• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Tomatoes
 Peppers
 cucumbers and squash
 Pole beans
 Cabage, culiflower and broccol...
 Corn
 A list of "don'ts" for growers...
 Names and formulations
 Precautions






Group Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report - Gulf Coast Experiment Station., University of Florida - 54-1
Title: Suggested pest control schedules for vegetable crops in Gulf Coast section
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067628/00001
 Material Information
Title: Suggested pest control schedules for vegetable crops in Gulf Coast section
Series Title: Gulf Coast Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Walter, James M ( James Munday ), 1906-
Kelsheimer, E. G ( Eugene Gillespie ), 1902-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.M. Walter and E.G. Kelsheimer.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "9/28/53"--leaf 8.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067628
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62520833

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Tomatoes
        Page 1
    Peppers
        Page 2
    cucumbers and squash
        Page 2
    Pole beans
        Page 3
    Cabage, culiflower and broccoli
        Page 4
    Corn
        Page 5
    A list of "don'ts" for growers who do not wish to take unnecessary risks
        Page 5
    Names and formulations
        Page 6
    Precautions
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





OCT 1 53
GULF COAST STATION MIHEO REPORT 54-1

SUGGESTED PEST CONTROL SCHEDULES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS
IN GULF COAST SECTION

J. M. Walter and E. G. Kelsheimer



TOMATOES

p'rn!icides: Weekly spray schedule alternating copper of Tri-Basic Ccpper Sulphate

type and nabam (Dithane D-14, Thiodow, or Parzate Liquid) plus zinc sulfate.

In wet weather, including periods of heavy, prolonged dews, omit copper sprays

and use nabam consecutively on a 5-day or 7-day schedule until the weather has

returned to normal. Unless late blight has developed, again alternate copper

with the nabam fungicide. If late blight is present, continue with nabam on a

5-day schedule until it is eliminated.

Insecticides: 1. For control of fruit worms and cut-worms use DDT.

2. For control of aphids, horn worms, and leaf miners, use parathion.

Where growers wish to apply insecticides at weekly intervals, especially during

harvest time, the application should be made immediately after picking. A weeks

time usually elapses between pickings. Spray residues determined from limited

tests were heavy on foliage but not on fruit. Parathion quickly disappears, so

until further notice, it is recommended to follow the above spray program.

7mnnrtnnt: Parathion should not be applied to wet foliage in cool weather, and

should not be applied so late in the day that the spray fails to dry thoroughly

before nightfall. Apply insecticides separately or with the copper spray when-

ever possible, and once every two weeks should be sufficient. IMost nutritional

sprays should be applied separately, but manganese sulfate may be applied with

the copper spray.

Choice: Zineb (Parzate, Dithane Z-78 or Thiodow) may be substituted for nabam if

grower prefers it.

-.ortant: Copper is essential to proper growth of tomato plants and is superior

to the organic fungicides for control of bacterial spot. It is advisable to

get first spray of copper on plants as early as possible. Tomatoes need at




-2-

least two sprays of copper applied before time of fruit harvest. This is

especially true of new soils deficient in copper. Tomato plants do not obtain

enough copper from fertilizer secondaries to supply copper need.

Seedbed spraying: If late blight threatens young tender plants in bbe seedbed

stages of growth, whether actually in seedbed or in field, alternate Phygon-XL

with nabam or zineb and spray every 3 or 4 days until dang"-i p'sces,


PEPPERS

Fungicides: Weekly spray schedule alternating copper (Tri-Basic Copper Sulphate

type of preparation) and nabam (Dithane D-14, Thiodow, or Parzate Liquid) plus

zinc sulfate. Peppers seem to require considerable copper for proper growth.

Copper is also the best material for control of bacterial spot, an important

disease on the crop.

Insecticides: 1. For pepper weevil control, use DDT or Cryolite spray or dust.

2. For aphid control, use parathion spray or dust.

3. For flower thrip control, use nicotine sulfate spray. It is

suggested insecticides be applied with the copper spray.

Most nutritional sprays, if needed, should be applied separately, but manganese

sulfate may be applied with the copper spray.


CUCUMBERS AND SQUASH

Fungicides: Very good control of downy mildew (rust), the most important disease

on cucumbers and squashes, and fair control of powdery mildew, the second

ranking disease, has been obtained with nabam applied twice weekly. Some

growers believe they have had good control with copper sprays, and copper

is superior to nabam for control of the bacterial disease, angular leaf spot

and fruit rot, a seed-borne disease that occurs much less frequently than the

mildews. Copper is not satisfactory when downy mildew is severe. Also, too

much copper is injurious to cucumbers, causing a yellowing of leaf edges.* In

preventing damage by downy mildew, other foliage disease d"e to fungi will aP

alao be controlled.


. 70' 71




-2-

least two sprays of copper applied before time of fruit harvest. This is

especially true of new soils deficient in copper. Tomato plants do not obtain

enough copper from fertilizer secondaries to supply copper need.

Seedbed spraying: If late blight threatens young tender plants in bbe seedbed

stages of growth, whether actually in seedbed or in field, alternate Phygon-XL

with nabam or zineb and spray every 3 or 4 days until dang"-i p'sces,


PEPPERS

Fungicides: Weekly spray schedule alternating copper (Tri-Basic Copper Sulphate

type of preparation) and nabam (Dithane D-14, Thiodow, or Parzate Liquid) plus

zinc sulfate. Peppers seem to require considerable copper for proper growth.

Copper is also the best material for control of bacterial spot, an important

disease on the crop.

Insecticides: 1. For pepper weevil control, use DDT or Cryolite spray or dust.

2. For aphid control, use parathion spray or dust.

3. For flower thrip control, use nicotine sulfate spray. It is

suggested insecticides be applied with the copper spray.

Most nutritional sprays, if needed, should be applied separately, but manganese

sulfate may be applied with the copper spray.


CUCUMBERS AND SQUASH

Fungicides: Very good control of downy mildew (rust), the most important disease

on cucumbers and squashes, and fair control of powdery mildew, the second

ranking disease, has been obtained with nabam applied twice weekly. Some

growers believe they have had good control with copper sprays, and copper

is superior to nabam for control of the bacterial disease, angular leaf spot

and fruit rot, a seed-borne disease that occurs much less frequently than the

mildews. Copper is not satisfactory when downy mildew is severe. Also, too

much copper is injurious to cucumbers, causing a yellowing of leaf edges.* In

preventing damage by downy mildew, other foliage disease d"e to fungi will aP

alao be controlled.


. 70' 71





-3-


The all-important factor is application of fungicide. Downy mildew

attacks the lower leaf surface, and, if fungicide is not thoroughly covering

the lower leaf surface, the control is ineffective. Downy mildew of cucurbits

is a warm weather disease. Thus good spraying is far more important during

early fall months, April, and May, than during the winter months. During warm,

damp weather it may be necessary to spray cucumbers with naban every 3 or 4

days to prevent damage by downy mildew.

Insecticides: For aphids, leaf-miners, worms, beetles, use parathion until fruit

set, then use lindane.

To avoid injury to bees necessary for pollination, spraying or dusting

with insecticides should be delayed until afternoon or evening when bees are

least active.

Important: Parathion should not be applied to wet foliage. It should be applied

when spray will dry rapidly. There is danger of injury to plants if spray with

parathion stays wet for a long time. It appears undesirable to use parathion

on cucumbers before the plants are 7 or 8 inches tall, Lindane is preferred

on tender young plants.


POLE BEANS

Fnpcides: Spray weekly with Wettable Sulfur at 16 pounds per 100 gallons for

rust control. It is important that spray coat under-surface of leaves, because

the rust attacks under-surfaces. Rust usually does not appear on beans of the

fall crop until about November 25. Though it is too dangerous to wait until

rust becomes noticeable before applying sulfur, it is probably safe to wait

until November 15 to begin applications. Dusting with 35 to 50 pounds per acre

of 320 Mesh sulfur at least once a week is effective rust control.

Insecticides: Leaf-rollers, thrips, and chewing insects can be controlled with DDT

in the sulfur spray or dust.

For sucking and puncturing insects such as aphids and adult leaf-miners,

use parathion with the sulfur when needed before beans set on vines. It is











-4-


safe to use DDT or parathion with sulfur.

AS DUST: Apply 35 to 50 Ibs. per acre 5% DDT with sulfur dust.

Apply 35 to 50 lbs. per acre 1% or 2% parathion with sulfur dust.

AS SPRAY: Use 2 Ibs. 50% wettable DDT plus 16 Ibs. sulfur to 100 gallons hater or

1 lb. 15% wettable parathion.


CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER AND BROCCOLI

Fungicides: For control of leaf spots in field, nabam and zineb have been *-ost ef-

fective. Some tests with these crops have indicated that fungicides applied

as dusts gf:e better leaf-spot control than sprays, probably because of be'.te

sticking of dusts on the waxy surfaces if the application is timed properly.

Dusts should be applied when there is only slight dew on the plants be-

cause large drops of water will wash the dust off.

If a dust is preferred, use a preparation containing 5% active ingredient

of zineb.

In seedbeds, for control of downy mildew (often called Blue Mold by growers), use

4 lbs. wettable Spergon to 50 gallons water, or a 12% Spergon dust. Some

growers believe dusts have given better control than have sprays. However, in

seedbeds spray may be more effective than dust. It may be necessary to apply

Spergon to seedbed plants every other day to control downy mildew during damp

weather.

Insecticides: Application of 25 to 30 lbs. of 2% parathion dust per acre will con.'-

trol all aphids that attack crucifers. For control of cut-worms, toxaphene and

chlordane have been outstanding. Do not use toxaphene near harvest time. For

the control of loopers and cabbage worms, apply 30 to 35 lbs. of 10% toxaphene

dust rer acre. Do not apply insecticides within 30 days of harvest time or

after +.he heads form.





-5-


CORN

Funpjcides: If Helminthosporium leaf blight threatenswhile plants are still in the

whorl stage, spray weekly with nabam + zinc sulfate. In ca&.c wt weather con-

tinues, apply the fungicide twice weekly. Cease applicaY.tio:- -n the return of

bright, dry weather. Unless younger corn is being grown ncarbv, applications

should cease, regardless of wet weather, 10 days before harvest. Sprayer used

on crop in whorl stage of growth should have two nozzles over each row in ad-

dition to enough side nozzles to give complete coverage. Nabam is compatible

with DDT-Emulsion. If zineb is definitely preferred to nabam, 4 oz. of casein

must be added to each 100 gals. of zineb before any DDT-Fmulsion is added to

the mixture.

Insecticides: For control of earworms, DDT emulsion is suggested. Protection is

important so spray every other day until silks are dry. Details concerning

control of insect pests are presented in bulletin No. 466.


A LIST OF DON'TT" FOR GROWERS VO10 DO NOT WISH TO TAKE
UNNECESSARY RISKS

DON'T USE: DDT on squash, cucumbers, or melons.

DON'T USE: Toxaphene near harvest time.

don'tT USE: Toxaphene on cucumbers, melons, squash, peppers, beans or young tomatoes.

DON'T USE: Gamtox (BenzaieHexachloride) on Cucumbers, squash or melons.

DON'T USE: Chlordane on Cucurbits.

DON'T USE: Copper on beans or corn.

DON'T USE: Lime in a spray mixture that includes DDT or parathion or any other

modern organic insecticide, for the lime impairs insecticidal power.

DON'T USE: Phygon-XL with any materials except manganese (nutrient).

)nN'T APPLY: Nabam or Phygon-XL to tender, young tomato plants more often than

once a week. These most potent fungicides can stunt the plants if used to

excess.





-5-


CORN

Funpjcides: If Helminthosporium leaf blight threatenswhile plants are still in the

whorl stage, spray weekly with nabam + zinc sulfate. In ca&.c wt weather con-

tinues, apply the fungicide twice weekly. Cease applicaY.tio:- -n the return of

bright, dry weather. Unless younger corn is being grown ncarbv, applications

should cease, regardless of wet weather, 10 days before harvest. Sprayer used

on crop in whorl stage of growth should have two nozzles over each row in ad-

dition to enough side nozzles to give complete coverage. Nabam is compatible

with DDT-Emulsion. If zineb is definitely preferred to nabam, 4 oz. of casein

must be added to each 100 gals. of zineb before any DDT-Fmulsion is added to

the mixture.

Insecticides: For control of earworms, DDT emulsion is suggested. Protection is

important so spray every other day until silks are dry. Details concerning

control of insect pests are presented in bulletin No. 466.


A LIST OF DON'TT" FOR GROWERS VO10 DO NOT WISH TO TAKE
UNNECESSARY RISKS

DON'T USE: DDT on squash, cucumbers, or melons.

DON'T USE: Toxaphene near harvest time.

don'tT USE: Toxaphene on cucumbers, melons, squash, peppers, beans or young tomatoes.

DON'T USE: Gamtox (BenzaieHexachloride) on Cucumbers, squash or melons.

DON'T USE: Chlordane on Cucurbits.

DON'T USE: Copper on beans or corn.

DON'T USE: Lime in a spray mixture that includes DDT or parathion or any other

modern organic insecticide, for the lime impairs insecticidal power.

DON'T USE: Phygon-XL with any materials except manganese (nutrient).

)nN'T APPLY: Nabam or Phygon-XL to tender, young tomato plants more often than

once a week. These most potent fungicides can stunt the plants if used to

excess.





-6-


Alternate Phygon-XL with nabam or with Zineb in case late blight is

threatening the young plants.

DON'T USE: Parathion or any other organic compound on plants that are wet from

rain or dew. These organic compounds have all shown some plant injury when

spray stays wet for a long time. If the spray dries rapidly there is less

chance of injury.

DON'T USE: Iron as a nutritional spray in combination with any insecticide or fun-

gicide. Always apply it separately.


NAMES AND FORMULATIONS


New General Name


Dithane D-14 )
Paraate Liquid) Zinc Sulfate
Thiodow Liquid)


Naban


Amounts to
100 gallons Water


2 qts:3/4#(weighed carefully)


Procedure for preparing these tank-mix fungicides
First: Add liquid to water; stir thoroughly, allowing 30 seconds for mixing.
Second: Add dissolved zinc sulfate.
Third: If an insecticide is to be included with the fungicide allow 2 minutes
for the zinc sulfate to react before the insecticide is added to the
mixture.


Parzate )
Dithane Z-78)wettable powder
Thiodow )
Tri-Basic Copper Sulphate
Fermate
Zerlate
Phygon-XL
DDT 25% emulsion
DDT 50% wettable
DDT 40% wettable
Parathion 15% wettable
Lindane 25% wettable
Chlordane 50% wettable
Chlordane 40% wettable
Toxaphene 40% wettable
Toxaphene 60% emulsion
Toxaphene 50% emulsion
Cryolite
DuPont Spreader Sticker (mos
or (6ab
B1956 (Corl


Zineb


Ferbam
Ziram


t vegetables)
bage
n)


2 Ibs.
2 lbs.
2 Ibs.
4 lbs.
2 lbs.
2 lbs.
1 lb.
1 qt.
2 lbs.
2 1/2 lbs.
1 lb.
1 lb.
2 lbs.
2 1/2 lbs.
2 1/2 lbs.
3/4 qts.
1 qt.
6 Ibs.
2 oz.
4 oz.
4 oz,


COMPOUNDS






-7-


PRECAUTIONS

Every insecticide is a poison and should be handled as such.

Every one should and must be acquainted with the necessary precautions: Some

of them are:

Do not stand over a drum of insecticide powder while removing the top. A

tight fitting top usually comes off with considerable force and the

attendant can easily get a face full of the dust and inhale the vapors.

By all means avoid inhalation of any dust from wettable powders that are

being dumped into a spray tank.

Do not open containers with phosphatic materials in them, unless it is in

the open or in front of a ventilating fan. Always turn the head while

opening. All have disagreeable odors so no one will deliberately re-

main in their presence for long.

If any liquid insecticides, either chlorinated or phosphatic should spill

or leak, use sawdust or sand to absorb the liquid, then bury the absor-

bent material. Remove or repair the leaking container.

Precautions for handling these materials are always to be found on the

label and every effort should be made to see that they are carried out.

The more familiar we become with a product the more careless we are in

working with it.

Phosphatic insecticides are toxic to humans.

Wash face, hands, and arms after using phosphatic insecticides and before

eating or smoking.

Do not smoke while spraying or handling the wettable powder. Do not carry

smoking or chewing tobacco in your spray clothes.

Call a doctor immediately if operators handling phosphatic insecticides

develop symptoms of headache, blurred vision, weakness, nausea, cramps,

diarrhea or discomfort (tightness) in the chest.











It is strongly advised that every operator using phosphatic insecticides have

access to atropine tablets of a 1/100 grain strength.




9/28/53.




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