,.6 ,-JEverglades Station Mimeo Report 60-3 15 September 1959
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR VEGETABLE CROPS
ON ORGANIC SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES
J. R. Orsenigo_/
This is a revision of EES Mimeo Report 59-2. Recommendations
and suggestions herein are based on experiments conducted by
the Everglades Experiment Station and are supplemented by data
developed elsewhere. See also Florida Agricultural Extension
Service Circular 196. This information is intended for grower
guidance and familiarization and growers are urged to observe
the manufacturer's label and labelling precautions for commer-
cial use of herbicides in vegetable crops.
Herbicides are gaining wide acceptance as production tools in the commercial
production of vegetable crops. These chemicals cannot be substituted for good
horticultural practice but offer timely, effective and economical weed control
for certain vegetables. For best results the following must be observed: USE -
THE RIGHT CHEMICAL FOR THE CROP AND WEEDS; IN THE RIGHT AMOUNT; IN THE RIGHT WAY;
AT THE RIGHT TIME; and IN THE RIGHT PLACE.
Recommendations and suggestions herein are intended for grower guidance and
familiarization with herbicides and application methods.. Each grower must eva-
luate the potential of these chemicals in his situation. It is suggested that
initial use be restricted to a limited acreage and that the precautions and indi-
cations of the manufacturer's label be followed carefully.
Generally, band application of herbicides will be most ec al since only
part of the total crop land will be sprayed. Planter-mount '- mounted and
trailed sprayers can be used but the following conditions /' ld be ved to
obtain the most satisfactory results:
Spraying pressure: 20 to 40 p a
Spray volume: 20 to 40 gp c
Flat-fan spray nozzles. \
Good ground coverage is important and most pre-emergence icides a st
effective when applied to moist surface soil. ,
All herbicide rates are expressed on a PER SPRAYED ACRE basis in terms of
usual commercial formulation. The customary active ingredient content of herbi-
cides used in this report is given in the glossary along with herbicide nomen-
clature and herbicide terminology. Appended to'the report are a sprayer calibra-
tion table and illustrations of methods of herbicide application.
RECOMMENDED herbicidal treatments (chemical, rate and manner of application) are
those considered generally reliable for commerical production when used as speci-
fied. It is recommended that growers without prior herbicide-use experience
confine initial applications to a limited acreage.
SUGGESTED herbicidal treatments represent promising materials which have not been
tested fully locally or materials which do not have current FDA approval for the
crops indicated. Growers may wish to utilize suggested treatments on a very
I/ Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida
GREEN BEANS: PRE-EMEROENCE BANDED APPLICATION
RECOMMEDED: DINITRO, 2 to 3 gal/A (of a 3 Ib/gal formulation) Pre-emergence.
or 1 gal/A If beans are breaking through ground.
SUGGESTED: RANDOX, 4 to 6 qts/A
VEGEDEX, 4 to 6 qts/A
CABBAGE: DIRECT-SEDEED PRE-EMERGENCE BANDED APPLICATION
RECOMEMDED RANDOX, 4 to 6 qts/A (better grass control)
VEGEDEX, 4 to 6 qts/A (better broadleaf weed control)
RANDK 4 VEGEDEX, 4 to 6 qts/A total in tank mix (overall weed control)
CEXRY: SEEDBEDS POST EMERGENCE BROADCAST OVER CELERY AND WEEDS
SUGGESTED: KARSIL 2 to 4 qts/A FOR VERY LIMITED TRIAL ONLY. Apply after second true
(Niagara 4562) leaf of celery seedling is fully expanded. Slight
stand reduction is customary. Seedlings recover from
slight stunting by time beds are "pulled". Weed con-
trol is superior to mineral spirits.
CELERY: POST TRANSPLANTING BEFORE OR AFTER OVERHEAD IRRIGATION*
RECOMMENDED VEGEDEX 4 to 6 qts/A (Repeat applications may be made up to 4 weeks after
*Broadcast or banded directional sprays before or after overhead irrigation at setting but before emergence
of weed seedlings.
CELERY: POST EMERGENCE TO CELERY AND WEEDSe*
6 to 8 qts/A
FOR VERY LIMITED TRIAL ONLY. Apply up to 4 weeks
after setting. Best grass and broadleaf kill obtain-
ed at 3 weeks after setting.
** Banded directional application is suggested.
SWEET CORN PRE-EMERGENCE BANDED APPLICATION
RECOMMENDED: DINITRO, 3 to 4 gal/A (of a 3 Ib/gal formulation)
2,4-D AMIMlE l to 2 qts/A (of a 4 lb/gal formulation)
SUGGESTED: ATRAZINE, 4 to 6 lb/A (50% WP formulation)
RANDOX, 4 to 6 qts/A
SIMAZINE, 4 to 6 lb/A (50% WP formulation)
VEGEDEX, 4 to 6 qts/A
SWEET CORN: POST EMERGENCE
RECOMMENDED: DINITRO, 2 to 4 qts/A (of a 3 lb/gal formulation)
Overall-banded at 2 to 4 leaf-stage.
Directional to 12 inches.
2,4-D AMINE 1/2 to 3/4 qt/A (of a 4 lb/gal formulation)
Overall-banded up to spike stage.
Directional on plants 12 inches and taller until
lay-by. DO NOT APPLY TO EARLY VARIETIES.
LEAF CROPS: DIRECT-SEEDED PRE-EMERGENCE
(Chinese cabbage, endive, escarole, lettuce, romaine)
2 to 4 qts/A
3 to 6 qts/A
FOR LIMITED ACREAGE ONLY.
are not uniform. Romaine
FOR LIMITED ACREAGE ONLY.
Under moderate tempera-
NOTE: Generally, pre-emergence herbicides are effective only against germinating weed seed and very small weed
seedlings, and, ordinarily, these materials will not control emerged weeds. Thus, land should be freshly
prepared, seeded and sprayed promptly with herbicides. Planter-mounted spray equipment is desirable.
Atrazine 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-trizine (50% WP, Geigy)
CIPC isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (4 lb/gal, Columbia-
Southern, Diamond, Fasco, General, Ortho and other chemical
Dinitro DNBP, alkanolamine salts of dinitro-0-sec-butyl phenol as
Premerge or inoix PE (3 lb/gal, DoW, Standard Agricultural
Chemicals end other chemical suppliers).
Karsil Niagara 4562, N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpentanamide (2 lb/
Randox CDAA, a-chloro-N, N-diallyl acetamide (4 lb/gal, Monsanto).
Simazine 2-chloro-4,6-bic(ethylamino)-s-triazine (50% WP, Geigy).
2,4-D amine amine salts of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (4 lb/gal, many
formulators and suppliers).
Vegedex CDEC, 2-chloroallyl diethyldithiocarbamate (4 lb/gal, Monsanto).
Band application applying the herbicide in a narrow, continuous strip in, over,
or along the crop row rather than over the entire field area.
Broadcast application apply the herbicide over an entire field or area rather
than in a band.
Contact herbicide an herbicide that kills principally by direct contact with
plant tissue rather than by translocation within the plant.
Directional application applying an herbicide to a restricted location such as
the crop row or bed at the base of the plants.
Overall application applying an herbicide from directly above a plant.
Post emergence treatment application made after the crop plants emerge. Treat-
ments may also be specified post emergent to weed growth.
Pre-emergence treatment applications made after the crop is planted but before
its emergence. Contact pre-emergence is a treatment made after weed
emergence but prior to crop emergence. Residual pre-emergence is a
treatment which kills weeds as their seed germinate or as they emerge,
either before or after the crop has emerged.
Pre-planting treatment any application made before the crop is planted.
Pre-transplanting treatment an application made before setting the transplanted
Post transplanting treatment an application made after the transplant crop has
been set in the field.
BASIC SPRAYING EQUIPMENT:
Herbicide tank with by-pass return for agitation.
Foot or line strainer.
Pump (Nylon roller or vane pump of about 6 gpm generally satisfactory
Pressure regulator and gauge.
Quick-acting shut-off valve.
Hose and fittings (one-half inch satisfactory).
For most herbicide spraying in crops pressures in the range 20 to 40
psi are satisfactory and herbicides should be applied in about 25 to gO 'pa of
water. Any combination of tractor speed and nozzle tips to accomplish these
pressures and deliveries should be effective. Generally, spray drift is mini-
mized by low pressures and the larger nozzles which deliver coarse spray.
CALIBRATION: GENERAL PROCEDURE:
Initial calibration of a spray outfit may be accomplished easily by
the following procedure.
1. Adjust nozzles, spraying pressure and tractor speed as they are to
be operated in the field.
2. Fill herbicide tank completely withwa'ter.
3. With tractor operating as in number (1) above, spray water over a
measured course of several hundred yards in a fitted field.
4. Determine amount of water required to refill tank to replace that
sprayed over measured course.
5. Calculate area sprayed: Width of bands or boom spread-times
6. From 4 and 5 calculate quantity of water applied per acre.
7. Rate of application per acre can be decreased by: using smaller
nozzle tips, less pressure or faster tractor speed.
8. Rate of application per acre can be increased by: larger nozzle
tips, higher pressures or slower tractor speed.
9. When calibration is completed add desired quantity of herbicide
per acre to amount of water applied per acre by the spray unit.
SPRAYER CALIBRATION TABLE FOR BAND-SPRAYING OF HERBICIDES:
This table will help determine sprayer output in gallons per acre on a
TO USE: have sprayer equipped with proper nozzle tips and with tips,
tractor speed and spraying pressure adjusted as to be operated in the
Then, drive unit in field and collect spray liquid discharged
by one or more nozzle tips over a distance of 300 feet. Several tips
collected separately and averaged are better than one.
Measure the liquid sprayed BY ONE TIP IN OUNCES. Locate this
figure in left column of table and read directly the gallons per acre
rate under the band-width column which applies to the unit. Examples
are below table.
Volume of spray
1 tip in 300 ft.
P pt. or 8 oz.
1 pt. or 16 oz.
1 qt. or 32 oz.
GALLONS PER ACRE APPLIED AT BAND WIDTH OF:
...-- .0. .....
NOTE: If two nozzle tips are used per row the value for one tip will have to be
doubled to give the correct gallons per acre total. If two tips are used
it would be desirable to calibrate unit to discharge in the area above the
dotted line in the table.
Example: 1 nozzle per row: a sprayer is set-up with one tip spraying 12 inch
bands on the row. When run down the field at operating speed and pressure a :
nozzle tip discharges 26 ounces of solution in 300 feet. The gallons per
acre rate is found in the 12" column opposite 26 ounces: 29.5 gpa.
Example: 2 nozzles per row: a sprayer is set-up with 2 nozzle tips per row and
covers a 15" band. When run down the field at operating pressure and speed
ONE (1) nozzle tip discharges 16 ounces in 300 feet. As indicated in the
15" band column opposite 16 ounces the nozzle is spraying at 14.5 gallons
per acre. However, since two tips are used to spray this area the actual
rate is TWICE 14.5 or 29 gallons per acre.
HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS: BROADCAST SPRAYING:
----.-.--.--- ---- -.-. -. om
i*- .. ,, -f: : -I .,: _
Pre-emergence overall Post emergence overall
USE "FAN-TYPE" TIPS WITH 1/4 TO 1/3 -
HITOZZLE PATTERN OVERLAP TO OBTAIN
UNIFORM COVERAGE. "FAN-TYPE" TIPS ;I
HAVE AN ELLIPTICAL SPRAY DENSITY
PATTERN AND MUST OVERLAP FOR
UNIFORMITY. AN EXAMPLE OF THIS
TYPE TIP IS "TEE-JET" SERIES -" ."
*(series 6500, 7300 and similar tips
of other manufacturers are also
HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS: BAND SPRAYING'!
I i ( i Ii I.
4: I\* .
USE "PRE-EMERGENCE FAN-TYPE" TIPS SUCH AS
"TEE-JET" 8000 E SERIES. THE SPRAY
PATTERN OF THIS "FAN-TYPE" TTP HAS
UNIFORM SPRAY DENSITY ACROSS FAN
PATTERN. SATISFACTORY BAND WIDTH
8 to 12 INCHES.
HERBICIDE APPLICATION METHODS: DIRECTIONAL.SPRAYING: POST EMERGENCE:
(ordinary "TEE-Jet" tips)
("TEE-Jet" "OC-series" tips)
ADJUST NOZZLE TIPS TO GIVE EQUAL DENSITY DISTRIBUTION PATTERN
ACROSS BAND AT BASE OF PLANT. NOZZLES OF SIMILAR DESIGN BY
OTHER MANF ACTURERS SERVE EQUALLY WELL.