Information Pertinent to
BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION IN THE EVERGLADES
** ***- * *S -S *- ;**
The particular divisions of research are dealt with
by those persons directly responsible for that sec-
tion, with the report being compiled and edited by
Herbert L, Chapman, Jr,, Assistant Animal Husbandman.
Everglades Station Mimeo Report 54-1
(Revised edition 52-1)
Belle GLade, Florida
July 1, 1953
, L4- 1
COPPER DEFICIENCY IN CATTLE ON EVERGLADES AND OTHER MUCK PASTURES
R. W. Kidder, Associate Animal Husbandman
Everglades Experiment Station
The principle key to successful cattle raising on Florida muck soils is prevention
of copper deficiency. It is recognized that copper requirements of cattle are
associated with molybdenum toxicity, that cobalt helps the animal to use what
copper is available and that any shortage of phosphorus makes copper deficiency
more acute. It has been found that cattle on muck soil must consume from 2 to 5
times as much copper as is required by cattle on most of the mineral soils of the
State. If the animal does not consume enough copper, it will develop bony rings
above its ankles, a severe diarrhea, a faded or bleached hair coat and will stop
growing. The more advanced cases of copper deficiency develop the pacing gait,
cows fail to conceive or else produce very weak calves and calves from such cows
have very soft or brittle bones. No animal has been observed that died from volun-
tary consumption of salt mixtures containing relatively high levels of copper.
Cattle can be injured by force feeding too much copper sulfate or by getting copper
drenches in their lungs, or by putting too much copper sulfate in their drinking
THE VALUE OF CITRUS PRODUCTS FOR FATTENING STEERS ON EVERGLADES PASTURE
R. W. Kidder1 and H. L, Chapman, Jr.2
Everglades Experiment Station
Pasture grass is the most economical feed for cattle and how to get the most returns
from the use of grass constitutes one of the major issues at the Everglades Station.
Feeding records from previous trials indicate that the use of some supplementary
concentrate feeds for fattening steers has increased the return from pastures as
compared with those on pasture alone.
In this series of feeding trials dried citrus pulp, citrus molasses, ground snapped
corn and cane molasses were fed in comparative feeding trials, both with and with-
out an additional supplement of cottonseed meal, in order to determine their rela-
tive feeding value for fattening grade Brahman steers, on pasture.
Three trials of fifty steers each were conducted over an average period of 122 days,
The animals were selected as equally as possible in relation to previous treatment,
age, type and quality. They were divided into five lots of ten steers each and were
fed their rations while grazing Roselawn St. Augustine pasture. Water and minerals
were available at all times.
Blackstrap molasses was supplied by the U. S. Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, and the
citrus products were furnished by the members of the Citrus Processors Association.
The corn was both grown on the Station and purchased locally.
In the first trial, (October, 1950 to January, 1951) the rate of gain was less than
anticipated in all 5 lots. In the first place there was a possibility of deficiency
of protein in the grass at that season of the year. Second, these steers consumed
enough molasses to make any protein deficiency more acute and to reduce the consump-
tion of grass, By trial and error it was determined that the removal of the 1/2
inch plug reduced the flow of citrus molasses from the barrel, thereby decreasing
consumption rates. It was discovered at the time of slaughter that these steers had
previously been affected with photosensitization from Bermuda grass.
The second trial (February, 1951 to June, 1951) the cattle made a better gain redord
and the methods of feeding citrus molasses worked out for the first trial kept the
rate of consumption about the same for citrus and blackstrap. When combined as in
Lot III the cattle ate the same amount of citrus molasses as Lot II and 2 pounds pe:
steer daily of blackstrap, also. Grass consumption was about equal between lots.
In the third trial, (October, 1951 to February, 1952) cottonseed meal was added at
the rate of one pound per head daily to all 5 lots. This made possible nearly the
same rate of gain as was obtained in the second trial. Here again the steers in Lot
III having access to both kinds of molasses failed to consume as much grass as the
other lots and therefore did not gain as much as those on either molasses alone.
1, 2. Associate Animal Husbandman and Assistant Animal Husbandman, respectively,
Table 1. Fattening steers on St. Augustine Grass with Supplemental Ground Snapped
Corn, Citrus Pulp, Citrus Yolasses and Blackstrap Molasses.
Average of Three Trials, Oct. 1950 to Jan~ 1951, Feb. 1951 to June 1951,
and Oct. 1951 to Feb. 1952, Average Feeding period 122 days.
Ration Lot I -Lot II Lot III Lot V Lot V
Blackstrap Citrus Blackstrap (Bound Citrus
Molasses Molasses and Citrus Snapped Pulp
Number of Steers per Lot 29 29 30 30 29
pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds
Av. Initial wt. per steer 655.4 658.2 649.0 665.8 662.7
Av. Final wt. per steer 795.5 794.8 800.9 809.2 794.7
Av. Total Gain per steer 140.1 136.7 151.9 143.3 132.0
Av. Daily Gain per steer 1.15 1.12 1.27 1.17 1,08
Average Daily Ration / steer
Blackstrap Molasses 6.77 2.73 -
Citrus Molasses 7.79 7.13
Ground Snapped Corn 506 --
Citrus Pulp -- 4.92
Cottonseed Meal* 0.34 0.34 0.34 03 0.3 .3
St. Augustine Grass 50.5 45.5 40.5 55.5 51.5
Av. Daily Ration per Steer in Total Digestible Nutrients:
Blackstrap Molasses U.10 1.65 --
Citrus Molasses -- 4.42 4.O4
Ground Snapped Corn 3.71 -
Citrus Pulp 3.79
Cottonseed meal 0.21 0.21 0621 0.21 0.21
St. Augustine grass 5.94 575 4.85 6.56 6.10
Total 1025 10" T "1. 5 10.10
Av. Feed Intake per 100 Pounds Gain:
Blackstrap Molasses 58,6 -- 214.8 --
Citrus -695.5 561. --
Ground Snapped Corn -- -- 432.5 -
Citrus Pulp -- 55.6
Cottonseed meal 29.6 30.36 25.98 28.2 31.48
St. Augustine grass 4351.3 4325.0 3217.3 4723.1 4758.3
Cottonseed neal fed only in the third trial.
The average results of the three trials are presented in Table i As can be seen,
unsatisfactory gains were obtained when the carbohydrate feeds were fed without
the cottonseed meal, during the fall and winter months. The addition of one pound
of 41 percent cottonseed meal per steer daily to the rations produced approximately
65 percent more gain the following fall. However, the gains were still slightly
inferior to those obtained during the spring months when the carbohydrate supple-
ments were fed without the cottonseed meal. The addition of the one pound of
cottonseed meal during the fall and winter months also resulted in improved feed
utilization and increased grass consumption. The cottonseed meal evidently allevi-
ated the low level of protein present in the forage during these periods.
During the last two trials, when the protein levels of the totc-l ration were rela-
tively high, the ground snapped corn was the most efficient in rate of gain and
The citrus molasses was more palatable than the cane molasses. However, the cane
molasses was utilized more efficiently in this series of feeding trials than was
the citrus molasses.
PUREBRED AND CROSSBRED BEEF CATTLE IN THE EVERGLADES STATION HERD
R. W. Kidder, Associate Animal Husbandman, and
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Everglades Experiment Station
Three purebred herds of beef cattle are maintained at the Station--Devon, Brahman
and Angus, The growth records of these are being compared with their reciprocal
crossbred progeny under as uniform a system of management as possible, to evaluate
any differences due to breeding. These crossbred cattle obtained by breeding the
Brahman and Devon, and the Brahman and Angus, are being carried to the third genera-
tion in such ways as will produce animals which are 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Devon or
3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Angus.
The Brahman-Devon breeding program will be used as an example. The first generation
of cross bred animal is 1/2 Brahman and 1/2 Devon. These animals are then bred
either to a purebred Brahman or a purebred Devon. The second generation will then
be either 3/4 Devon x 1/ Brahman or 3/4 Brahman x 1/h Devon.
The 3/4 Devon x 1/4 Brahman crossbred will then be bred to a first generation
animal. The 3/4 Brahman x 1/4 Devon will be bred to a purebred Devon. The result-
ing third generation crossbred will be 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Devon, in each case.
The past two years a few selected first generation females were bred to a first
generation sire, in order to determine the relative performance of these offspring
with those of the rest of the beef herd. Up until the present time the first genera-
tion calves have been superior to those of either purebred lines and the succeeding
second and third generations, in growth rate, vigor and conformation. It is desired
to see if these qualities can be maintained in second generation Brahman x Devon
Diagram of cross breeding program for the Brahman and Devon breeds:
Devon Male x Brahman Female Brahman Male x Devon Female
F1 1.2 Devon x 1/2 Brahman
/ 1/2 Devon x 1/2 Brahman '
F2 3/ Devon x 1/4 Brahman / 3/ Brahman x 1/ Devon
S1/2 Devon x 1/2 Brahman
1/2 Devon ; 1/2 Brahman Devon
F3 /8 Devon x 3/8 Brahman
When a large number of animals have been developed in the third generation the plan
is to select and mate within the group to establish beef conformation, adaptability
to the climatic environment of southern Florida, growth rates, size and if possible
a uniform type and perhaps color. In using the polled strain of Devon there is a
possibility that many of the animals will not have horns.
FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS FOR PASTURE ON PEAT AND I7CK SOILS
U. T. Forsee, Jr., Chemist
Everglades Experiment Station
The fertilizing of pasture grasses requires more than maximum forage production.
The mineral requirements of the animals utilizing the grass must be satisfied also
and the requirements of the latter may be more than that found in the forage when
only the amounts necessary for maximum forage production are used. This is espe-'
cially true on soils low in mineral content such as peats and, to a lesser extent,
muck soils. Since the minerals normally included in the mixed fertilizers are the
ones of primary interest in a discussion of fertilizer requirements, these will be
NITROGEN.--Everglades soils contain about 3 percent nitrogen but this is tied up in
the protein and other nitrogen compounds comprising the organic portions of the
soil. Its use by the grass is dependent upon the natural oxidation of the soil
which releases the nitrogen in an ammonical form, which is in turn converted by
nitrifying organisms to nitrate. As nitrates, this element is subject to rapid
leaching by heavy rains and thus there may be periods of temporary nitrogen short-
age. Under normal conditions these natural processes of nitrification take place
rapidly enough to completely satisfy the requirements of pasture grasses. In fact
on loose textured soils this process may be so rapid as to cause a build-up of ni-
trates to such an extent as to allow, the grass to become toxic causing nitrate
poisoning. Older pastures may become packed or high vater tables may exclude air
from the soil to such an extent that nitrogen may become deficient. This has been
observed at intervals primarily on some areas of old St. Augastine sod and usually
occurs during the early spring when the growth rate speeds up and while the soil
temperatures are still at their winter time low. At this time such areas may re-
spond to applications of inorganic nitrogen. Also the same response may be in-
duced by aeration of the soil by some mechanical means to induce more rapid nitri-
fication which has been slowed down by a lack of oxygen and cold weather. Normally,
no nitrogen is recommended in fertilizers for pastures on peat and muck soils.
PHOSPHORUS.--This element is present in sufficient quantities in most virgin peat
soils to give maximum growth response. However, the phosphate content of the herb-
age will be increased by soil applications of some phosphate thus resulting in a
more nutritious forage. As the soils become more thoroughly decomposed certain
minerals may be released that tend to fix phosphates. Under such conditions the
phosphate requirements of the grasses increase. Experiments are now under way with
St. Augustine and Pangola grasses to determine the yield and quality responses of
these grassesto applications of superphosphate applied in whatever amounts that may
be necessary to hold the soils at various phosphate levels as determined by soil
tests. At present a somewhat arbitrary soil test value of 6 pounds per acre of
water soluble phosphorous is being recommended as the minimum level that should be
maintained in the soil in order to have maximum forage production and a satisfactory
phosphate level in the grass. The present standard fertilizer recommendations inp
clude 6 to 8 percent P205 in fertilizers for new peat soils and 12 percent for muck
and older peat soils,
POTASSIUM.--Virgin soils are very low in potash and rather heavy applications are
required to obtain maximum production of grasses. Due to the very high exchange
capacity of peat soils, potash does not leach appreciably and grass crops may uti-
lize any amounts of residual potash that may be present on older soils as a result
of previous fertilizer treatments. Frequently on areas previously used for heavily
fertilized vegetable crops no potash is required for pasture grasses, sometimes for
as long as five or six years. Previous fertility experiments have indicated a min-
imum soil test level of 60 pounds per acre of acid soluble potassium may be re-
quired for maximum growth of grass. Experiments are now under way to determine more
specifically the minimum soil test potash levels necessary for St. Augustine and
Pangola grasses. The standard recommendations now include 24 percent K20 in ferti-
lizer for pastures on virgin peat and 16 percent for muck and older peat soils,
COPPER.--Applications of this element to virgin peat soils are necessary for maximum
growth of most grasses and for a nutritious copper level in all grasses. Some
grasses such as Pangola will not grow without copper applications. Smaller applica-
tions of copper at intervals after the initial heavy application seem to be necessary
to maintain a sufficiently high level of copper in the herbage necessary for the
health of the grazing animals. Copper oxide and copper sulfate have been found
equally satisfactory in their ability to satisfy the copper requirements of plant
growing on Everglades peat and muck soils. Experiments are now under way with
copper oxide and copper sulfate to check the effect on yield and copper content of
St. Augustine and Pangola grasses when the materials are applied, (1) once only at
the beginning of the experiment with no subsequent applications, (2) initial plus
small annual applications and (3) initial plus smaller quarter annual applications,
Results of these experiments will be measured in terms of crass yields and copper
analyses. The present recommendation for copper is an initial application of 50
pounds per acre of copper sulfate or 25 pounds of 50 percent copper oxide followed
by annual applications of 12 to 15 pounds of copper sulfate or 6 to 8 pounds of
OTHER IINOR ELEMENTS.--Since manganese is generally deficient in Everglades soils,
is one of the elements necessary in animal nutrition, and symptoms of manganese de-
ficiency have been observed frequently on grasses, this element is recommended in
most pasture fertilizers especially on new land. Symptoms of boron and zinc de-
ficiencies have not been recognized or at least reported on pasture grasses growing
on Everglades soils. However, deficiency symptoms of each of these elements have
been diagnosed on vegetable crops including sweet corn which is a grass. For this
reason zinc and boron are usually recommended in fertilizers for new land planted
to pasture grasses,
Taking into consideration the above factors concerning each of the elements required
for grass production and animal nutrition and precluding any information from soil
tests that could show the requirements more specifically, the following standard
fertilizer recommendations should be followed as a minimum treatment guide for pas-
ture grasses on Everglades peat and muck soils
1. Virgin peat.--initial application, 0-8-24 with 3.0 percent CuO, 1.5 percent
MnO, 1.0 percent ZnO and 0.' percent B203 applied at 500 pounds per acre.
Subsequent annual applications, 0-8-24 with 1.5 CuO, 1.5 InO, 1.0 ZnO and
0.8 B203 at 300 lbs. per acre. After 5 years treat as older peat soils.
2. Muck soils and older peat.--O-12-16 with 1.5 CuO, 1.5 MnO, 1,0 ZnO and 0.8
3203 at 300 Ibs. per acre.
3. Old vegetable land that has been heavily fertilized.--0-12-16 with 1.0 CuO.
Frequently soil tests may indicate no need for fertilizer at all.
PASTURE CROPS FOR THE EVERGLADES AND SOUTH FLORIDA
R. J. Allen, Assistant Agronomist
Everglades Experiment Station
Adequate water control is a prime requisite for good pastures in South Florida.
For the Everglades region recommended permanent pasture grasses are Roselawn St.
Augustine, Pangola, Carib and Para. For winter supplementary pasture Oats and Rye-
grass are being used.
For the east coast and sandy soil regions recommended permanent pasture grasses are
Pangola, Pensacola Bahia, and for wet locations, Carib. For winter supplementary
pasture adequate water and fall fertilization is essential. Jhite and Hubam clover
has been used; Red, Crimson, and Subterranean clovers, Alfalfa, and some newer
varieties of Vetch show promise.
Bulletin 484--Grass Pastures in Central Florida-is recommended for descriptions of
grasses and discussion of flat-woods and sand pastures.
Principle pasture problems are (1) Maintaining uniform summer and winter grazing,
especially during the December January period and after frost; and (2) Proper
fertilization with reference to amounts, balance, minor elements, and split appli-
cations in relation to soil type and available moisture.
Research in progress or planned which is directed at a solution of these problems
includes: (1) Introduction of fast growing and hardy winter annual crops, and the
testing of these crops under grazing; (2) study of methods of interplanting these
crops into established pastures; (3) Experiments to determine maximum amounts of
fertilizer which can be economically used.
Small plot results indicate that Red, Crimson, Subterranean and Ladino clovers,
and Alfalfa will outyield La. White clover by a considerable amount. These clove-s
planted with Pangola do not suffer from grass competition during the winter and they
furnish nitrogen to stimulate the grass in the spring and to carry it through most
of the summer. Only the early Red Clover shows any promise of natural reseeding.
However, increase in production may offset cost of annual replanting, especially
when economical and positive methods of planting, are worked out, and if adequate
water control is available.
SUPPLEMENTARY CONCENTRATES FOR THE EVERGLADES
Victor E. Green, Jr., Assistant Agronomist
Everglades Experiment Station
At present there are about 1600 corn lines under test, Selections are being made
for resistance to Helminthosporium, shuck coverage, stalk height, ear height,
lodging, yield, hardness and keeping quality.
It is believed that small on-the-farm dryers will be necessary to properly dry and
Early planting is usually necessary (Feb. 1 March 30). Yields drop drastically
when the crop is planted later.
Released varieties showing up well in Belle Glade--Corneli (Cuba) 11, Funk G737,
and Big Joe (if seed are not selected for characters).
Light is a vital factor in obtaining large yields. More than 17,000 plants per
acre are not recommended. A table for calculating number of plants per acre br
different spacings and row widths follows:
Row Width Liniar feet of No. of mile
6" 9" 12" 15" row per acre. rows per acre
3 ft. 29010 21780 14520 10890 14520 11.0
3 ft. 24890 18667 12445 9334 12445 9.4
4 ft. 21780 16335 10890 8168 10890 8.3
Hill dropping with 2 or 3 plants to the hill with the hills further apart has been
shown to give plant that resist more wind damage.
Moving corn north--lengthens the stalk
Loving corn south--shortens the stalk
Moving corn east and west--usually works better if climate is the same in both
2. Grain Sorghum
Characteristics for good grain sorghum:
1. Resistance to Helminthosporium
2. Combine ability-short, small stalks
4. Open head that discourages mold.
5. High yield.
Eighty bushels per acre of grain have been obtained from sorghum at the Experiment
Early Hegari and Early Hegari Combine has yielded well when planted so as to miss
the rainy season and hurricanes.
Planting dates correspond to those of corn, can be planted in 3-foot rows, and can
be drilled in the row.
This crop has recently been shown to be profitable in the Everglades if sufficient
iron is added to the soil.
Heretofore iron has not been used as a soil addition to the muck; rice is an ab-
normally high feeder on iron.
Eighty bushels per acre of rice have been grown experimentally near Belle GLade.
California averages 72 bushels, Italy and Japan--80 bushels.
Rice is not subject to insects al ditmseaa as much as corn or sorghum.
4. Sweet Potatoes
Used as a fresh or dehydrated feed in times of surplus. Culls also are used as feed-.
not for planting. Special white varieties are under test.
then not flooded for any length of time they will yield 3-4 tons of dried feed per
Vines can also be grazed or fed in dry lot. No suitable harvesting machinery is
available in the Everglades. Existing equipment in the sweet potato areas can
probably be adapted if we begin growing them commercially.
R. WT, Kidder, Associate Animal Husbandman
While the forage grow.' on the lush pastures of the Florida Everglades is fundamen-
tally Food livestock feed a few conditions have been observed which produce unde-
sirable results. These conditions are not included in trade element deficiencies
nor are they parasitic or bacterial diseases, even though they destroy cattle when
There are several weeds or plants common on the peat and muck soils which are pop
tentially toxic. The incomplete list includes nightshade (Solanum gracile),
lantana (Lantana camera), butterweed (Senecio lobatus) and others less common.
These each produce specific symptoms in affected battle following their consumption*
Under certain conditions in the soil which produce or release larger amounts of
nitrogen than normal for the young forage plants, the forage may contain toxic
levels of nitrates. Cattle grazing such grass often die suddenly if not found
promptly and treated with methylene blue. The circumstances which produce this
problem should be avoided.
Another condition, Photosensitization, develops following a frost or mowing, when
a mold grows on the dead grass (especially Bermuda). When consumed by cattle, the
mold evidently inhibits the normal excretion of a by-product from the digestion of
chlorophyll called "phyloerythrin". This material is then passed into the blood,
through the liver and excreted through the kidneys. While this is in the blood the
affected animal is very susceptible to sunburn. Areas affected will be the muzzle,
the eyes and then white spots, thin skinned areas, ears, udders and flanks. The
urine is very dark appearing as though bloody. For want of a specific name this has
been called"Bermuda photosensitization". It can be controlled and avoided by proper
Some cattle fail to make satisfactory gains at-certain times of the year. When cattle
which do not have some degree of Brahman blood, are kept on Everglades pastures dur-
ing the summer months, they show extreme discomfort by their panting and other
actions unless they have plenty of shade. Even with shade they do not maintain their
body weight at this season.
If the failure to grow properly occurs during the winter and there is no shortage of
pasture the trouble is most likely to be an inadequate supply of protein in the forage.
One pound per day per animal of a 40 percent protein feed or 2 pounds of a 20 per-
cent protein feed should correct the nutritional deficiency and improve the rate of
THE NEED FOR PROTEIN IN FATTENING STEERS ON EVERGLADES PASTURE1,2
Herbert L. Chapman, Jr.3
It has been a practice since the beginning of the cattle industry in the Everglades
area to utilize the extraordinary pastures available as not only the cheapest scur-oe
of feed but also as the only feed. The pasture forages, carrying capacity and gar!s
per acre have been compared with those found elsewhere in the state and the practi-
cality of supplementary feeding questioned.
However, experimental feeding trials conducted at the Everglades Experiment Station
over the past years indicate that there may be a need for a supplemental feeding
program that will furnish a sufficient quantity of protein during the winter months,
even when there appears to be an ample supply of pasture forage available. monthly
weights have been kept of each animal that has been on the Station since a beef
cattle herd was established in 1931. A survey of these weights from 1943 to the
present indicated that weaning weights in the herd were normal in comparison with
weaning weights reported in other southeastern portions of the country; however, the
weights at twelve months of age were below normal. It has been a practice to wean
the calves during the fall months of the year. They are removed from their dam and
placed on pasture, with no supplementary feed, just at the time when the forage is
declining both in quantity and quality. As a result they have not been receiving a
sufficient daily nutrient intake to support their maintenance requirements and also
provide a maximum growth rate.
Approximately five years ago, there were a number of animals in the herd that were
fed a small ration of one pound of cottonseed meal daily, during the period from
weaning to about 15 months of age. These animals demonstrated a faster than normal
growth and maintained this advantage to maturity.
A series of three 120 day feeding trials were completed earlier this year, comparing
the value of various carbohydrate feeds when fed as a supplement to two year old
steers grazing Roselawn St. Augustine pasture. The first trial was conducted dur-
ing the fall of 1950 and the second during the spring of 1951. The steers were com-
parable in weight, age, type and condition. The feeds were the same. Yet the
average daily gains in the fall were 0.7 of a pound as compared with 1., pounds
during the spring. During the final trial one pound of 41 percent cottonseed meal
was added to an otherwise duplicated trial. The average daily gains were 1.27 pounds
in the fall trial of 1951.
TWhile these are preliminary observations it brings to mind several questions that
will be answered with further experimental work, 1That is the protein content of the
various pasture forages throughout the year? That percent protein is needed in a
concentrate feed supplement at different times of the year? How much supplement
is needed for the most efficient, most economical and maximum gains? Experimental
work now planned will answer these and other questions.
Protein of good quality is very important in the growth and development of our young
calves. Aside from water, the body increases--the development of muscle, body organs,
and the various fluids of the body--are mainlyderived of protein. There is also a
certain amount of protein required for body maintenance. whilee roughage is our
cheapest feed and should form the major part of our wintering ration, sufficient con-
centrate feed, of adequate protein content'should be given, if necessary, to provide
the necessary nutrients for thrifty growth.
There have been numerous investigations throughout the country that have shown
rations to have their digestibility reduced when there is a too large proportion of
carbohydrates and too small proportion of protein. This reduction of digestibility
occurs in ruminants when the nutritive ratio: is wider than about 1:8 to 1:10.
Roughly speaking this means that for about 8 to 10 pounds of digestible carbohy-
drates the ration should contain one pound of digestible protein. The amount of
protein would be dependent upon the type and amount of roughages fed and also upon
the protein content of the forages used. Dr. "., T. Forsee of this Station has
analyzed different pasture forages at various times of the year and found St. Aunis-
tine grass to vary from 7.90 percent protein in the fall of the year to 14.69 per-
cent in the spring.
Last spring the first of four feeding trials was conducted at this Station in which
the value of various protein feed supplements was studied, when added to a carb'11y-
drate fattening ration. The animals used were grade Brahman steers similar in age
and weight. The results are presented in Table 2.
As can be seen, there was a slight increase in the average daily gain with the addi-
tion of peanut oil meal, cottonseed meal or urea to the basal ration. However, these
differences can hardly be called significant. Then either one of these three supple-
ments was added there was a more economical utilization of feed, as is demonstrated
by the feed consumption per hundred pounds of gain.
Since there has been work at various stations in the south, including Georgia, Florid:
Tennessee and Texas, to show peanut oil meal comparable with cotton-seed neal a: -
protein supplement, it is planned to revise the remaining three trials to exclude JL -
nut oil meal and include a lot an grass, alone. The five lots will be as follows
Lot 1. Grass alone
Lot 2. Grass and basal ration of carbohydrates
Lot 3, Grass and basal ration and urea
Lot 4. Grass and basal ration and cottonseed meal
Lot 5. Grass and extracted alfalfa meal.
Complete grass analysis will be continued in conjunction with the steer feeding
1. Urea 262 was supplied by E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company
2. Extracted alfalfa meal was supplied by American Chlorophyll Company, West Palm
3. Assistant Animal Husbandman
TABLE 2.--Summary of the Steer Feeding Trial from February 25 June 24, (120
days), Comparing the Feeding Value of Various Protein Supplements
When Added to a Fattening Ration of Carbohydrate Feeds.
Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV Lot V
Number of Animals 10 10 10 10 10
(lbs.) (lbs.) (Ibs.) (lbs.) (.bs.)
Average Initial 1Jt.,
per steer 611.0 605.5 624.0 587.5 594.5
Average Final Ueight,
per steer 807.0 818.5 828.5 780.0 801.0
Average Total Gain,
per steer 196.0 213.0 204.5 192.5 206.5
Average Daily Gain,
per steer 1.63 1.78 1.70 1.60 1.72
Average Daily Feed Consumption, per steer
Blackstrap Uolasses 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Around Snapped Corn 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Citrus Pulp 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Cottonseed Meal 1,0
Urea Mix (15% Urea 262 +
85% Ground Snapped Corn) 1.0
Peanut Oil Meal 1.0
Total 6.00 6.00 6.00 7.30 6.00
Average Total Feed Con-
sumption per cwt. of Gain 367.35 338.03 352.08 456.25 348.67
PASTURE INVESTIGATIONS AT THE EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION
June 25, 1951 May 25, 1953
Herbert L. Chapman, Jr., Assist. Animal Husbandman
Everglades Experiment Station
During the period from 1942 to 1948 there were pasture grazing experiments conducted
at this Station that resulted in quite large average gains per acre. These are
summarized briefly in Table Number 3.
Table No. 3. Yield of Everglades Grasses in one acre grazing trials 1942 to 1948
at Everglades Experiment Station*
Grass Number Av. itb. CGazing Av.gain Av.daily (rass Highest
Variety Years of Steers Days/A Ibs/A gain grazed gain
Ibc/day Ibs/A lb:''/
St. Augustine 5 549 114o 1802 1.64 94, 700 2090
Pangola 3 498 1009 1079 1.08 67.600 1500
Carib 5 50 8b 6 1030 1.13 61,800 1980
Para 5 5 777 841 1,08 54,400 1609
Coastal Bermuda 5 531 852 660. 0.79 52,300 1400
*Annual Report Florida Agricultural Experiment Station 1948.
In order to offer further grazing data to the cattlemen of the areas where peat and
muck soils predominate a new series of experimental pastures have been established
and the first year of grazing records just completed. There have been a series of
nine pairs of two acre pastures established to compare the relative values of Common
St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (ffalt.) Kuntze), Roselawn S. Augustine
(a more upright growing species of St. Augustine grass), Carib grass (Eriochloa
polystchaya H.BK.), Pangola grass (Dii'taria decumbens Stent.), Para grass (Panicum
barbinode Trinius) and Common Bermuda (Cynodon dactlyon Pers.) in carrying capacity
per acre, gains per acre and grass yield per acre. There is also a comparison of
continuous versus alternate grazing being made. The animals being used on these
trials range from 400 800 pounds in weight and are kept as uniform as possible in
respect to age, weight, sex and condition. The condition of the various pastures
controls the number of animals grazing them at a given time.
The results of the grazing trials for the period from July 1, 1951 to May 25, 1953
are offered in Table 4.
Alternate grazing of Roselawn St. Augustine and Pangola grass indicates the necessity
of altering the number of cattle to each grass. The Pangola has not demonstrated
the carrying capacity or rate of gain of the Roselawn St. Augustine in either of the
two years. A study of Table No. 3 also indicated the poor results obtained from
grazing Common Bermuda.
During the first year, when there were no winter frosts, Pangola, Para and Carib
grass furnished grazing throughout the year. However, during the second year these
frost sensitive grasses were not grazed from- periods ranging from one to the-e mo:, n.:.
Vhile it may be possible to obtain grazing from these grasses during the entire -yea:?
they should not be entirely depended upon during the winter months.
Table No. 4.--Results of grazing trial pastures, July 1, 1951 --- Flay 25, 1953.
Pasture CGass Type Av. Yt. Av. Av. No, Est. BGass
Number Variety Grazing of Gain Animals Yield per
Animals Per per Acre Acre (Lbs.)
* No record obtained from July 1, 1952 May 25, 1953'
1 (A + B)