.

Dowicide B: Add more of same solution whenever necessary to maintain volume and

discard after three days of use or earlier if it becomes dirty.

Captrn or Orthocide: Add more of the mixture when necessary and discard after

one week or sooner if dirty.


*Since the active ingredient of captnn is insoluble, bulbs should not be treated
in burlap bags because much of the captnn might be caught in the burlap mesh.







GULF COAST STATION' MIMEO RPiPORT 56-3

Bradenton, Florida

NOTES ON GLADIOLUS DISEASE RESEARCH

R. O Magie


CONTROLLING FUSARIUM DISEASE


ji ~~----,, ..,;


In tests with jumbo Picardy bulbs during the past year, the best control

of Fusarium rot and the best flower yields were obtained by soaking the bulbs

before planting for 30 minutes in a solution of 6 pounds Dowicide B in 100 gal-

lons of water plus a cup or more of wetting agent. (Tergitol Dispersant TIMN

wetting agent is not compatible with Dowicide B). With Picardy bulbs, the pre-

planting treatments were more effective than the pre-storage treatments but with

June Bells the pre-storage treatments were generally better. With Valeria bulbs,

pre-storage and pre-planting treatments were equally effective. For large June

Bells, the best control was a double treatment: a 20 minute pre-storage soak in

8 pounds of 75% captain (Orthocide)* per 100 gallons and a 30-minute pre-planting

soak in 4 pounds of Dowicide B pcr 100 gallons plus a wetting agent. This dou-

ble treatment also was effective for large bulbs of Picardy, Valeria and Spotlight.


When to Make New Dip Solutions

1rI.Coresan (10 minutes dip): Discard solution when level drops to three-fourths

of original volume.

N.I.0ropsan (1 minute dip): Discard when level drops to four-fifths of original

volume.

Dowicide B: Add more of same solution whenever necessary to maintain volume and

discard after three days of use or earlier if it becomes dirty.

Captrn or Orthocide: Add more of the mixture when necessary and discard after

one week or sooner if dirty.


*Since the active ingredient of captnn is insoluble, bulbs should not be treated
in burlap bags because much of the captnn might be caught in the burlap mesh.






-2-

Amount of Dip Taken Up By Bulbs

Jumbo bulbs of Elizabeth the Queon were tested by repeated dippings and

found to take up solutions at a rate of 25 to 40 gallons per 40,000 bulbs. The

amount of liquid removed depends on size of bulbs, tightness of husk, length of

soak period and the use of drain boards beside the tank.

Hot-Water Treatment of Bulblets

Progressive glad growers in California, Oregon and Florida are heat treating

dormant bulblets as a regular procedure in a few cases and on a preliminary test

basis on other farms. Some growers on the Pacific Coast are growing varieties

like Coronn again because they can obtain clean stock by growing from heat-treated

or "cooked" bulblets. Our tests show that Curvularia, Stromatinia (Sclerotinia

dry rot fungus), nematodes, mites and most, if not all, of the Fusarium infections

are killed by the hot-water treatment. It may be that new or clean soil will stay

"clean" for several years by planting only healthy, uncontaminated stock obtaina-

ble by hot-water treatment.

All growers who plant bulblets should try heat treatment on a small scale

before purchasing expensive equipment. The only equipment needed to treat a few

bushels is a large galvanized watering trough, a gas heater placed under the

trough., a propeller or paddles to circulate the water, large mesh bpgs or contain-

ers for bulblets made of hardware cloth, a couple of dairy thermomoetrs and some

wooden bi'rels or galvanized troughs for soaking bulblots in water and formalin

solution in preparation for the heat treatment. Another large container such as

storing trough full of cold water is needod for quickly cooling the bulblots im-

!mo6ately after the 30-minute treatment in hot water.

Instructions for heat-treating bulblets are given in Gulf Coast Station

M:..meo Report 55-1. If you do not have a copy, please write to the author. So:oa

g:'owors make the mistake of treating bulblets dug in cool weather or taken from

storage (cold or ordinary). Most varieties are not harmed by the hot water if the

bulblets are dormant and if directions are followed. Bulblets are usually dormant

enough when dug in warm weather and dried for 4 to 6 weeks. Before planting bu2b-






-2-

Amount of Dip Taken Up By Bulbs

Jumbo bulbs of Elizabeth the Queon were tested by repeated dippings and

found to take up solutions at a rate of 25 to 40 gallons per 40,000 bulbs. The

amount of liquid removed depends on size of bulbs, tightness of husk, length of

soak period and the use of drain boards beside the tank.

Hot-Water Treatment of Bulblets

Progressive glad growers in California, Oregon and Florida are heat treating

dormant bulblets as a regular procedure in a few cases and on a preliminary test

basis on other farms. Some growers on the Pacific Coast are growing varieties

like Coronn again because they can obtain clean stock by growing from heat-treated

or "cooked" bulblets. Our tests show that Curvularia, Stromatinia (Sclerotinia

dry rot fungus), nematodes, mites and most, if not all, of the Fusarium infections

are killed by the hot-water treatment. It may be that new or clean soil will stay

"clean" for several years by planting only healthy, uncontaminated stock obtaina-

ble by hot-water treatment.

All growers who plant bulblets should try heat treatment on a small scale

before purchasing expensive equipment. The only equipment needed to treat a few

bushels is a large galvanized watering trough, a gas heater placed under the

trough., a propeller or paddles to circulate the water, large mesh bpgs or contain-

ers for bulblets made of hardware cloth, a couple of dairy thermomoetrs and some

wooden bi'rels or galvanized troughs for soaking bulblots in water and formalin

solution in preparation for the heat treatment. Another large container such as

storing trough full of cold water is needod for quickly cooling the bulblots im-

!mo6ately after the 30-minute treatment in hot water.

Instructions for heat-treating bulblets are given in Gulf Coast Station

M:..meo Report 55-1. If you do not have a copy, please write to the author. So:oa

g:'owors make the mistake of treating bulblets dug in cool weather or taken from

storage (cold or ordinary). Most varieties are not harmed by the hot water if the

bulblets are dormant and if directions are followed. Bulblets are usually dormant

enough when dug in warm weather and dried for 4 to 6 weeks. Before planting bu2b-






-3-

lets, run a germination or "rag-doll" test. If only a third of the bulblets are

alive, plant them about three times thicker than usual so that a good stand may be

obtained in spite of some injury from the hot water.

Large bulblets are more likely to be harmed by the heat than small ones.

Likewise, only small bulbs (sizes 6 and 7) are dormant enough, if dug in warm soil

and well cured for 4 to 8 weeks, to tolerate 135" F. for 30 minutes. Safer for

very large bulblets and small bulbs is a treatment at 1320 F. for 45 minutes. A

serious mistake that some growers make is not transferring the hot bulblets into

cold water immediately at the end of the heat treatment.

To control mites and nematodes carried on glad bulbs, a common treatment on .

the Pacific Coast is to soak small and medium-size bulbs for 2 hours at 1150 F.

with formalin added to the water (1 gallon to 200 gallons water). The bulbs should

be dug in warm weather (after April 15) and cured 4 to 8 weeks to be dormant enough

for the treatment. This treatment will not control diseases.

Wireworm Control May Help in Controlling Fusarium

Damage to gladiolus by wireworm was greater last year than previously notod.

Brlble-t and planting stock are especially susceptible to damage. Some growers do

zot know the signs of wireworm damage. Those signs include scarred stalks below

ground; dark scars, holesand scabs on bulbs; and bulblet plants cut off below

ground l.iue. Even when damage is severe, the wireworms are seldom seen unless the

soil is sifted through proper screens. Because of this damage and because Fusarium

disease may be spread by wireworms, the insect should be controlled as recommerxde.

;n Florida Experiment Station Bulletin 535. An insecticide should be used bofora

l 1.rting bulblets in all areas. In areas where wireworms have been troublesome,

treatments should be made before planting bulbs of all sizes.

STROMATINIA (DRf ROT) INFECTION

Stromatinia root rot caused severe losses on some farms in Manatee County but

little damage in other areas examined. The disease was found to be most prevalent ,

and damaging on well-drained fields, indicating that periodic flooding of soil dur-

ing the summer is effective in reducing the number of sclerotin that survive to at-








tack the plants. Therefore, during the summer or early fall, gladiolus fields

should be diked and flooded for at least six to eight weeks.

As in previous seasons, it was found last year that plantings made before

September 15 or after January 1 were not noticeably damaged by Stromatinia root rot.

In laboratory tests a small proportion of the current-season sclerotia were found

to germinate readily. Therefore, it would be unwise to plant a field to gladiolus

twice in the same crop season. At least three years should always intervene be-

tween gladiolus crops in well-drained soils, unless the fields are flooded each

summer for six weeks or more.

It may be possible to economically control Stromatinia disease in contamina-

ted fields by soil treatment. The following chemicals were found to be promising

but no recommendation will be made until the results of further experiments are e-

valuated: Crag 974 at 100 to 200 pounds per acre, Terraclor at 200 pounds and Vapam

at 100 to 200 pounds. Calcium cyanamid was much less effective than the other ma-

terials tested.

CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT

Curularia is not satisfactorily controlled by spraying unless enough spread-

er such as Triton B 1956 (6 oz. per 100 gallons) is added to make the small spray

droplets spread out slightly and cling to the waxy leaves. Some growers are using

maneb (Manzate or Dithane M-22) as a regular spray. Our recommendation is to use

mansb in alternation with zineb after the diseases appear. Before any disease ap-

pears, use zineb (Dithane .-78 or Parzate) at each application. Curvularia lives

nf the soil for many years and attacks the roots and bulbs even though the disease

is completely controlled above-ground by spraying. Therefore, bulblets and plant-

ing stock should not be planted in soil where the disease has been prevalent.




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