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Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; 59- 12
Title: The tolerance of sugar cane to pre-emergence and post emergence applied herbicides in screening experiments on organic soil
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 Material Information
Title: The tolerance of sugar cane to pre-emergence and post emergence applied herbicides in screening experiments on organic soil
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 14 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Herbicides -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: The information contained in this report, not including tabular data, was presented in brief form at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Conference, Shreveport, Louisiana, January 21-23, 1959. The data contained neither imply nor constitute recommendations of any herbicidal treatment for any usage.
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Orsenigo.
General Note: "February 1, 1959."
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067558
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 65382186

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        Front Cover
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        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
Full Text










THE TOLERANCE OF SUGAR CANE TO PRE-EMERGENCE AND POST
EMERGENCE APPLIED HERBICIDES IN SCREENING EXPERI-
MENTS ON ORG-AMIC SOIL.



J. R Orsenigo













The information contained in this report., not in-
cluding taoular data, was presented in brief form
at the 12th Ani.u3l Meeting of the Sout~ne. Weed Con-
ference, Shreveport, Louisiana, JawuryJ 2.-.23, !.959.
The data contained neither imply nor constitute re-
commendations of any herbicidal treatment for any usage.











Everglades Station Mimneo Report 59-11

Belle Glade, Florida


February 1, 1959










THE TOLERANCE OF SUGAR CANE TO PEE-EMERGENCE AND POST EMERGENCE
APPLIED HERBICIDES IN SCREENING EXPERIMENTS ON ORGANIC SOILS l/

J. R. Orsenigo
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida

SUMMARY: Commercial and experimental herbicides and combinations were
applied pre- and post emergence to sugar cane and grass and broadleaf
weeds on organic soil. Data are reported herein for evaluations at
about one month after chemical application. Sugar cane appeared agro-
nomically tolerant to almost all of the herbicides and herbicidal com-
binations tested. Several post emergence combinations temporarily re-
duced sugar cane growth and vigor, viz., amitrol plus either dalapon,
FW-450, or simazin. Injury symptoms were more apparent soon after
chemical application and persisted longer when conditions for cane
growth were poor. Visible deleterious effects, continuing for more
than two months after application, were rare. Certain pre- and post
emergence herbicides afforded superior control of grass weeds.

The control of grass and broadleaf weeds is a continuous problem
in sugar cane production on the organic soils of the Florida Ever-
glades. Some weed species not naturally present during the warmer
summer months grow vigorously daring the cooler fall and winter season.
Certain winter weeds may grow proportionately more rapidly than plant
or ratoon cane. Sugar cane is harvested during the fall and winter
and the ratoon crop generally requires a mechanical or mechanical-
chemical weed control program. Mechanical methods in general use, tined
weeders and chilling discs, usually control small seedling weeds effec-
tively and economically in young cane. Mechanical methods are less
effective in controlling advanced weed growth and repeated cultivation
may be inimical to the crop. Herbicides in current use in sugar cane
are not dependably effective in controlling problem weeds, especially
dense grasses in rapid growth or advanced tillering stages.

Advantages of pre-emergence herbicides include ease of uniform
application and, probably, maximum cane tolerance. However, this is
essentially "insurance" since the weed control program for a given field
may vary in successive years with weather and crop growth conditions.
Blanket application of pre-emergence herbicides on whole plantations
would be costly and would have to be based upon a treatment of maximum
dependability. An important advantage of post emergence herbicidal
treatments would be reduced costs by applying chemicals only where need-
ed for specific weed control. Other than cost considerations, the re-

1. Experiments on organic soils were initiated cooperatively with the
Production Department, United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston,
Florida. The assistance of Mr. J. W. Doty is acknowledged particu-
larly.
The experiment reported for coastal sandy soil was installed
through the cooperation of Mr. J. R. Russell, Jr., Fellsmere Sugar
Producers Association, Fellsmere, Florida.
Mr. William R. Alston assisted in the installation and main-
tenance of these experiments.









-2-


quirements of a post emergence herbicide are more rigorous: effective-
ness against a range of weeds and weed size, and high crop tolerance.
And, post emergence materials would be more difficult to apply direc-
tionally without contacting the sugar cane plants.

Herbicide screening experiments were conducted in commercial sugar
cane fields to evaluate chemicals and treatments for pre- and post emer-
gence effectiveness. The installation and evaluation procedures are
given below and in the tables.'

Design: Randomized block designs were installed with two to four
replications. Treatment plots were one or two rows wide and 50 to 80
ft. in length depending upon the area available.

Description of test material: Information pertinent to experiment
installation is given in Table 1 for pre-emergence experiments and in
Table 2 for post emergence trials.

Description of weed populations: Weed species at the several in-
stallations are listed in Tables 1 and 2.

Description of herbicidal treatments: Specific herbicidal treat-
ments are included in Tables 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The chemical names
for the herbicide designations below correspond to the report of the
Weed Society of America Terminology Committee and will not be repeated
herein: amitrol, CDAA, DCU, diuron, EPTC, HCA, monuron, neburon, PCP,
and simazin. Other herbicides are identified in Table 3. Herbicidal
treatments were applied with experimental tractor spray equipment, us-
ually in aqueous solution at 45 to 90 gpa. Treatments post emergence
to sugar cane were applied semi-directionally some wetting of the
foliage occurred. All application rates are in terms of acid equiva-
lent or active ingredient, whichever applies.

Method of evaluation: Visual ratings of crop tolerance (growth,
vigor and degree of chemical injury) were made at the times indicated
on a 1 9 scale based upon the untreated controls as standards. The
tabular data herein report the evaluation ratings as percentages of the
controls. Grass and broadleaf weed control ratings were made similar-
ly where weed populations were sufficient for accurate evaluation. In
some experiments weed infestations were too slight for accurate treat-
ment comparison. Superior herbicidal treatments are noted in the
tabular data.

Experimental results: Observed sugar cane tolerance for the her-
bicidal treatments are given as percentages of untreated controls in
Tables 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.

Basically, sugar cane was agronomically tolerant of most pre-
emergence applied herbicides and herbicide combinations as rated at
approximately one month after application. Slightly reduced tolerances
to some treatments were not apparent in evaluations at two or more
months after application. Continuing deleterious effects were not re-
corded for any of the treatments. Certain herbicides were consistently











more effective in control of grass weeds: PBA, EMID, 4-(2,4-DB),
GenCC 2996, simazin, G-30027, 2,4-D in diesel oil, and PCP 4 2,4.-D
diesel oil combinations.

Sugar cane appeared to be tolerant of most of the post emer-
gence applied herbicides and combinations. At two weeks after appli-
cation cane was least tolerant of: As 0 NIA 4562 (5 Ib/A), amitrol
4 dalapon, dalapon + amitrol ,f 2,4-D,2ad G-30031 + 2,4-D. At one
month after application sugar cane growth and vigor were retarded in
some experiments by: amitrol + simazin, amitrol ; dalapon, dalapon 4
amitrol + 2,4-D, FRN-450 4 amitrol, NIA 4562 4 PBA, NIA 4562 4 G-30027,
and G-30031 + 2,4-D. Under conditions unfavorable for sugar cane
growth, effects of amitrol 4 dalapon and dalapon 4 amitrol 4 2,4-D were
noticeable for several months. Generally, injury symptoms were more
apparent soon after herbicide application and persisted longer under
poor cane growth conditions. Deleterious effects were noted rarely
at two, three or more months after application. Injury from these
herbicides may be minimized, possibly, by application methods which
avoid spray contact with the sugar cane foliage. Consistently super-
ior control of grass weeds was obtained with post emergence applied
combinations containing: amitrol, dalapon, FW-450, NIA 4562, PCP,
simazin, and G-30031.

The following observations apply to non-replicated, large-plot
demonstrations not included elsewhere in this report. When treated
at emergence sugar cane on organic soil appeared completely tolerant
of EPTC at 2, 4, and 8 Ib/A; PBA at 4 and 8 lb/A; and simazin at 2, 4,
6, and 8 Ib/A. Slight, temporary retardation of growth and rolling of
young leaves were apparent in cane treated with PBA at 12 and 16 Ib/A,
and with simazin at 16 Ib/A. The symptoms were not apparent at two
months after application. The weed population was not sufficient for
accurate control evaluation.

In non-replicated field block applications on both organic and
coastal sand soils emerged sugar cane has been tolerant to 3, 6, 9,
and 12 Ib/A of EPTC incorporated with tined weeders and hilling discs
to an average depth of about three inches. Weed control at several
locations has been promising but not consistent. Digitaria sp. appear-
ed especially susceptible to EPTC while Solanum nigrum was not con-
trolled.













Table 1. Pre-emergence herbicide evaluation installations.

Expt. 6-58: Plant cane, Cl. 41-223. Organic soil. Applied prior to
cane emergence; seedling weeds emerging. Soil moisture
(0 1/2 in depth) at application, 35%. Accumulated
rainfall, 40 days after application, 1.16 in. Major weed
species present: Parietaria floridiana, Amaranthus spinosus
and Brachiaria plantaginea. Evaluations are averages c
two replications at 40 daya after application.

Expt. 13-59: Planticane, C1.41-223. Organic soil. Applied prior to
emergence of cane and weeds. Soil moisture (0-1/2 in
depth) at application, 45%. Accumulated rainfall, 30
days after application, 0.56 in. Major weed species:
Brachiaria plantaginea and Amaranthus sp. Evaluations
are averages of two replications at 30 days after appli-
cation.

Expt. 14-59: Plant cane, CP 50-28. Coastal sand soil. Applied at cane
emergence and prior to weed emergence. Soil moisture (0-
1/2 in depth) at application, 9%. Accumulated rainfall,
21 days after application, 1.52 in. Major weed species:
Solanum nigrum, Physalis sp., and Digitaria sp. Evalua-
tions are averages of two replications at 21 days after
application.

















Table 2. Post emergence herbicide evaluation installations.


Expt. 9-58:


Plant cane, Cl. 41-223. Organic soil. At herbicide
application: cane up to: 6 leaves, 18 in. tall, and
3 in. to youngest dewlap; weeds principally Amaranthus
pinostf and A. hibridus. Evaluations are averages of
two replications at 12 days after application.


Dem. 14-58: Plant cane, Cl. 41-223. Organic soil. At herbicide
application: cane up to: 9 leaves, 36 in. tall, and
4 in. to youngest dewlap; weeds principally Brachiaria
plantaginea. Evaluations are for one replication at
one month after application.


Expt. 21-58:


Plant cane, C1.41-223. Organic soil. At herbicide
application: cane up to: 18 leaves, 24 in. tall, and
6 in. to youngest dewlap; weeds mainly Brachiaria plan-
taginea and Digitaria sp. Evaluations are averages of
two replications at one month after application.


Plant cane, Cl. 41-223. O
application: cane up to: 1C
in. to youngest dewlap; no
applied as lay-by sprays.
three replications at one r


!ganic soil. At herbicide
Leaves, 40 in. tall, and 6
weeds present, herbicides
Evaluations are averages of
aonth after application.


Expt. 12-59:


Plant cane, Cl. 41-223. Organic soil. At herbicide
application: cane up to: 2 leaves, 15 in. tall, and 2
in. to youngest dewlap; weeds mainly Brachiaria planta-
ginea and Amaranthus sp. Evaluations are averages of
three replications at one month after application,


Expt. 23-58:









Table 3. Description of herbicides. Chemicals fully identified by designation of the Weed Society
of America Terminology Commnittee Report are indicated by appropriate designation in the
text but are not included herein. All rates of application in this report are in terms
of acid equivalent or active ingredient per acre, whichever applies.


Designation


PDA 1/
PBA /
4-(MCPB)
4-(2,4-DB) 3/
4-(2,4-DB)
4-(2,4-DB) V
silvex
2,4-D acid
2,4-D amine
2,4-D amine invert
2,4-D ester invert
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T

EMID
AsoO
dalayon
FW-450
G-444E
G-27901
G-30026
G-30027
G-30028
G-30031
G-31435
GenCC 2996
HRS 203
mIA 4562


Chemical name

polychlorobenzoic acids (Am. Chem. Benzac 103A)
dimethylammonium salt, polychlorobenzoic acid (Hooker X33A)
dimethylamine salt, 4-(methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid
dimethylamine salt, 4-(2,4-dichloropbenoxy) butyric acid
butyl eater, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid
propylene glycol butyl ether esters, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid
propylene glycol butyl ether esters, 2-(2,4,5-trichloro-phenoxy)propionic acid
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (Stauffer acid paste)
dimethylamine salt, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
amine salt 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid invert formulation (Am. Chem. M-568)
butcxy ethanol ester 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid formulation (Am. Chem. M-502)
propylene glycol butyl ether esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic and 2,4,5-
trichlorophenoxyacetic acids.
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetamide
sodium arsenite
sodium salt, 2,2-dichloropropionic acid
sodium salt, 2,3-dichloroisobutyric acid
2-chloro-4,6-bis- ( diethylamino)-s-triazine
i-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-diethylamino-s-triazine
2-chl~t~'io-4-isopropylamino-6-methylamino-s-triazine
2-chloro-4-styhvlamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine
2-chloro-4, 6-bi G*topropylamino) -s-triazine
2-chloro-4-diethylamii.6- isoproylamino-s-triazine
2-methoxy-4,6-bis(isopropy',iino)-s-triazine
3-(p-chlorophenyl) -,1-dimethylu*a-trichloroacetate
(classified, Hooker ERS-203)
(classified, Niagara NIA 4562)










Table 4. The tolerance of sugar cane to pre-emergence applied
herbicides. Evaluations at approximately one month
after application are percentages of untreated con-
trols. Superior grass and/or broadleaf weed control
is indicated.


Herbicide


Ext.1359 Et. 1-59
-- ; 70


PBA 1/


PBA g/
2,4-D: acid
amine
amine invert
ester invert
EMID

silvex


4-(MCPB)
As203


dalapon
DCU
diuron
EPTC

FW-450

GenCC 2996

HCA
monuron

neburon
PCP (sodium
salt)


4 lb.
5
8
4
2
2
2
2
5
10
4
6
4
8
4
5
4
8
4
2
4
6
5
20
2
5
6
5
10
4
8
24
2
3
2
5
10


95G

100 GI
95 G
100 GI



95 G]
100 GI
100 GI

95 GI
100 GI
100 GI

87 GI
100 GI
100 B
100 GI
95 GI
100 B
100 G
90
100 GI
90 G

95
100 G


100 GI
100 GI

90 G
100 B
100 B


87


81
--


94
87

100 G
-e
100


94 G










87


94 G
--













94 G


100 G
-a


-9 G
94 G
--
--


100 GB



100 G
100 G
94 GB

















100 G


87 GB



87 B
-
87G

87


- Denotes superior grass weed control.
- Denotes superior broadleaf weed control.


___ __


Rate/A Expt. 6-58










Table 5. The tolerance of sugar cane to pre-emergence applied
herbicides. Evaluations at approximately one month
after application are percentages of untreated con-
trols. Superior grass and/or broadleaf weed control
is indicated.


Herbicide


Rate/A


einaziln




G-27901


G-30026

G-30027

G-30028


G-30031


G-31335

G-444E


3b.
4
5
8
10
4
5
8
4
8
4
8
4
5
8
4
5
8
4
8
4
8


Expt. 6-58 E .1359 Ept 4
i^ L'- I -


100 G

95 GB

100 B





100 B


100 GB
100 GB
-


G Denotes superior
B Denotes superior


grass weed control.
broadleaf weed control.


87 GB








94 GB






94 GB
-f
-


94

100 G
-
94 G

100 G
94
100
100 G
100 G
100

94 G
100

100
94
87
94
100










Table 6. The tolerance of sugar cane to pre-emergence applied
herbicide combinations. Evaluations at approximately
one month after application are percentages of un-
treated controls. Superior grass and/or broadleaf
weed control is indicated.


Eerbicide Rate/A Expt. 6-58 Et. 13-59 Expt. 14-59


amitrol 1 b. 100 G 94 GB
4 aimazine 4

dalapon 4
4 monuron 2 87 G

dalapon 4
+ silvex 1 94

PCP 4
2,4-D amine 2
f diesel oil 10 gal. -- 94 GB

PCP 5 Ib
2,4-D acid 2 95 GB
+ diesel oil 15 gal.

PCP 8 Ib.
2 2,4-D amine 2 100 -
diesel oil 10 gal.

2,4-D acid 2 lb.
f diesel oil 15 gal. 100 GB -

2,4-D amine 2 Ib.
+ diesel oil 10 gal. 100 GB


G Denotes superior grass weed control.
B Denotes superior broadleaf weed control.










Table 7. The tolerance of sugar cane to post emergence applied
herbicides. Evaluations at one month after applica-
tion (E9-58 at two weeks) are percentages of untreated
control. Superior grass and/or broadleaf weed control
is indicated.


Herbicide


PBA I

2,4-D acid
EMID


silvex
4-(2,4-B)3/
4-(2,4-DB)


4-(MCPB)
As203

CDAA
diuron
EPTC

FW-450



HCA in diesel
oil(15 gpa)
HRS 203
monuron
neburon
NIA



simazin
G-27901
G-30026
G-30027
G-30028
G-30031


Rate/A Expt. 9-58


Ept. 21-58
l 0


4 lb.
8
2
4
5
8
4
4
4
8
4
3
4
6
4
2
4
5
5
10
15
20
7
14
4
2
2
1
3
5
6
5
5
5
5
5
5


93
70*
93
90*

93*
87*
100*

97*
97
93

60*
70*



97
97
100

90



80*


57*
57*


Expt. 23-58
rJ


87B

100B
IL










100

100
914



100
-
-
















100
100



100
-
-
87,
100O
IOO
l-


100



100

100

100






100
100
100
-























100
100
100




100
100
100
100
100
1
100
-
-


100
100







100
io
-O


* Superior control, but infestation mainly broadleaf weeds.
B- Denotes superior control of broadleaf weeds.









Table 8. The tolerance of sugar cane to post emergence applied
combinations of amitrol and dalapon with other herbi-
cides. Evaluations at one month after application
(E9-58 at two weeks) are percentages of untreated con-
trol. Superior grass and/or broadleaf weed control is
indicated.

Herbicide Rate/A Expt. 9-58 Expt. 2-58 Expt. 12-59


amitrol 2 Ib
s eimazin 2 81 GB
amitrol 2
+ simazin 5 91 GB

amitrol 1
+ dalapon 5 53 -

amitrol 2
+ dalapon 4 87 GB 79

dalapon 4
4 2,4-D acid 2 94 G

dalapon 5
4 2,4-D acid 2 83 -

dalapon 4
SPA 5 87 B

dalapon 4
f silver 5 91 GB

dalapon 4
1 4-(2,4-DB)/ 5 87 G

dalapon 4
+ monuron 2 91 GB

dalapon 5
+ amitrol 1
+ 2,4-D acid 2 50* -

dalapon 4
amitrol 2
1 2,4-D amine 2 81 BG

dalapon 4
+ monuron 2
+ 2,4-D amine 2 94 BG -

Superior control, but infestation mainly broadleaf weeds.
G Denotes superior control of grass weeds.
B Denotes superior control of broadleaf weeds.









Table 9. The tolerance of sugar cane to post emergence applied
combinations of FW-450 and other herbicides. Evalua-
tions at one month after application (E9-58 at two
weeks) are percentages of untreated controls. Superior
grass and/or broadleaf weed control is indicated.


Herbicide


Rate/A Expt. 9-58
70^


Expt. 21-58
5


FW-450 5 lb.
f 2,4-D acid 2

FW-450 3/ 5
4 4(2,4-DB)/ 2
FW-450 10
4 2,4-D amine 2

FW-450 10
f PBA 2 5

FW-450 10
+ silvex 2

FW-450 70
+ 4-(2,4-DB)2/2

FW-450 10
+ C3A2 6

FW-450 10
a neburon 2

FW-450 10
+ simazin 2

FW-450 15
+ amitrol 2

FW-450 15
G-30031 2

FW-450 15
+ monuron 2


Ext. 12-59 Dem. 14-58
71 ---


100


100


100 B


100 B


91 OB


100 B


50 GB


85 GB


100 GB


G Denotes
B Denotes


superior control
superior control


of grass weeds.
of broadleaf weeds.


-


*


-









The tolerance of sugar cane to post emergence applied
herbicide combinations. Evaluations at one month af-
ter application (E9-58 at two weeks) are percentages
of untreated controls. Superior grass and/or broad-
leaf weed control is indicated.


Herbicide


Rate/A Expt. 9-58


Expt.21-58 Expt. 12-59


OUm. 14-58


NIA 456~
I PBA =

NIA 4562
+ G-30027

NIA 4562
+ simazin

NIA 4562
+ G-30031

NIA 4562
4 monuron

PCP
+ 2,4-D acid
+ diesel oil

PCP
+ 2,4-D acid
diesel oil

PCP
+ (2,4-D and
2,4,5-T)
diesel oil


2 lb.
5
2
5

2
5


83 B


79 GB

91 GB


94 B


4
2
15 gal.

5
2
15 gal.

4 Ib.
1.5
1.5
10 gal.


simazin 5 lb.
+ 2,4-D acid 2

simazin 2
+ As203 3

G-30031 2
+ 2,4-D acid 2

G-30031 5
4 2,4-D acid 2


100


87 B


95 GB


97*


100


70


77*


* Superior control, but infestation mainly broadleaf weeds.
G Denotes superior control of grass weeds
B- Denotes superior control of broadleaf weeds.

EES 59-11, 250 copies
2/1/59


Table 10.


100


100




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