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 Copyright
 Introduction
 Varieties
 Cultural
 Harvesting
 Conclusions and recommendation...






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station - 55-3
Title: The production and shipping of vine-ripened tomatoes
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067636/00001
 Material Information
Title: The production and shipping of vine-ripened tomatoes
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kelbert, D. G. A ( David G. A )
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tomatoes -- Transportation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tomatoes -- Postharvest technology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: David G.A. Kelbert.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067636
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71355747

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Varieties
        Page 2
    Cultural
        Page 3
    Harvesting
        Page 3
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







GULF COAST STATION MIMEO REPORT 55-3

THE PRODUCTION AND SHIPPING OF
VINE-RIPENED TOMATOES

David G. A. Kelbert


After numerous attempts with more or less success over a period of 25 years,

the shipping of vine-ripened tomatoes from Florida has at last become an estab-

lished part of the tomato-producing industry. Experience during the past three

seasons has proven that tomato fruits which have reached the pink or so-called

vine-ripened stage on the vines can be successfully processed and transported to

distant markets and arrive in condition comparable to that of the mature-green

fruit. In addition, the fruit has reached full color or nearly so, which elimi-

nates the need for the long storage period often required by green-mature fruit.

Naturally the development and success of this project has not come about

without many reverses and discouraging experiences. Many problems not experienced

in the handling of green-mature fruit have confronted growers, processors, shippers

and distributors and these had to be solved mainly by trial and error. Some of

these problems are (1) the proper stage of maturity for harvesting so that fruit

may reach the consumer at the best stage of color, (2) type and size of shipping

container, (3) proper loading, (4) suitable transportation facilities, (5) need for

prea-cooling and (6) the best temperature while in transit. Other factors involved

in growing, field handling and packing have had to be modified based on the need to

reduce injury and bruising of fruits to prevent loss to growers and place the best

po!'sible high quality product in the hands of the consumer.

The success that has been accorded these efforts so far is attested by the

ever increasing demand for the better quality of vine-ripened tomatoes and is re-

flected in the rapid increase in the number of acres of tomatoes that are devoted

solely to the production of vine-ripened tomatoes.

The continued success and expansion of this phase of tomato production is

dependent upon several important factors.











Varieties: Experience has shown that the successful growing of vine-ripened

tomatoes will depend largely upon the selection of adaptable varieties. The ideal

variety must have good quality and be resistant to cracking under all conditions.

It should have resistance to at least the common diseases, especially Fusarium

wilt if crops are to be grown on old land. Resistance to other diseases which

often cause heavy losses and increase cost of production because of the need for

an extensive pesticide program for controlling them is important though not essen-

tial.

There are no known commercial varieties that have all of the requirements

of the ideal tomato but there are several that have proven fairly successful for

the purpose. The variety Manalucie has proven satisfactory in many plantings; it

has resistance to cracking, is resistant to most of the common diseases except late

blight and bacterial spot, produces heavy crops of excellent quality fruits and

maintains good fruit size throughout the growing season. The most important criti-

cisms of the variety are that it often produces fruits which may be too large, has

a tendency to large blossom scars and cat-facing under some undetermined growing

conditions and is late maturing.

Jefferson has been found satisfactory by many growers and is at present the

main variety grown in the Ruskin-Manatee area. It has resistance to Fusarium wilt

and produces heavy crops. The main complaints of the variety are its tendency to

be rough, especially heavy creasing at the stem end, is somewhat flat in shape, is

l,,te maturing and produces too many small fruit. Both varieties have the ability

to produce crops under adverse conditions.

Other varieties grown for green harvest including Grothen's Globe, Wilt

Resistant Grothen's Globe, Homestead and Kokomo do not seem to be adapted because

of their susceptibility to diseases and their lack of resistance to cracking.

Planting of these varieties in several areas for this purpose has proven most dis-

couraging.












Cultural: Staking or trellising versus ground-grown culture: while tomatoes

as a ground crop may be used for producing vine-ripened fruit, the disadvantages of

this method are many and serious and include the following: the reduction of yields

due to insect damage and diseases which are difficult to control in the dense vines

of ground-grown crops, limited number of pickings possible because of vine breakage

in handling, excessive number of over ripe fruits due to difficulty of observing

the fruits under heavy vines, excessive number of immature fruit broken off in

handling to determine maturity.

Stake-grown tomatoes have the advantage because cultural practices can be

continued over a long period without injury to plant, nutritional levels can be

maintained throughout the long season of harvest, harvest can continue almost in-

definitely without injury to plants, and losses from disease and insect can be re-

duced to a minimum through an extended pesticide program. These factors also add

up to a larger percentage of first quality fruits.

Double wire trellising has all of the advantages of staking and may be

readily adapted to areas where staking is not feasible. Systems can be developed

rh..t are adaptable to varied width of rows or lands to accommodate conventional

s.,-ay equipment and the harvesting season may be extended by the use of higher

trellis, permitting taller plants with more fruit clusters. The initial cost of

trellis equipment may be considerably more than for the conventional stakes, but

;.'.h care it should last much longer. The chief advantage of trellising is that it

o-i:.;inates losses caused by stake rub and careless tying.

Harvesting: The source of the greatest loss on the distributing and market-

ing phase is the direct result of faulty handling in the various stages of process-

ing. Rough handling in the field by pickers, truckers and packing house labor as

well as machinery cause bruising.

Fruits that have reached the pink stage of maturity bruise more easily than

those harvested green, and every precaution must be taken to protect them if heavy












Cultural: Staking or trellising versus ground-grown culture: while tomatoes

as a ground crop may be used for producing vine-ripened fruit, the disadvantages of

this method are many and serious and include the following: the reduction of yields

due to insect damage and diseases which are difficult to control in the dense vines

of ground-grown crops, limited number of pickings possible because of vine breakage

in handling, excessive number of over ripe fruits due to difficulty of observing

the fruits under heavy vines, excessive number of immature fruit broken off in

handling to determine maturity.

Stake-grown tomatoes have the advantage because cultural practices can be

continued over a long period without injury to plant, nutritional levels can be

maintained throughout the long season of harvest, harvest can continue almost in-

definitely without injury to plants, and losses from disease and insect can be re-

duced to a minimum through an extended pesticide program. These factors also add

up to a larger percentage of first quality fruits.

Double wire trellising has all of the advantages of staking and may be

readily adapted to areas where staking is not feasible. Systems can be developed

rh..t are adaptable to varied width of rows or lands to accommodate conventional

s.,-ay equipment and the harvesting season may be extended by the use of higher

trellis, permitting taller plants with more fruit clusters. The initial cost of

trellis equipment may be considerably more than for the conventional stakes, but

;.'.h care it should last much longer. The chief advantage of trellising is that it

o-i:.;inates losses caused by stake rub and careless tying.

Harvesting: The source of the greatest loss on the distributing and market-

ing phase is the direct result of faulty handling in the various stages of process-

ing. Rough handling in the field by pickers, truckers and packing house labor as

well as machinery cause bruising.

Fruits that have reached the pink stage of maturity bruise more easily than

those harvested green, and every precaution must be taken to protect them if heavy











losses are to be avoided and quality maintained. This can be accomplished to a

large extent by reducing rough handling in the field or in the packing house to a

minimum, by reducing the number of transfers from container to container, and avoid-

ing severe jolts while loading or unloading.

Packing containers of 8 and 10 pound capacity, similar to the fiber board

carton used by the greenhouse grower, have been adapted by Florida shippers. These

are either single or double layer.

There is some question as to the comparative yields to be expected from

vine-ripened and nature-green harvest. In the absence of specific information

based on data accumulated from yield tests, a definite comparison is not possible.

However, preliminary trials and incomplete data indicate that increased yields can

?b expected when fruit are permitted to mature on the vines over that secured from

green-harvest tomatoes, conditions being comparable.

Conclusions and Recommendations: There seems to be no doubt that the pro-

duction and marketing of vine-ripened or pink tomatoes is becoming securely estab-

lished and many predict that because of its many advantages it will eventually

replace the green mature entirely. Interest is wide spread, not only in Florida,

.It in all of the areas where tomatoes are produced for the fresh market.

Staking and trellising have many advantages over ground-grown crops for pink

harvest. The sole advantage of the latter being the reduced cost of production, an

a'..'Y*atage offset by the increased yields of stake-grown crops.

Some increase in yield may be expected in vine-ripened over mature-green

b'-'rest due to longer harvesting season.

Varieties recommended for vine-ripened culture are Manalucie and Jefferson,

especially on old land. Rutgers and Queens may be found suitable on new land.

1-otbens Globe, W. R. Grothens and Homestead should be avoided because of excessive

cracking. To reduce losses in transportation and marketing, careful attention

shciuld be paid to all fruit handling phases from field to final loading to eliminate








-5-



rough handling, drops and jolts when fruit is apt to be bruised or crushed.

Planting should be restricted to moderate acreage by growers in first trial

plantings.




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