Everglades Station Miaeo Report. 59-2
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL METHODS POR GROWER TRIAL
IN VEGETABLE CROPS ON ORGANIC SOILS OF
J. R. Orsenigo
This is a revision of EES Mimeo Report 57-6.
The recommenations and suggestions given herein
are based upon experiments conducted at the Ever.
glades Experaiment Station since 1952 and are
intended for grower guidance and femiliarization.
Growers are urged to observe the manufacturer's
labelling precautions since some uses indicated
in this report .> not have FDA approval for
commercial use in certain vegetable crops as of
EVERGLADES STATION MIMEO REPORT 59-2
Belle Glade, Florida
9 September 1958
September 9, 1958
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL METHODS FOR GROWER TRIAL
IN VEGETABLE CROPS ON ORGANIC SOILS OF
(Supersedes EES Mimeo Report 57-6)
J. R. Orsenigo
Chemical methods of weed control are gaining popularity as production tools
in vegetable crops. Alone, these chemicals do not insure a record crop; but,
the herbicidal treatments listed below offer timely, effective, and economical
weed control for certain vegetables. As with any practice, the best results are
obtained by using: THE RIGHT CHEMICAL FOR THE CROP AND WEEDS: IN THE RIGHT
AMOUNT: IN THE RIGHT WAY: AT THE RIGHT TIME: and IN THE RIGHT PLACE.
The recommendations and suggestions in this report are intended for grower
guidance and familiarization with herbicides, application methods, and the
potential of weed control chemicals under each grower's situation. It is
suggested that initial trials be restricted to limited acreage and that the
precautions and indications of the manufacturer's label be carefully followed.
Herbicide rates are expressed on a per-covered-acre basis in terms of
active ingredient. A brief glossary of herbicides and herbicide terminology
is given on page 3 and is followed by illustrations of methods of herbicide
RECOMMENDED herbicidal treatments (chemical, rate, and manner of application)
are those considered generally reliable for commercial production when used as
specified. It is recommended that growers without prior herbicide use experience
confine their initial applications to a limited acreage.
SUGGESTED herbicidal treatments may represent promising materials which have not
been fully tested locally or materials which do not have current FDA approval
for the crops indicated. Growers may wish to utilize suggested treatments on
a trial basis on a very limited acreage.
GREEN BEANS: PRE EMERGENCE
RECOMMENDED: DINITRO, 9 to 12 lbs./A. (Rate should be cut to
3 Ibs./A. if beans are breaking ground)
SUGGESTED: EPTAM 4 to 6 lbs./A.
RA.DOX 4 to 6 lbs./A.
VEGEDX 4 to 6 lbs./A.
CABBAGE: DIRECT-SEEDED: PRE-EMERGENCE
RECOMMENDED: RANDOX 4 to 6 lbs./A. (more effective on grasses)
VEGEDEX 4 to 6 lbs./A. (more effective against broadleaf
_/ Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
CELERY: POST-TRANSPLANTING; PRE- OR POST IRRIGATION*
VEGEDEX 4 to 6 lbs./A.
CIPC 6 to 9 lbs./A.
RAMDOX 4 to 6 lbs./A.
(only when moderate temperatures
* But prior to emergence of weed seedlings.
Before or after customary irrigation at setting time.
SWEET CORN: PRE-EMERGENCE
DINITRO 9 to 12 lbs./A.
2,4-D AMISE, 2 lbs./A.
to 6 lbs./A.
to 6 lbs./A.
to 4 Ibs./A.
to 6 lbs./A.
SWEET CORN: POST EMERGENCE
DINITRO 1 to 3 lbs./A.,
overall-band at 2 to 4 leaf stage
and directional to 12 inches.
2,4-D AMINE 3/4 to 1 lb./A., overall-band to spike stage
and directional on plants 12
inches or taller. DO NOT APPLY
TO EARLY VARIETIES.
LEAF CROPS: PRE-EMERGENCE
(endive, escarole, chinese cabbage ee,lettuce romaine)
VEGEDEX 2 to 6 lbs./A.
3 to 6 lbs./A.
FOR VERY LIMITED ACREAGE TRIALS
ONLY. VARIETAL TOLERANCE NOT
FOR LIMITED TRIAL ONLY. WHEN
MODERATE TEMPERATURES PREVAIL.
NOTE: Generally, pre-emergence herbicides are effective against germinating
weed seeds and very small weed seedlings, and, ordinarily, these materials will
not control emerged weeds. Thus, land should be freshly prepared, seeded and
followed promptly by herbicide application. Planter mounted spray equipment
CIPC isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (Diamond, Fasco, General, Ortho and
other chemical suppliers).
Dinitro DNBP, alkanolamine salts of dinatro-0-sec-butyl phenol, Sinox PE or
Premerge (Dow, Standard Agricultural and other chemical suppliers).
Eptam ethyl-di-n-propylthiolcarbamate, Eptam 6E (Stauffer).
Karmex W 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-l, l-dimethylurea, CMU (duPont).
Randox a-chloro-N, N-diallyl acetami CDAA (Mondanto).
Simazine 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine, Simazine 50W (Geigy).
2,4-D amine amine salts of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (many formulators
Vegedex 2-chloroallyl diethyldithiocarbamate CDEC (Monsanto).
Band application applying the herbicide in a narrow continuous strip in, over,
or along the crop row rather than over the entire field area.
Broadcast application applying the herbicide over an entire area rather than
in a band only.
.Contact herbicide an herbicide that kills principally by direct contact with
plant tissue rather than by translocation within the plant.
Directional application applying an herbicide to a restricted location such as
the base of the crop row or bed at the base of plants.
Post emergence treatment application made after the crop plants emerge. Treat-
ments may be specified post emergent to weed growth also.
Pre-emergence treatment applications made after the crop is planted but before
its emergence. Cont~'ct pre-emergence is a treatment made after weed
emergence but prior to crop emergence. Residual pre-emergence is a
treatment which kills weeds as their seeds germinate or as they emerge,
either before or after the crop has emerged.
Pre-planting treatment any application made before the crop is planted.
Pre-transplanting treatment an application made before setting the transplanted
Post transplanting treatment an application made after the transplant crop has
been set in the field.
BASIC SPRAYING EQUIPMENT:
Herbicide tank with by-pass return for agitation.
Foot or line strainer.
Pump (Nylon roller or vane pump of about 6 gpm generally satisfactory
Pressure regulator and guage.
Quick-acting shut-off valve.
Hose and fitting (one-half inch satisfactory).
For most herbicide spraying in crops spray pressures in the range
25 to 40 psi are satisfactory and herbicides should be applied in about 25 to
40 gpa of water. Any combination of tractor speed and nozzle tips to accomplish
these pressures and deliveries should be effective. Generally, spray drift is
minimized by low pressures and the larger nozzles which deliver coarse sprays.
Initial calibration of a spray outfit may be accomplished easily by
the following procedure.
1. Adjust nozzles, spraying pressure and tractor speed as you wish
them to operate in the field.
2. Fill herbicide tank completely with water.
3. With tractor operating as in number (1) above, spray water over a
measured course of several hundred yards in a fitted field.
4. Determine amount of water required to refill tank to replace that
5. Calculate area sprayed: Width of bands or boom spread times
6. From 4 and 5 calculate quantity of water applied per acre.
7. Rate of application per acre can be decreased by: using smaller
nozzle tips, less pressure or faster tractor speed.
8. Rate of application per acre can be increased by: larger nozzle
tips, higher pressures or slower tractor speed.
9. When calibration is satisfactory add required quantity of
herbicide per acre to amount of water applied per acre by the spray unit.
HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS: BROADCAST SPRAYING:
USE "FAN-T-?E" TIPS WITH 1/4 to 1/3 NOZZLE PATTERN OVERLAP
TO OBTAIN S..FOBI :;OVERAGE.
NORMAL "FAN-TYPE" TIPS HAVE AN
ELLIPTI3AIL SPRAY GTNSI..
PATTSWN AND MUST BE ORE- \
LAPPED FOR NUIFICJ1"iTY
AN EXAMPLE OF THIS TFPE
TIP IS "I-JET" SSRI;3S
6500, 7300, or 8000. i! -.
HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS: BAND SPRAYING:
.-..----....-. -- bo--om
:.:,v^ .or drops
";- .'i i i
,, ;\ /
USE "PRE-EMERGENCE FAN-TYPE" TIPS SUCH AS
"TEE-JET" 8000 E SERIES.
THE SPRAY PATTERN OF THIS
"FAN-TYPE" TIP HAS UNIFORM
SPRAY DENSITY EVENLY ACROSS
WIDTH: 8 to 12 INCHES.
Post emergence overall bands
EES 59-2 250 copies
HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS: DIRECTIONAL SPRAYING: POST EMERGENCE:
USE: FAN-TYPE TIPS OR OFF-CENTER TIPS
AND ADJUST THEM TO GIVE EQUAL DENSITY DISTRIBUTION PATTERN ACROSS BAND
AT BASE OF PLANT.
THESE ARE ORDINARY "TEE-JET" TIPS AND "TEE-JET" "OC- SERIES", RESPECTIVELY.