Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Station, University of Florida - 54-4
Title: Field control of blackheart of celery
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067631/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field control of blackheart of celery
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Geraldson, C. M ( Carroll Morton ), 1918-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1954
Subject: Celery -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Celery -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Carroll M. Geraldson.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067631
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71357170

Table of Contents
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        Page 2
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Gulf Coast Station Mimeo Report 54-4


/ Carroll M. Geraldson

Blackheart has been a serious problem of celery growers for more than 50

years. In Florida, individual growers have at times lost all or large portions

of a given crop, depending on the prevalence and severity of the conditions asso-

ciated with blackhoart. It is estimated that losses in Florida due to blackhearb

have often averaged about a million dollars annually.

Most investigators agree that blackhoert is a physiological disorder charac-

terizod by the break-down of the young leaf tissue in the heart of the plant. It

may eventually spread throughout the entire heart, cursing the affected tissue to

turn black, hence the name "blackhoart". A summary of the literature indicated

that blackheart is often associated with unbalanced moisture, over-fertilizationi,

high soluble salts, and certain practices or conditions that promote rapid growth.

Control of blackheart as suggested by various workers has been approached by the

use of measures alleviating such conditions as far as possible. These measures

have sometimes been helpful, but generally inadequate.

Recent work at the Gulf Coast Ekperiment Station aid in the Sarasota celery

area indicates that blackheart cni be completely controlled by applidhtion of a

calcium solution directly to the heart of the plant. Solutions containing 10 to

20 pounds of calcium nitrate or 5 to 10 pounds of calcium chloride per 100 gallons

of water applied at least once a week at a rate of about 150 gallons per acre hnve

been very successful. The frequency of, and quantity per application required for

prevention or cure of blnckheart is dependent on the prevalence and severity of th

contributing factors. Generally, treatment is not necessary until the celery be-

gins rapid growth and blackheart is suspected or has appeared.

A number of growers successfully utilized this method of blackheart control

the past spring crop season. The growers' spray machines were usually easily adap

ted for delivery of the calcium solution directly into the heart of the plant. It

should be emphasized that if the calcium does not reach the heart area, it is use-

less as a control for blackheart. The older foliage already contains relatively

large amounts of calcium which is not translocated to the younger tissue.

Greenhouse celery plants growing in nutrient solutions always develop black-

heart, regardless of the amount of calcium supplied to the roots, although the se-

verity varies inversely as the calcium content in the nutrient solution. However,

plants growing in similar solutions do not blackheart as long as calcium is sup-

plied periodically to the heart of the plant. Generally, since it is not a ques-

tion of the soil containing insufficient calcium, soil treatments are rarely help-

ful and are not recommended.

In addition to unbalanced moisture, excessive soluble salts and over-ferti-

lization, it appears that temperature and light may also be factors associated

with blackheart. It seems that when two or more of the many possible influencing

factors are involved, the incidence of blackheart increases accordingly. Invesrt-

gations are in progress on the means by which such conditions may affect the ce'.i

um uptake, translocation and assimilation. It is logical that in some cases, a

limited calcium supply or availability could be a-direct cause of blackheart.

It has been noted that the larger, more vigorous plants have the greatest

tendency to be affected by blackheart. The fact that calcium is taken up and

moved rather slowly in the plant may be important when considering that black-

heart is often most prevalent in rapidly growing celery plants. It would appear

that rapid growth makes the plant more sensitive to the effects of contributing

factors because per unit of time, the requirement for calcium is further extended.

It may be concluded, that regardless of the cause or causes, blackheart can

be controlled by supplying sufficient calcium at the proper time and to the proper

part of the plant'.

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