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Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; 56- 8
Title: Controlling weeds in roadways, along ditch banks and around industrial buildings
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067573/00001
 Material Information
Title: Controlling weeds in roadways, along ditch banks and around industrial buildings
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Guzman, V. L ( Victor Lionel ), 1914-
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Weeds -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: "This report represents a part of information presented before a meeting of the American Road Builder's Association at Miami Beach on January 14, 1956 and will be published in the official publication of that organization."
Statement of Responsibility: V.L. Guzman.
General Note: "April 18, 1956."
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067573
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 65431330

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CONTROLLIM IITEEDS IN ROAIMAYS, ALONG DITCH BANKS
AND AROUND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

by

V. L. Guzman


H;M-;;:;H ;-;;----;MHHH;-:;MH;;-MH HH-:;H-H;-;HH^






This report represents a part of information pre-
sented before a meeting of the American Road Build-
er's Association at Miami Beach on January 14, 1956
and will be published in the official publication
of that organization.






EVERGLADES STATION M~IMO REPORT 56-8

Belle Glade, Florida


April 18, 1956


roa
to' 53-
3 ,,t








CONTROLLING WEEDS IN ROADWAYS, ALONG DITCH BANKS
AND AROUND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

V. L. Guzman Y/

The rapid growth of weeds in farm roadways, along ditch banks and on in-
dustrial sites is a serious problem under the subtropical climate of southern FloridA.
Various mechanical means in use for the partial kill of weeds have a temporary effo':
only, and under these conditions it is probable that chemicals may give a better and
more lasting control.

The herbicides used in experiments reported here are expressed in pounds
per acre of the commercial formulation except for 2,h-D which is expressed on the
basis of acid equivalent. Unless otherwise stated herbicides were applied in 30 gal-
lons of water per acre dilution. The best treatments were repeated in two or three
of the experiments. New chemicals were added and those giving poor control were
omitted from one experiment to the next. The treatments used are indicated in Table
1, whether they were replicated or not in two or more trials, Five tests were con-
ducted, three on mineral and two on muck soils.

The effectiveness of weed control and the residual effect obtained with
the various herbicides used are given in Table 1. Treatments 1 to 29, inclusive,
were used on roadways of farms located on mineral soils. Treatments 26 to 36, in-
clusive, were used around industrial buildings, or along fences on muck soil loca-
tions. In one case the treated area was near fruit trees and ornamental plants.
Treatments 37 to 62 were used for the eradication of Bermuda grass on a lawn located
on muck soil.

Best control of grasses was obtained with Dalapon (10 to 20 lbs/A) followed
by TCA (100 Ibs/A). At the rates used, Dalapon did not control broadleaf weeds. Pare
grass was also controlled by two applications, one month apart, of 5 pounds of Dalapor
Retreatment may be necessary after six months to kill new shoots which were not affect
ed by the herbicide. The urea derivatives, Karmex W and FW, when used at low rates
(5 to 10 Ibs/A) and 2,4-D at the 2-pound rate controlled most of the broadleaf weeds
satisfactorily but failed to control grasses. When 5 pounds of Karmex W and 10 pounds
of Dalapon were applied as a mixture good control of grasses and other weeds was ob-
tained. The combination of 2 to 10 pounds of Karmex W with. 2 pounds of 2,h-D sub-
stantially increased their herbicidal properties also. Karmex W and Karmex FW when
used at higher rates (O0 pounds or more) were excellent weed killers, and sterilized
the soil (either muck or inorganic) over a long period of time.

Two months after the application of herbicides, Bermuda grass began to
grow from the sides of the plots into the treated areas, except in plots which re-
ceived the highest rates of the chemicals. Control of Bermuda was also effective
with the lowest rates of Dalapon. In general two applications of the herbicides
gave better control of Bermuda than double the rate of each when applied only once.
The chemical treatments, even at the lower rates, gave some control of Bermuda when
compared with untreated check plots. The high rates of application of most of the
herbicides (except for Dalapon, which appears to give better control at lower rates,
10 to 25 pounds per acre) gave good control of the grass, but their residual effects
varied. For instance, MH-40 gave good control of Bermuda grass but its effect did
not last more than four months. It appears that on muck soils and for the purpose
of eradication of Bermuda grass, two to three applications of Dalapon at the rate of
10 pounds per acre or Karmex W and Karmex FW at the rate of 0O to 80 pounds per acre

1/ Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida







- 2 -


Table 1. Effect of herbicides on the control of grasses, broadleaf weeds and
brush growing in farm roadways, ditch banks and around industrial
areas and duration of the control in months.

Control Control
Treatments Lbs/A Kinds of Weeds index 5/ in months


1. Check
2. Dalapon
3. "
he "II
"I
6. C6249
7. II
8. TCA
9o "
10, Polybor
11. It
12. Karmex I'
13. tI
1.S. II
1. "
15. II
16. PCP in v
17. "
18. PCP in d
19. "
20. Diesel
21. Dalapon
22, "
23. Karmex I
214. Dalapon
25, "
26. "
27. 2,4-D
28. 2,4,5-T
29. 2,4,5-T
30. Dalapon
31. Dalapon
32, Ammate
33. Karmex I"
34. 1"
35. Karmex V
36, MH-40
37. Oktone i
38, Polybor
39. "
40. "
41.
42. TCA
l43 TCA
44, TCA
45, TCA
466 Karmex 1
47. '
48. "
49. '
50. Karmex


Chlorate
It
S+ 2,4-D
+ It
+ It

rater
11
diesel oil
II I


oil
+ Karmex
It

+ 2,4-D
+ II



+ 2,4-D

+ Karmex

*I


W + 2,4-D


J + TCA

.n diesel oil
chlorate
II


10
20 2/
20
402/
10
20 1/
100
200 1
500
1000
5+2
lo + 2
10 + 4 2/
10 + 2
20 + 4 I/
10%
20%
1%,
20% 1
30 gallons
10 + 2
lo + 4

10 + 2
5 + 5M
2
2
1+1
20
10 + 5 + 2
30
80
100
10 + 20
10
8
400
400 + 400oo
800
800 + 800 4/
50
50 + 50 Y
100
100 + 100
40
40 + 40o _/
80
80 + 80 V/
40


Para, Napier and 0
Bermuda grasses 7
mixed with various
Broadleaf weeds 7
and brush 7

II It 6
It II 6
II II 9
it $7
It II 7

t" II 8
8
II It 9
I" "I 2
: 1 2
II I 3

II It 2
II II 7
II It 9
SnIt 6
8
it II 8
iI n 8
It n 6
iI I 6
II I1 7
It II 8
It a 9
II nI 8


I II 8
It I 10
Bermuda grass 7
ii II 3
IIn n 6

11 11 9

I Itt 6
It II 5
II I 8



II II 10
II 10
II I 10
It II 5


7W







-3-


Table 1. continued ..........


Control Control
Treatments Lbs/A Kind of Weeds index 5/ in months

51. Karmex FW 40 + 40 Bernuda grass 7 10
52. 80 5 10
53. 80 + 80 / 9 12
5. MH-4O 3 "i 4 1
55. 3 3 V/ 7 3
56. 6 6 2
57. 6 +6/ "
58. Dalapon 25 10 6
59. 25 + 25 / 10o 6
60. 50o n 9 6
61. 50 + 50 / 7 6
62. Check 0 0 0


In 60 gallons per acre.
Applied in solid form.
In two applications; 25 to 30 days apart.
" 2.5 months apart.
Zero, no control; ten, complete control (grass killers were
brush and weed killers were not rated on grasses).


rated on grasses;


applied twice will control the grass satisfactorily. It nay be pointed out that the-
effect of Dalapon on the toxic residue in the soil is of relatively temporary nature,
which permits the growth of plants not belonging to the grass family one or two
months after treatment. The Karnex herbicides tend to remain in the soil for a long
period of time and in most cases no vegetation grows in the treated areas for six
months or more depending on the rate used.

It was observed that rainfall run-off transported the Karmex herbicides to
lower locations in the field and in some instances susceptible valuable plants locat-
ed in low spots were seriously injured. Iost of the ornamental plants growing near
the treated area were susceptible to the effect of Karmex herbicides. The injury de-
pended on the amount applied or carried by rain to areas around the plants. When the
dosage was not lethal, peaches, papayas, guavas, mangoes, avocadoes, hibiscus, night
blooming jasmine, bougainvillea, and other plants exhibited marginal yellow patterns
which extended irregularly to the midrib and growth and production of fruit appeared
to be impaired seriously. Citrus plants, bananas, pineapples, amaryllis and gladiola
growing in the same vicinity seemed to be affected to a lesser degree or not at all.
The use of Dalapon under similar conditions (spraying the grass weeds around the
plants and shrubs) produced severe defoliation of most of the ornamental and fruit
plants listed above. This condition seemed to bring about failure to produce rapid
growth and fruit formation. These are preliminary observations only and need further
study to confirm the action of urea derivatives and Dalapon on fruit trees and orna-
mental plants.

When low rates of Karmex W were used, excellent control of most weeds was
accomplished when mixed with Dalapon. Another promising mixture was 2 pounds of
2,$-D with 10 pounds of Dalapon, which controlled most weeds, not quite as effective-
ly as the high rates of Karmex W, but adequately enough to suggest its use. The mix-










ture is especially adapted to localities such as ditch banks on muck soils, where
water erosion of bare soil could be a serious problem and where a relatively fair
control of weeds is sufficient.


Ammate
2,4-D,
etc.).


Good to excellent control of brush was accomplished with 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T.
and high rates of the Karmex herbicides. Retreatment was necessary when using
2,4,5-T and Ammate to'kill new regrowth of the brush elderberriess, willows,


In most instances high temperatures and good moisture in the soil, espe-
cially in the upper layer, are necessary for effective control of weeds. However, in
the case of Dalapon or mixtures of Dalapon and 2,4-D, moisture in the upper layer of
the soil is not as important as with TCA, Karmex herbicides, or polybor chlorate.

When using 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T it is recommended not to spray areas closer
than 1/4 of a mile to a susceptible crop in order to avoid possible damage due to
drift of the material.

Classification of the herbicides according to their usefulness follows:


CGass killers mainly


Dalapon
TCA
MH-40
C6249
Dalapon


Rates in Lbs/A


10-20
100
6
20
5-5


Remarks

20 Ibs/A for Napier grass

Small grasses

Para grass


Broad leaf and brush killers mainly:


2,l-D
2,14,-T
Ammate
Karmex W
Karmex FW


2 or 3 applications may
be necessary
It

It


Contact weed killers mainly:


Oktone in diesel oil
PCP
Diesel oil


8
10%
30-60 gal./A


For herbaceous plants
II
II


Soil sterilants mainly when used
at high rates:


Karmex W
Karmex FW
Polybor-chlorat e


Combinations of grass and broadleaf
herbicides proven to be effective:

Dalapon and 2,h-D
Dalapon and Karmex U


80-100
80-100
1600


10 + 2
10 + 2-5


Kill all kinds of weeds
and brush
II


Small grasses
It Ii


2
2
30
5-ho
5-ho







-5-


Herbicides used in these experiments are listed as follows according to
common name and active chemical:


Common Name


Chemical Compound


Dalapon
TCA
MHAt0O
C6249
2,4-D
2,h,5-T
Karmex W
Karmex FWI
Oktone
PCP
Polybor-chlorate

Ammate


a,a, dichloropropionic acid (sodium salt 85%)
Sodium trichloroacetate
Sodium salt of naleic hydrazide
Sodium 2,2,3-Trichloropropionate
2,h dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
2,h,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
3-(p-chlorophenyl)-l, 1-dimethylarea
Phenyldinethylarea
Octachloro cyclohexenone
Pentachlorophenol
Mixture of sodium pentaborate, tetraborate and chlo-
rate
Ammonium sulfanate



Ackna tled agents


The assistance given by Dr. R. J. Allen, Jr. and T. Lanier in conducting
certain phases of the experiments is gratefully acknowledged.




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