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Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; 59- 12
Title: Pre-emergence performance of several herbicides and vegetable and field crop response on organic soil
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 Material Information
Title: Pre-emergence performance of several herbicides and vegetable and field crop response on organic soil
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Field crops -- Weed control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of herbicides on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: "The information contained in this report was presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Conference, Shreveport, Louisiana, January 21-23, 1959. The data contained neither imply nor constitute a recommendation or any herbicide for any use.
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Orsenigo.
General Note: "February 1, 1959."
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067553
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 65340748

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PRE-EMERGENCE PERFORMANCE OF SEVERAL EERBICIDES AND VEGETABLE
AID FIELD CROP RESPONSE ON ORGANIC SOIL.


J. R. Orsenigo











The information contained in this report was presen-
ted at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Conference,
Shreveport, Louisiana, January 21-23, 1959. This primary evalu-
ation experiment was conducted similarly to investigations re-
ported in Everglades Station Mimeo Reports 59-5 and 59-6. The
data contained neither imply nor constitute a recommendation of
any herbicide for any use.








Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-12

Belle Glade, Florida


February 1, 1959









PRE-EMERGENCE PERFORMANCE OF SEVERAL HERBICIDES AND VEGETABLE
AND FIELD CROP RESPONSE ON ORGANIC SOIL. /

J. R. Orsenigo
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida

Summary: Six herbicides comprised 10 chemical treatments applied
prior to emergence of 30 vegetable and field crops and of natural seed-
lings of grass and broadleaf weeds on organic soil. Crop response and
herbicide performance undoubtedly were influenced by heavy rainfall.
More crops were tolerant of CDEC (3 and 6 lb/A) than of other herbicides
tested. Outstanding grass and broadleaf weed control was obtained with
dinoben, 2,5-dichloro-3-nitrobenzoic acid, and several vegetable and
field crops had utilizable tolerance to this herbicide, especially at low
rates of application.

The comparative performance of several pre-emergence applied herbi-
cides and response of certain vegetable and field crops were evaluated
in this experiment. Primary screening for organic soils, as reported
herein, is necessary for the Everglades area of Florida since few agen-
cies, governmental or private, conduct evaluation trials on organic
soil and with vegetable crops. Other evaluations have been reported as
Everglades Station Mimeo Reports 59-5 and 59-6.

The details of the experiment follow:
Soil type: Okeelanta peaty muck, F1d. 1E4, EES.
Cultural operations:
Field fitting: 25 February 1958
Fertilization: 18 March 1958 (275 lb/A, 0-10-20, broadcast.)
Final fitting: 18 March 1958
Crops planted: 18 March 1958 (celery plants set)
Routine fungicide-insecticide applications were made weekly
and more frequently when required.
Design: Randomized block design with four replications. Twenty
vegetable and 10 field crops were planted in east-west rows. Herbicide
spray strips traversed all crop rows in a north-south direction. An her-
bicide strip 6 ft. wide x 75 ft. long constituted a treatment plot. The
12 herbicide treatments included a hand-weeded control and an unweeded
control.

Description of test crops: Varieties of test crops are listed in
Table 1. All crops were direct-seeded except celery. Severe bird de-
predation almost eliminated field and sweet corn stand. It was not pos-
sible to adequately evaluate the response of these crops to the herbi-
cides.

1. Acknowledgements: Vegetable and field crop seed were furnished by
F. H. Woodruff and Sons, the Kilgore Seed Company, American Chemical
Paint Company, and Agronomy Section, Everglades Experiment Station.
Herbicides were supplied by the manufacturers noted in the text. Mr.
William R. Alston assisted in experiment installation and maintenance.






-2-


Description of weed population: The weed population which develop-
ed in the control plots was mainly: stickerweed, Amaranthus spinosus
and crabgrass, Digitaria sp. Weeds of lesser importance were: ragweed,
Ambrosia sp., and nutgrass, Cyperus sp.
Description of herbicidal treatments: Herbicides and rates of
application are described in Table 2. All rates are in terms of acid
equivalent or active ingredient per acre, whichever applies. The treat-
ments were applied broadcast to the soil surface prior to crop and weed
emergence with experimental tractor spray equipment. A brush broom with
double overlap delivered 40 gpa of aqueous solution at 30 psi and a
tractor speed of 4 mph.
Date of herbicide application: 19 March, 1958 (5:45 7:45 AM)
Soil moisture at herbicide application: (Note: field capacity
approximately 160 per cent). Showers commenced after spraying was in-
itiated; approximately 0.5 in rainfall was recorded between 6:15 and
8:30 AM. Moisture samples taken at 9:00 AM, 19 March averaged 154%
(0-4 in depth) and 157% (1-2 in depth). Moisture samples taken 11:00
AM, 21 March averaged 78% (0-4 in depth) and 133Co (1-2 in depth).
Rainfall data: Total accumulated for week after application in-
dicated; 1 week, 4.52 in; 2 weeks, 4.95 in; 3 weeks, 5.54 in; 4 weeks,
8.07 in.
Method of evaluation: Visual evaluations were made at 10, 20, and
30 days after crop emergence commenced. Crop stand and tolerance were
rated using the unweeded and hand weeded controls as comparative stan-
dards and a 1-9 rating scale. The average values of the four replica-
tions were converted to percentage for this report. The tabular data
for crop stand and tolerance to herbicides represent percentages as
based on untreated controls. Evaluations of grass and broadleaf weed
stand were similar and are reported as percentages of the unweeded check
plots. Grass and broadleaf weed control values are percentages rela-
ted proportionately to the hand weeded plots.
Experimental results: Under the severe climatic conditions atten-
dent to this experiment crop response and herbicide performance have
not been quite comparable to that of other experiments. Heavy rainfall
received within the first week after application undoubtedly increased
crop toxicity and mitigated herbicidal activity of the chemicals.

The crops listed beltw were most tolerant of the several herbi-
cides at 20 days after emergence commenced. These crops were rated at
75 per cent or greater stand and tolerance as compared to the untreat-
ed controls.
CDAA, 3 lb/A: celery, tomato, pepper, onion, chinese cabbage, cot-
ton, snapbean, Alabama Crowder southernpeas, and soybean.
CDAA, 6 Ib/A: celery, onion, cotton, Alabama Crowder southernpeas,
and soybean.
CDEC, 3 Ibs/A: celery, tomato, pepper, romaine, onion, radish,
chinese cabbage, kenaf, cotton, English peas, Black Eye southernpeas,
Alabama Crowder southernpeas, snapbean, soybean and spring wheat.
CDEC, 6 lb/A: celery, tomato, pepper, endive, romaine, cotton, En-
glish peas, Alabama Crowder southernpeas, snapbean, soybean and spring
wheat.
dalapon, 5 Ib/A: tomato, pepper, endive, romaine, lettuce, onion,
radish, chinese cabbage, kenaf, cotton, English peas, and Alabama
Crowder southernpeas.








M3-


dinoben, 4 Ib/A: celery, carrot, pepper, lettuce, snapbean, soy-
bean and spring wheat,
dinoben, 8 Ib/A: celery and carrot.
dinoben, 12 Ib/A: celery
DNBP, 6 lb/A: celery, JFenaf, cotton, English peas, Alabama Crowd-
er southernpeas, snapbean, soybean and spring wheat.
monuron, 1.5 lb/A: carrot,endive, romaine, lettuce, onion, kenaf,
cotton, English peas, Black ~ye southernpeas, Alabama Crowder southern-
peas, snapbean, soybean, spring wheat and winter wheat.

At the time the above .crop response evaluations were made broadleaf
weed control was commercially adequate to almost compete with all rates
of CDAA, CDEC and dinoben. Grass weed control was commercially adequate
to almost compete with all vates of CDAA and dinoben. These data are
included in Tables 3, 4, arid 5.

At 30 days after crop emergence the crops listed below were most
tolerant of the herbicides.:, Selection for this listing was made on
the same basis as for the 20-day ratings above. Tables 3, 4 and 5 pre-
sent crop stand and tolerance data for the 30-day evaluation.

CPAA, 3 Ib/A: celery, tomato, pepper, onion, radish, chinese
cabbage, cabbage, kenaf, English peas and soybean.
CDAA, 6 1b/A: celery and onion.
CMEC, 3 Ib/A: celery, tomato, pepper, endive, romaine, lettuce,
chinese cabbage, kenaf, snapbean, soybean and spring wheat.
CDEC, 6 Ib/A: celery, endive, romaine, chinese cabbage, cotton,
English peas, Alabama Crowder southernpeas, snapbean, soybean and spring
wheat.
dinoben, 4 Ib/A: celery, carrot, pepper, lettuce, snapbean, soy-
bean and spring wheat (possibly utilizable tolerance in cucumber).
dinoben, 8 Ib/A: celery
dinoben, 12 lb/A: celery and carrot.
dalapon, 5 Ib/A: celery, tomato, pepper, onion, chinese cabbage,
cabbage, cucumber, cotton and ryegrass.
DNBP, 6 lb/A: celery, kenaf, cotton, Alabama Crowder southernpeas,
snapbean, soybean, spring wheat, winter wheat, hegari and ryegrass.
monuron, 1.5 Ib/A: carrot, endive, romaine, onion, kenaf, cotton,
English peas, Alabama Crowder southernpeas, snapbean, soybean, spring
wheat, winter wheat and hegari.

At 30 days after crop emergence only dinoben herbicide afforded
commercially adequate or superior weed control: both broadleaf and
grass weeds continued to be controlled almost completely at rates of 8
and 12 Ib/A; broadleaf weeds were controlled at 4 Ib/A. The 6 lb/A
rate of CDAA and both 3 and 6 lb/A of CDEC maintained commercially ade-
quate broadleaf weed control. Weed stand and control data are appended
in Tables 3, 4 and 5.











Table 1. Description of test crops.


Celery:
Carrot:
Tomato:
Pepper:
Spinach:
Endive:
Romaine:
Lettuce
Onion:
Radish
Ch. Cabbage:
Cabbage
Cucumber:
Beet:
Sw. corn:


EES No. 148
Chantenay
Homestead
Florida Giant
Va.B.R. Savoy
F. H. Batavian
Parris Is. Cos
Boston
Texas E. Grano
Scarlet Globe
Michihli
Badger Market
Marketer
Early Wonder
Gold. Security


Kenaf:
Cotton
Eng. peas:
Southern-
peas:
Snapbean

Soybean
Sp. Wheat:
W. Wheat:
Rice
Oat:
Hegari:
Ryegrass:
Fld. corn:


BG 52-41
D & PL 15
Alaska
B. Eye Calif. 5
Ala. Crowder
Contender
Tendergreen
Lincoln
Baart
not known
cp 9016
Victorgrain
regular
common
Corneli 54


Table 2. Description of herbicidal treatments.


(All rates are in


terms of acid equivalent or active ingredient, whichever
applies).


Designation


Rate


Unweeded control
Hand weeded control


Herbicide, formulation, supplier


Hand weeded as required.


3,6 Ib/A

3,6 lb/A

5 lb/A

4,8,12 Ib/A


6 lb/A


1.5 lb/A


2-chloro-N,N-diallylacetamide,
"Randox", Monsanto Chem. Co.
2-chloroallyl diethyldithiocarbamate,
"Vegedex", Monsanto Chem. Co.
Sodium salt 2,2-dichloropropionic acid,
"Dowpon", Dow Chem. Co.
Sodium salt 2,5-dichloro-3-nitroben-
zoic acid, "ACP M-460", Am Chem.
Paint.
Alkanolamine salts 4,6-dinitro 0 se-
condary butylphenol, "Premerge",
Dow Chemical Co.
3-(p-chlorophenyl)-, l-dlmethylurea,
"Karmex W", E. I. duPont de Nemours.


CDAA

CDEC

dalapon

dinoben


DNBP


monuron









Table 3. Stand and tolerance of vegetable and fibld crops to pre-
emergepce applied CDAA and CDEC. Values for 30 days
after crop emergence commended are percentages of untreated
controls. Data for broadleaf and grass veed stand and con-
trol are appended for 20 and 30 days after application as
percentages of hand weeded control.


Herbicide
Rate per acre


CDAA
3 Ib.


CDAA
6 lb.


CDEC
3 Ib.


CDEC
6 lb.


Std. Tol.


Std. Tol.


Std. Tol. Std. Tol.


Celery 87%
Carrot 37
Tomato 72
Pepper 66
Spinach 44
Endive
Romaine
Lettuce
Onion 84
Radish 72
Ch. cabbage
Cabbage 81
Cucumber 47
Beet 53
Kenaf 75
Cotton 59
English peas 78
So. peas, Bl.eye 59
So. peas, Ala. Cr. 84
Snapbean, Cont. 69
Snapbean, Tend. 69
Soybean 75
Sp. wheat 31
W. wheat 44
Rice 25
Oat 19
Hegari
Ryegrass 0


Stickerweed
Crabgrass

Stickerweed
Crabgrass


Weed response: 30 days after application
Std. Con. Std. Con. Std. Con. Std.
91% 44% 47% 78% 37% 915 96%
91 41 72 62 97 16 100
Weed response: 20 days after application
31 84 6 94 22 81 3
12 87 9 97 62 53 25


Crop


970
6
59
59
41
-a

84
62

56
19
28
50
72
53
72
72
59
72
72
9
12
0
3
0


81%
50N
84
75
37
12
22
12
91
75
78
81
47
59
81
87
81
72
69
72
78
84
62
56
44
31
50
0


81%
3
62
69
47
28
31
12
94
50
50
56
25
37
56
81
66
78
75
75
75
75
22
37
0
3
37
0


100%
31
84

41







50
78
69
69
69
81
66
78
91
78
66
56
0
0


87%
81
84
81
56
94
87
81
81
53
87
56
66
66
97
91
84
81
84
87
87
94
97
81
59
66
72
0


100%
44
66
72
34


72
62

47
69
37
78
84
78
66
87
81
84
91
81
69
62
22
0
0


85%
62
75
81
28
91
87
50
87
62
84
50
50
50
50
81
87
87
84
87
87
84
78
81
94
34
53
0


Con.
97%
41


97
75










Table 4. Stand and tolerance of vegetable and field crops to pre-
emergence applied dinoben. Values for 30 days after crop
emergence commenced are percentages of untreated controls.
Data for broadleaf and grass weed stand and control are
appended for 20 and 30 days after application as percentages
of hand weeded control.


Herbicide
Rate per acre

Crop


dinoben
4 lb.

Std. Tol.


dinoben
8 Ib.


dinoben
12 lb.


Std. Tol. Std. Tol.


Celery
Carrot
Tomato
Pepper
Spinach
Endive
Romaine
Lettuce
Onion
Radish
Ch. Cabbage
Cabbage
Cucumber
Beet
Kenaf
Cotton
English peas
So. peas, B1. Eye
So. peas, Ala. Cr.
Snapbean, Cont.
Snapbean, Tend.
Soybean
Sp. wheat
W. wheat
Rice
Oat
Regari
Ryegrass


Stickerweed
Crabgrass

Stickerweed
Crabgrass


Weed response:
Std.
44%
62

Weed response:


30 daye after application
Con. Std. Con.
81% 6% 97%
53 16 91
20 days after application
94 3 97
87 3 97


97%
81
78
81
9


19
19
6
78
6
50
53
56
69
62
84
87
91
81
47
41
31
28


78%
94
72
81
16
9
69
81
31
12
25
6
72
9
62
62
41
66
62
81
78
81
75
75
22
41
19
19


975
72
34
56
0


o
9
ft-
0
50
0
12
22
34
37
59
66
66
75
53
53
12
9
0


97%
72
28
47
0
0
37
53
0
6
6
0
25
0
22
41
28
28
31
72
66
69
59
72
6
22
19
0


97%
75
47
56
0


3
--



3

3
19
0
12
12
16
62
66
72
78
81
70
50
16
12

0


75%
75
16
41
0
0
12
22
3
6
9
3
19
0
33
12
25
31
34
56
59
66
70
50
8
20
0
0


Std.
9%
6


3
3


Con.
97%
94

97
97









Table 5. Stand and tolerance of vegetable and field crops to pre-
emergence applied dalapon, DBP, and monuron. Values
for 30 days after crop emergence commenced are percentages
of untreated controls. Data for broadleaf and grass weed
stand and control are appended for 20 and 30 days after
application as percentages of hand weeded control.
Herbicide dalapon b BP monuron
Rate per acre 5 Ib. 6 Ib. 1.5 Ib
Crop Std. Tol. Std. Tol. Std. Tol.
Celery 94 81% 97% 75% 75% 72%
Carrot 69 78 19 47 84 84
Tomato 91 91 25 41 53 72
Pepper 94 87 72 84 66 66
Spinach 69 62 12 37 62 62
Endive -- 69 22 -- 81
Romaine 69 -- 22 87
Lettuce 31 -- 12 -- 72
Onion 81 81 0 0 78 81
Radish 72 87 31 25 50 41
Ch. cabbage 87 -- 25 59
Cabbage 75 91 0 0 3 3
Cucumber 94 84 62 78 19 37
Beet 66 75 12 31 56 56
Kenaf 72 84 81 87 87 81
Cotton 75 81 75 94 100 94
Eng. peas 69 94 72 87 81 87
So. peas, B. Eye 72 66 47 66 69 78
So. peas, Ala. Cr. 75 72 81 84 94 87
Snapbean, Cont. 66 72 87 91 94 87
Snapbean, Tend. 78 69 81 84 81 87
Soybean 72 53 87 87 94 100
Sp. wheat 0 0 87 94 87 91
W. wheat 34 4. 81 94 87 91
Rice 28 50 50 81 69 81
oat 69 78 72 84 72 87
Hegari -- 37 -- 75 81
Ryegrass 84 91 84 91 47 66


Stickerweed
Crabgrass

Stickerweed
Crabgrass


Weed response: 30 days after application
Std. Con. Std. Con.
100% 19% 100% 31%
97 28 94 19
Weed response: sO days after application


94
66


19
56


69 59
69 59


Std. Con.
94% 50%
94 31

59 62
72 69


EES 59-12, 350 copies
2/1/59




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