Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-3
Dried Tomato Pulp for Fattening Steers on Pasture J f
H. L. Chapman, C. E. Haines, J. R. Crockett and R. W. Ki
It has been estimated that five million bushels of the tomatoes harvested
annually in South Dade County are not of marketable quality. These are classified
as culls because of skin blemishes, due to handling and environmental factors, or
because of being immature and too small for marketing. In recent years, efforts
have increased toward developing economic means for the disposal of cull tomatoes
in Florida as well as in other tomato producing states. The present study has
been conducted in an attempt to establish a by-product feed of economic importance
from the cull fruit of the tomato industry.
The experimental cull tomato pulp was produced in a pilot dehydrating plant.
The cull fruit was cut and pressed to separate the juice from the pulp. or press
cake. The juice was concentrated by evaporation and remixed with the press cake.
This material was then dried in a triple-pass dehydrator.
The dried material consisted of flakes and screenings, flakes being dried
pieces of fruit flesh while the screenings were fine particles of material that
passed through 1/8 to 1/16 inch mesh screen. The proportic: of flakes to screen-
ings varied slightly among the seven different batches of material produced.
Generally, the flakes made up from 61 to 73 percent of the total volume of material
collected. The experimental tomato pulp contained approximately twenty percent
crude protein on a dry matter basis.
Forty yearling steers, averaging approximately 490 pounds each, were divided
into five groups of eight animals each on the basis of weight, age and breeding
and placed in four-acre pasture lots. The experimental pastures consisted of
Roselawn St. Augustinegrass of approximately equal composition and stage of
maturity. Each lot contained a concrete feed trough and an automatic waterer.
The steers were assigned to experimental groups on March 1lth, 1958 and provided
with the experimental rations. After a 10 day pre-test period, the experiment was
initiated on March 21, 1958. The test period consisted of 112 days and the steers
were weighed at 28-day intervals.
The composition of the experimental rations is presented in table one. The
rations contained 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percent of dried tomato pulp, which was
substituted for dried citrus pulp. Slight adjustments were necessary in the amount
of ground snapped corn, cottonseed meal and urea-262 in order to have approximately
the same percentage of crude protein in all of the rations. The experimental
animals were given free access to the experimental rations.
This study was supported by funds furnished by the Florida Tomato Committee,
753 Warner Street, Orlando, Florida.
The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. A. Z. Palmer and his
associates at the University Meats Laboratory, Gainesville, Florida, for their
efforts in conducting taste and tenderness studies of tissues taken from the
Table 1. Composition of rations used in dried cull tomato pulp study.
Pounds of Ingredients per 100 Pounds of Ration
Ingredient 1 2 3 4 5
Tomato Pulp 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0
Citrus Pulp 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 --
Ground Snapped Corn 40.4 43.6 44.2 48.2 52.2
Cottonseed Meal 18.0 15.0 15.0 11.0 7.0
Urea 0.8 0.6 -.
Mineral 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
Crude Protein () 15.1 15.0 14.9 15.0 15.1
Crude Fiber (%) 11.6 12.1 12.8 13.2 13.7
Experimental data obtained included weight gain, feed consumption, final live
grade, carcass grade after slaughter, intransit shrink, 48-hour cooler shrink and
dressing percent. Also, color, taste and odor of fat and lean tissue were determined,
tenderness, area and marbling scores of the rib eye taken in the area of the thir-
teenth rib were made, as well as carcass measurements which included length and
thickness of carcass and circumference and length of round.
Live grades were given the experimental animals by a committee of five men.
Carcass grades were done by a federal grader.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Individual gains, during the 112-day test period, ranged from 220 to 300
pounds except for one animal in group 3 that gained only 30 pounds in the feeding
period. This particular steer appeared to remain healthy but its carcass grade
and characteristics reflected its unsatisfactory performance while on experiment.
It is possible that this animal did not consume an average amount of feed. The
average total gain for all steers was 302 pounds which was an average of 2.69
pounds of gain per day for each animal.
The average gain of the experimental animals was related to their average feed
consumption. The steers in group 2, receiving the ration containing 10 percent
cull tomato pulp, had the highest average daily gains (3.06 lbs.) and also consumed.
the most mixed feed per day (19.4 Ibs./head). The animals receiving the control
ration, had the next highest daily gains (2.78 lbs.) and rasned second in the
quantity of mixed feed consumed. The steer group getting the ration containing 3C
percent cull tomato pulp (ration 4) showed slightly lower daily gains than the two
previous groups. The poorest daily gains were produced by the steers on the ratinc.l
-ftat contained 20 and 40 percent cull tomato pulp. The average gains and mixed feed
consumption for the animals on each ration treatment is shown in table two.
Table 2. Average weight gains and feed consumption by ration groups (Ibs.)
Experimental treatment number
1 2 3 4 5
Number of Steers 8 8 8 8 8
Days of Test 112 112 112 112 112
Average Initial Weight 519.4 516.9 527.5 514.4 520.6
Average Final Weight 830.6 860.0 788.1 820.0 807,5
Average Weight Increase 311.2 343.1 260.6 305.6 286.9
Average Daily Gains 2.78 3.06 2.33 2.73 2.56
Average Daily Consumption 18.8 19.4 16.3 18.4 18.3
The fact that the steers consuming the ration which contained 30 percent
tomato pulp (ration 4) performed in almost the same manner as those receiving the
control ration (ration 1) suggests that the tomato pulp was satisfactory as a ratio
ingredient up to 30 percent of the ration mixture. If the data from the "poor
doing" steer in group 3 had been eliminated this group would have shown 2.94 pou,s
average daily gain. On this basis, the ration containing 20 percent tomato pul?
(ration 3) as well as the ration consisting of 10 percent tomato pulp (ration 2)
were slightly superior to the control ration for producing gains. These data
might indicate that the inclusion of small amounts of tomato pulp resulted in an
increased consumption which in turn produced higher weight gains.
The average live slaughter grades suggested that there might be a relationship
between grade and the amount of tomato pulp in the ration. It appeared that as the
percentage of tomato pulp increased, the overall grades within ration groups de-
creased (table 3). However, the differences between ration groups for carcass
grades were not as pronounced (table 3). On the live grade basis there was one
steer that graded choice, 15 steers that graded good, 23 steers that graded stan-
dard and one of utility graee. The carcasses of four steers were placed in the
good grade, 33 were assigned the standard grade and three steers produced utility
grade carcasses. The steers were quite well finished, externally, but the car-
casses graded lower due to lack of internal finish.
Table 3. Summarycof live grades and carcass grades
Experimental treatment number
1 2 3 .;__,
Choice 1 0 0 0 0
Good 4 5 3 2 1
Standard 3 3 4 6 7
Utility 0 0 1 0 0
Choice 0 0 0 0 0
Good 2 2 0 0 0
Standard 6 6 6 7 8
Utility 0 0 2 1 0
The average weight loss for all steers from the termination of the trial
until arriving at the packer in Miami was 6.5 percent. The smallest average
weight loss occurred in the steers on ration 2 (5.6%) and the largest for steers
on ration 3 (7.2%). However, individual weight losses within ration treatments
were not consistent so that differences in this factor could not be related to
the ration treatments.
The dressing percentage was calculated by using the weight of the steers on
arrival at the packing house and warm carcass weight. The average dressing per-
centage for all steers was 59.9 percent and individual percentages ranged from
56 to 64.5 percent. The average dressing percentages for test groups 1, 2, 3, 4
and 5 were 60.8, 60.1, 60.2, 58.7 and 59.5 percent, respectively. Ration treat-
ments did not; aigniiationty .affeb drstaing. percentages.
The color of the fat and lean tissue was determined for each carcass. Differ-
ences due to ration treatments were not evident. Most of the fat was considered
to be a slightly yellow color and the lean in most cases was classified as a
slightly dark cherry red.
Four measurements were obtained on each carcass (table 4). The overall
average length and thickness of the carcasses at the shoulders 44.7 and 5.9 inches,
respectively. The average length and circumference of rounds for all 40 steers
was 29.7 and 28.4 inches, respectively. The steers on the control ration had the
largest carcasses and contained rounds with the greatest circumference but differ-
ences in these factors due to ration treatments were not apparent.
Table 4. Summary of Carcass Measurement averages, by Ration Groups
Measurement Ration 1 Ration 2: Ration'3' .Rntion 4 Ration 5
Carcass Gradel 7.9 8.3 7.3 7.3 7.5
Carcass Length (in.) 45.0 44.9 44.3 44.8 44.3
Carcass Thickness (in.) 5.9 6.2 5.8 5.8 5.7
Round Length (in.) 29.6 29.7 29.4 30.0 29.8
Round Circumference (in.) 29.5 28.8 28.3 27.8 27.8
Rib Eye Area (Sq. in.) 8.7 9.2 8.9 8.8 8.7
1 Grades based on Good s 11, 10 or 9 and Standard z 8, 7 or 6.
Samples of the rib eye were graded for the degree of marbling and the area
of surface. The overall average score for the degree of rib eye marbling was 3.6
which signified a degree of marbling between trace and a slight amount. The steer
receiving ration 2 showed the highest degree of marbling followed by the group on
ration five. The rib eye sample from the one "poor doing" steer in lot 3 was
practically devoid of marbling. The overall mean rib eye area for all 40 steers
was 8.8 square inches. The largest average rib eye area were from the carcasses
of steers on the ration containing 10 percent tomato pulp (table 5). For these
two rib eye evaluations, the steers on the ration containing 10 percent tomato
pulp were slightly superior to the other four rations treatment groups.
Considerably less pressure was required to shear a core of meat from the
steers receiving the ration containing 30 percent tomato pulp than for the meat of
any of the other test groups (table 5-). Differences in shearing pressure between
the other four test groups were not great.
Taste panels consisted of four members. The average of the four scores was
used for every factor for each animal (table 5). The overall average scores for
the tenderness, flavor and juiciness of the lean were 4.6, 5.0 and 4.5, respec-
tively. (A score of four indicated average value and five a desirable character-
istic.) There were not consistent differences in these characteristics attributab.
to ration treatment.
Table 5. Summary of Tenderness and Taste Panel Tests
Factors Studied Ration 1 Ration 2 Ration 3 Ration 4 Ration 5
Shear Pressure (ibs.) 8.9 8.8 9.2 8.0 9.0
Tenderness _/ 4.9 4.6 4.1 4.9 4.7
Flavor l/ 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.1 4.8
Juiciness / 4.4 4.7 4.3 4.8 4.4
Fat Aroma y/ 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.5
Fat Flavor / 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 3.8
i/ Ratings were from 1 to 6 with 6 being the most desirable.
Since it was assumed that any possible "off flavor", due to the consumption
of tomato pulp would be present in the fat, this tissue was tested and graded for
aroma and flavor (table 5). The overall average was 3.8 and 4.0 for the fat aroma
and flavor, respectively. This indicated that most of it was classified from fair
(3) to average (4) for these factors. The fat samples from the carcasses of steers
on the ration containing 40 percent tomato pulp consistently rated low in these two
items. Differences between the other four ration groups in fat aroma and flavor
were not significant.
Forty yearling steers were divided into five equal groups to test concentrate
rations that contained either 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40 percent of dehydrated tomato
pul.p. The results of a 112-day feeding trial indicated that the tomato pulp could
satisfactorily replace citrus pulp in the ration. Steers that received rations
containing as much as 30 percent tomato pulp gained as rapidly as those on the
control ration. The inclusion of smaller amounts of tomato pulp (10 or 20%) re-
sulted in increased feed consumption, and increased gains.
Carcass grades and characteristics were not affected by the use of the various
levels of tomato pulp in the ration. Taste panel tests, on rib eye samples, failed
to detect differences between the meat and fat of steers on the five test rations.
The average values of the carcass and meat sample ratings for ration groups indi-
cate that differences between groups, for various factors, were not consistently
in favor of any one single ration.
EES 59-3 250 copies