RECENT STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF INSECTS
ATTACKING VEGETABLE ,-CROPS IN THE EVERGLADES
W. G. Genung and E. D. Harris, Jr.
This report includes a compilation of results from
insect control experiments conducted during the 1958-59
growing season with vegetable crops. The results are pre-
liminary and data contained do not constitute nor imply
any change in published recommendations for the control
of insects observed.
Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-25
Belle Glade, Florida
May 6, 1959
CONTROL OF INSECTS ATTACKING LEGUMES AND CRUCIFERS
During the winter and spring reasons (1958 59), a number of growers
stated that they could not get adequate control of cabbage loopers with
materials in current use. It was found that most of these growers had not
been on a regular schedule but were placing their trust in a knock out
punch. This did not prove as successful as they had hoped. At the same
time, we had cabbage at the Everglades Experiment Station that had been on
a regular schedule and it was observed that excellent to adequate control
was obtained with Endrin, Toxaphene, and various combinations containing
these materials. It is important to control cabbage loopers while they
are young. In the Everglades area, a week to ten days schedule is suggested.
Also better control of aphids can be obtained by adhering to a schedule,
and some materials that are not generally considered aphicides when compared
with untreated checks will show some suppression of aphids in such a program.
Use of a spreader sticker is desirable for insect control on cabbage.
In the following summarization of experimental work, some materials are
included in the tests that are not approved for use on these crops, and their
commercial use in such cases is not suggested.
SOUTHERN PEA INSECT CONTROL
Objective: To compare insecticides and combinations of materials for control
of insects attacking southern peas, particularly stink bugs and cowpea
Procedure: Eight insecticides and combinations of insecticides were compared
in a randomized block experiment. Materials were applied at weekly
intervals after appearance of first blooms. Materials used alone were
asplied at standards amounts of technical insecticide per acre and
combinations in reduced amounts. Evaluation of control of curculios
was based on percent wormy shelled peas. For stink bug control, the
number of surviving stink bugs on the two center rows of each plot were
Results: Most of the materials tested gave excellent control of cowpea
curcullos." Sevin and Trithion in the amounts used in this test were
ineffective. All treatments except trithion gave excellent to good
control of stink bugs. The results are shown on the following table.
Amt. Tech. Surviving Avg. % Wormy
Material Formulation per acre Stink Bugs Shelled Peas
Toxaphene9, E. C. 0.5 0 0.25
Thiodan E. C. 0.25
Thiodan E. C. 0.5 0 0.50
Heptachlor E. C. 0.5 2.50 0.125
Toxaphene E. C. 1.00 1.25 0.75
Toxaphene E. C. 0.5
Trithion Ends 0.125 1.75 0.50
Toxaphene E. C. 0.5
Phosdrin E. C. 0.125 2.75 0.62
Sevin E. C. 1.00 1.50 15.80
Trithion E. C. 0.25 8.00 14.25
Check 11.75 16.62
CABBAGE INSECT CONTROL
Objective: To compare various insecticides and combinations of insecticides
for control of cabbage insects particularly cabbage looper.
Procedure: Eight materials and an untreated check were compared. Materials
used in standard amounts of technical material per acre, except phosdrin,
used alone, which due to a miscalculation was applied in sub-standard
amounts and will not be shown here. Treatments were applied at eight
day intervals; Materials used in combination were used in reduced
amounts in each instance. One hundred gallons of spray was applied per
Results: On-the basis of a larval count endrin, toxaphene / endrin, and
endrin / phosdrin gave perfect control of cabbage looper. Thiodan and
toxaphene, used alone, also gave adequate control of loopers. The
results obtained are shown in the table below:
No. Surviving Loopers
Material and Formulation Lbs. Tech/A Per 25 Head Sample
Endrin E. C. 0.2 0
Toxapheng E. C. 0.5
Endrin E. C. 0.1 0
Endrin E. C. 0.1
Phosdrin" E. C. 0.125 0
Thiodan E. C. 0.5 1.2
Toxaphene E. C. 1.00 1.4
Toxaphene E. C. 0.5 1.8
Thiodan E. C. 0.25
Toxaphene E. C. 0.5 4.6
Phosdrin E. C. 0.125
CABBAGE INSECT CONTROL
Objective: To compare under local conditions in a single experiment, eome-6f
the materials that have been found generally effective for cutworm control
in various areas, and also to compare the effectiveness of these materials
for cabbage looper.
Procedure: Five spray materials and an untreated check were compared for
control of these insects. Counts were made after the fourth application..
The number of cutworms found under 20 plants per plot and the number of
loopers per 25 head sample were counted for evaluating control. Amounts
of materials used were based on what was- considered to be required for
Results: Endrin after four applications indicated perfect control of cutworms
and cabbage loopers. Toxaphene andkepane also were effective for control
of both cutworms and loopers as shown in the table below:
Cutworms Mean Surviving
Material Formulation Lbs, Tech/A Mean Surviving Loopers
Endrin E. C. 0.5 0 0
Toxaphene E. C. 2.0 0.25 6.00
Kepone E. C. 1.0 0.25 2.77
Heptachlor E. C. 1.0 2.25 39.00
Aldrin E. C. 0.5 4.50 26i25
Check 8.25 44.25
Emmett D. Harris, Jr.
Red Pontiac potatoes planted October 16, 1958. Sprayed Dec. 3, Dec. 10,
and Dec. 24. 100 gallons applied per acre.
Average Number of Aphids per Leaflet
: (6 lbs/gal)
Parathion EC (4 ibs/gal) /100 gals.
None 0.25 pt. 0.5 pt.
2/3 pt./100 gal
1 1/3 pt./
Demeton EC (2# /Gal)
(4#/gal) 1 pt.
(4#/gal) 0.5 pt.
Average Number of Active Leaf Miners per Leaflet.
2/3 pt./100 gals.
1 1/3 pt./100 gals/
Dibrom EC 39
Dec. 29, 1958
Parathion EC (6 lbs./ga) /100' gals.
0.25 pt. 0.5 Pt.
Demeton EC (2#/gal.) 1.5 pt..
Phosphamidon EC (4#/gal.) Ipt.
Trithion EC (4I/gal) 0.5 pt.
Phosdrin EC (2#/gal.) 1 pt.
Dibrom EC (4/gal) 1.5 pt.
StEEw CORN INSECTS
by .mett D. Harrii., Jr.
Experiment I Parathion and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides.
Objective: To compare parathion, DDT, toxaphene, and heptachlor for
budworm control and to determine if mixtures of parathion and
other insecticides would result in better control than using
the insecticides alone.
Procedure: Sixty-Pak sweet corn planted October 7, 1958, and sprayed
weekly, beginning at 50 gallons per acre. The number of nozzles
per row were increased as the corn grew resulting in the appli-
cation of 150 gallons per acre in the latest budworm sprays. All
insecticides were used in the emulsifiable concentrate formulation.
Results: Percent of Stalks Damaged Average of 6 weekly observations.
Parathion EC (l#/gal.)
0.5 pint/100 gallons
1 qt./100 gallons
1 q../100 gals.
1 1/3 qt./lOO gals.
Experiment II Rates of Toxaphene and DDT
corn planted January 26, 1959, and sprayed weekly, three
50 gallons per acre and one at 100.
Per cent Stalks with budworm damage
Act. Txc./100 gals. February 24 March 3
CORN STEM WEEVIL, Byperodes humilis (Gyll.)
Sixty-Pak sweet corn planted March 5, 1959. Sprays applied at the rate
of 50 gallons per acre on March 11 and 23 and at 100 gallons per acre on
March 31. First spray applied on the day after first seedlings emerged
from the soil.
Lbs. Act. Stand Broken Stalks
Insecticide TXC./100 gals. Mar. 23 Loss** Stalks** Mined**
Guthion 1.0 185 3 5 29
Diazinon 0.5 195 5 11 74
Phosdrin 0.5 159 9 12 60
Phosphamidon 1.0 143 7 12 61
Thiodan 1.0 186 9 13 68
Demeton 0.75 185 13 14 59
Endrin 0.5 175 1 15 68
Untreated -- 178 10 16 79
Golden Security sweet corn planted April 6, 1959. Sprays applied at
4 day intervals beginning on the day that the first seedlings emerged,
April 11. Three applications at 50 gallons per acre were made up to
,the time that seedlings were pulled on April 20 for the observations
that are summarized below. This experiment is still in progress.
Infestations and Damage per 00 plants
Lbs. Act. Plants Number .with. : Of
Txc./ with of Grub Grub
Insecticides 100 gals. Eggs Eggs Damage Mines
DDT 2.0 3 9 6 9
Guthion 1l0 9 14 11 16
Guthion 0.75 8 21 4 7
Trithion 1.0 16 39 11 14
Dielarin 0.375 23 41 10 14
Diibethoa3te 1.0 24 49 15 21
Endtrin 0.4 21 68 16 24
Sevin 20 31 73 14 19
Untreated -- 26 64 15 26
In 240 Feet of row; ** From March 23 until April 15.
*** Examinations were made on April 3 following heavy winds and rains on