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Group Title: Mimeo Report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; 56- 3
Title: Limited vs full feed of concentrates for fattening steers on St. Augustine pasture and silage
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067625/00001
 Material Information
Title: Limited vs full feed of concentrates for fattening steers on St. Augustine pasture and silage
Series Title: Everglades Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Beardsley, D. W
Kidder, Ralph W
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Saint Augustinegrass -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: This report presents the results of the second series of steer feeding trials comparing the value of various levels of concentrate fed to steers being fattened on pasture and on grass silage in the dry lot. The first trial was summarized in Everglades Station mimeo report 55-7."
Statement of Responsibility: D.W. Beardsley and R.W. Kidder.
General Note: "September 1, 1955."
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067625
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 66463472

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/00

.^ -.3


LIMITED VS FULL FEED OF CONCENTRATES FOR FATTENING
STEERS ON ST. AUGUSTINE PASTURE AND SILAGE II

By

D. W. Beardsley and R. W. Kidder


This report presents the results of the second
in a series of steer feeding trials comparing
the value of various levels of concentrates fed
to steers being fattened on pasture and on grass
silage in the dry lot. The first trial was sum-
marized in Everglades Station Himeo Report 55-7.



EVERGLADES STATION MIEfIO REPORT 56-3

Belle Glade, Florida


September 1, 1955






LIMITED VS FULL FEED OF CONCENTRATES FOR FATTENING
STEERS OF ST. AUGUSTINE PASTURE AND SILAGE II

D. W. Beardsley and R. W. Kidder y


The second in a series of steer feeding trials comparing various levels of
concentrates as supplements to pasture and to silage in the drylot has been complete,
These tests are designed to help answer some of the questions and study some of the
problems arising from the use of pastures and silages for the major portion of a
fattening ration. The first trial was summarized in Everglades Station Mimeo Report
55-7. The third trial of this series will be conducted during the winter of 1955-6.

The first trial of the series mas run during the spring of 1954 when the
pastures were at their best. The second trial was held during the winter months whe.
the growth of the pastures is unpredictable and often rather limited.


METHOD OF PROCEDURE

Seventy steers of grade Angus, Hereford, Brahman and Devon breeding were
divided into seven uniform lots of ten steers each. One steer in each lot was a
yearling, while the remaining steers were coming two-year olds. The steers were
individually graded as feeders before being allowed to the various treatments. The
lots averaged about high medium as feeder steers.

Five lots were maintained on pasture while the other two lots were fed St.
Augustine silage in the drylot. Each lot on pasture had access to 4 acres of Rose-
lawn St. Augustine grass. The first six lots were handled the sane as in the first
trial. Another lot, Lot VII, was added during this trial in order to obtain more
information on the feeding of grass silage. The treatments were as follows:

Lot I Pasture only.
Lot II Pasture plus 6 lbs. of concentrates per steer daily for 120 day;
Lot III Pasture plus 6 Ibs. of concentrates per steer daily for 60 days
full feed for 60 days.
Lot IV Pasture alone for 60 days; full feed for 60 days.
Lot V Pasture plus full feed of concentrates for 120 days.
Lot VI Silage plus 6 Ibs. of concentrates per steer daily for 120 days.
fed in drylot.
Lot VII Silage plus full feed of concentrates for 120 days, fed in dryl

The steers receiving supplements on pasture were fed equal parts of ground
snapped corn, dried citrus pulp and blackstrap molasses 2/. The steers on the six
pounds of concentrates daily per steer were given the straight mill-run blackstrap
with no extra crude protein supplied. Steers receiving more than six pounds of con-
centrates daily on pasture were given urea-fortified molasses to supply extra crude
protein. During the first half of the trial this urea-fortified molasses contained
4% urea 2. The last half of the trial only a 3% urea-fortified molasses mixture wa.
available and consequently enough urea was mixed with the ground snapped corn to
supply the same equivalent crude protein supplement as in the 4% urea-fortified
molasses.


SAssistant Animal Husbandman and Associate Animal Husbandman at Everglades
Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida.
SMill-run blackstrap molasses, 85 degrees brix, was furnished by United States
Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida. The urea-fortified molasses was also
mixed by U.S.S.C.
3/ Urea (Two-Sixty-Two) was furnished by E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company.







- 2 -


The steers fed grass silage in the drylot were given ground snapped corn,
citrus pulp, straight mill-run molasses and a cottonseed meal-urea mixture designed
to balance the ration. The silage was fed according to appetite twice daily. The
concentrates were given to all lots once a day, in the morning. All steers had free
access to a complete mineral mixture.

The St. Augustine grass silage was made in an upright concrete silo. An
estimated 80 to 100 pounds of blackstrap molasses per ton of green material was added
as a preservative. Although the silage produced had a reasonably good sour-sweet
odor, small pockets of dry mold were scattered through some layers and palatability
may have been reduced a little. Chemical analyses of a few samples taken as the
silage was fed out gave the following results:

Dry matter 26.8 %
Crude protein (oven-dried sample) 9.9
Ether Extract ( ) 2.6
Crude Fiber ( ) 28.0
Ash ( ) 7.9
Nitrogen-free extract (oven-dried sample) 51.7

A preliminary period of 17 days was allowed for the steers to become ad-
justed to their surroundings and rations. The trial began on November 29, 1954, and
ended March 29, 1955, a 120-day feeding period. The steers were weighed individually
every 30 days during the study.


Results and Discussion

The steers were slaughtered at Miami and paid for on the basis of carcass
grade-out. Individual slaughter data was obtained on all steers. The results of
the trial are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

A definite shortage of grass in the pastures began to be apparent during
the month of January. Several days of frost in early December and continued cool
weather drastically reduced the growth of the grass. It was easy to tell during
January which lots were receiving supplemental feed by the amount of grass still
available in the pastures. Lot V on full feed of concentrates appeared to have
plenty of grass available even during January. The lots on limited feed still had
some grass available, while the ones receiving no supplementary feed were definitely
short of grass and lost during the second 30-day period what weight had been gained
during the first 30 days. Beginning the latter part of January the lots were rotated
in the various pastures in order to reduce the variation between lots due to the grasL
shortage. This allowed the steers on grass alone to gain a little during the last
60 days of the trial, and may have reduced slightly the gains of the lots on full
feed of concentrates.

All the gain made by lot IV was put on during the last 60 days when the
steers were on full feed. The steers were just beginning to fatten by the end of
trial. It took the last 60 days on full feed to recover from the lack of feed during
the first half of the feeding period. Lot II did not get enough grass to be able to
fatten on the limited ration fed. The supplement given was needed for maintenance
and growth and consequently less nutrients were available for putting on fat.

Gains for all lots were less for the winter trial than the trial held during
the spring. The differences were greatest for the lots which received grass alone for
all or part of the feeding period.






- 3 -


Table 1. Gains and Rations of Steers Fattened on Pasture and Silage.


Lot Number


I. II III


IV V


VI VTi


Number of steers
Av. initial wt., lbs.
Av. final wt., lbsa
Total gain/steer, lbs.
Av. daily gain, lbs.
Av. daily ration, lbs,
Ground snapped corn
Dried citrus pulp
Blackstrap molasses
Urea (262% C.P.)
Cottonseed meal (141% C.P.)
Mineral mixture
St. Augustine silage
St. Augustine pasture 4/
Av. lbs. feed/cwt. gain
Ground snapped corn
Dried citrus pulp
Blackstrap molasses
Urea (262% C.P.)
Cottonseed Meal (W4l C.P.)
Mineral mixture
St. Augustine silage
St. Augustine pasture 4/


10
706
714
35
0.29


10
688
799
112
0.93


10
673
874
201
1.68


10
722
822
100
0.83


,1


10
707 6
921 8:
21 1
1.78


10
89
14
26
1.05


-2.0 4.2 6,21, 5.8 2.0
- 2.0 4.2 6,21 5,8 2.0
2.0 4,2 6,.-2 5.8 1.0
(.26)/ (,25)3/ (.23)2/ .30
-- -,-- -- -- 1.2
.03 .04 .0o .04 .0o .09
6- 7. -- -- 35.2
61.4 147.4 34.6 27.4 11.8 --


215 250 374 328 191
215 250 374 328 191
-- 21 250 374 ,328 96
-- -- 7.5$)/(15.0)/(13,l)3/ 28.7
-- -- -- 115
10.4 4.7 3.1 5.3 2.8 8.8
-- -- -- 3369
21357 5101 2066 3288 662 --


10
681
91-
234
1.95

6.1
6,1
4.2
.27
1.1
.07
16.7


316
316
218
13.6

3.6
857


If Fed last 60 days only

2/ Fed as urea-fortified molasses and urea-corn mix last 60 days only.

/ Fed as urea-fortified molasses and urea-corn mix.

'/ Calculated on basis of TDN estimated in supplement and grass, and amount of
TDN estimated necessary for maintenance and gains.


IV v i VI


-- -









Table 2. Marketing data and returns for steers fattened on pasture and silage.


Lot Number


II III


IV V


VI VII


Av. killing wt., lbs./
Av. shrink, % 2/
Av. dressing percentage
Feeder grade: good
medium
Carcass grade: good
commercial
utility
cutter
Feed cost/cwt. gain/J
Total feed cost/steer h/
Av. cost/steer into feed lot 5
Av. selling price/cwt.6
Gross return per steer
Return per steer 7/


691
6.7
52.1
2
8
0
1
6
3
12.06
4.16
104.21.
12,45
92.25
-16.12


746
6.7
56.9
2
8
0
7
3
0
14.29
15.92
101.10
14.77
118.01
0.99


814
6.9
58.3
3
7
3
7
0
0
15.03
30.22
100.75
16.70
145.92
14.95


758
7.8
57.5
2
8
1
8
1
0
23,96
23.96
105.88
15.45
126.99
-2.85


Weight on arrival at slaughter house, Miami.
Based on final test weight at Belle Glade and killing weight


861
6.6
59.1
2
8
5
5
0
0
19.34
41.39
104.1U
17.57
161.80
16.27


764
6.2
56.0
2
8
2
5
3
0'
23.71
29.76
102.18
15.37
125,09
-6.85


966
5.2
60.4
3
7
10
0
0
0
19.76
46.15'
101.59
20.05
183.30
35.56


at Miami.


/ Based on killing weight and chilled carcass weight (warm carcass weight less
2.% cooler shrink).
4/ Calculations based on the following feed prices:
Ground snapped corn $ 40.00 per ton
Citrus pulp 37.00 "
Straight mill-run blackstrap molasses 20.00 "
Urea-fortified (h% urea) blackstrap molasses 29.00 "
(3% ) n n 27.00 "
Cottonseed meal (41% C.P.) 81.00 "
Urea (262% C.P.) 130.00 "
Mineral mixture 105.00 "
Silage 5.00 "
Pasture I nn n +r .nr


Feeder steer prices used per cwt.:
Low medium $13.00
Medium $I .oo
High medium $15.00


Low Good
Good


$16.00
$17.00


Calculated from final test weight at Belle Glade and the following dressed carcass
prices received per cwt.:


Good
Commercial
Utility
Cutter


$35.00
$28.50
$26.00
$24.00


y7 Gross return less steer and feed costs. No charge made for labor.


--


-4-


VI VII


0. V


p^-1 pvrj*r rJ* ml vnruJl


o mthf-







-.5-


The steers fed grass silage plus concentrates made slightly better gains
than the corresponding lots fed equivalent levels of concentrates on pasture.

The average daily feed consumption for the steers on full feed on pasture
during the winter trial, 17.h pounds, was identical with the trial held during the
spring when plenty of grass was available. Neither were there any differences noted
between trials for Lots III and IV which received full feed for the last 60 days.
Since the steers were approximately the same size in both trials, it would appear
that the maximum consumption of this type of concentrate mixture was reached.

During the latter stages of the trial the steers in Lot VII receiving si-
lage plus full feed of concentrates began refusing some of the molasses which was
poured over the rest of the concentrate mixture. By reducing slightly the molasses
given and increasing the corn and pulp, the total concentrate consumption of this lot
was kept the same as Lot V on pasture. No molasses refusal was noted for Lot V even
though they attained a maximum feed consumption of 21 pounds daily per steer, of which
7 pounds was urea-fortified molasses.

In Table 2 the carcass grades attained by the individual steers are given.
It was apparent that some of the steers in Lot I lost condition during the trial. The
other lots increased in condition in proportion to the amount of concentrates fed. As
might be expected, the average carcass grade of the steers fed silage in drylot was
slightly higher than the corresponding pasture fed lots.

The greatest return above steer and feed costs was shown by Lot VII. This
is no doubt a reflection of the fact that all ten steers in that lot attained the good
slaughter grade and therefore showed a higher average selling price. Lots III and V
on the highest levels of concentrates on pasture gave a reasonable return but less than
half that of Lot VII. The shortage of grass is obvious when considering the returns,
or lack of returns, for the other three lots on pasture. This is in decided contrast
to the trial held during the spring when Lot II showed the greatest return and Lot I
on grass alone gave almost as good a return as Lot V on full feed.

Lot VI fed limited concentrates plus silage in the drylot has given a net
loss both trials. Most of the steers in Lot VI at the end of the trial appeared to be
just about ready for a heavy concentrate ration to finish them off. The limited con-
centrates plus grass silage is a good wintering ration, but cannot be depended on for
finishing steers. The grass silage needs to be supplemented with plenty of high energy
feeds for best results. This is borne out by the carcass grade attained and the returns
for Lot VII.

Since the rations for the steers fed on pasture were designed to take advan-
tage of the protein content of the grass, the lots on full feed of concentrates may
have been a little short of grass and therefore slightly short of enough protein to
balance the concentrates given. The lower average daily gain for Lot V on full feed
during the winter than the same lot fed during the spring, 1.78 and 2.11 pounds, res-
spectively, might be a result of both less grass and less total protein available.
Under these circumstances, a practical solution to the problem of providing extra
crude protein would be to feed a half to one pound of cottonseed meal daily per
steer, rather than increasing the proportion of crude protein supplied by urea.


Summary

The second in a series of steer feeding trials comparing limited and full
feed of concentrates for fattening steers on pasture and silage was held during the








- 6 -


winter. Heavy frosts beginning in December greatly, reduced the grass growth in the
pastures and created a shortage of total feed which was most apparent for the steers
on grass alone.

The average daily gains for steers on pasture ranged from 0.29 pounds for
the lot on grass alone to 1.78 pounds for the lot on full feed of concentrates for
the 120-day period. The highest average daily gain, 1.95 pounds, was made by Lot VII
on full feed of concentrates plus St. Augustine silage in the drylot. The gains for
all lots fed during the winter were less than the comparable lots fed during the
previous spring when plenty of grass was available.

The steers on the highest levels of concentrates on pasture, Lots III and
V, produced high commercial and low good carcasses. Lot II on limited feed increas-
ed only slightly in condition and Lot I on grass alone lost condition. All ten steerE
on full feed of concentrates plus silage in the drylot produced carcasses which
graded good.

In this trial the greatest return, $35 per steer, was shown by Lot VII
given full feed in drylot. A reasonable return was obtained from the lots on the
highest levels of feed on pasture, but a loss was incurred for Lot I on grass alone
and Lot IV on a short feed of concentrates. Lot VI on limited feed of concentrates
plus silage in drylot also showed a loss.

With a concentrate ration designed to supplement grass and take advantage
of the protein the grass contains, a shortage of grass may also produce a shortage
of protein. When the ration already contains enough urea to supply 25 percent of
the crude protein needed, the additional protein necessary to balance the ration can
be supplied by cottonseed meal.




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