Everglades Station Mfimeo Report 60-23 May 13, 1960 .
The Value of Itcostatin to Garbage-Fed Swine .
C. E. Haines
The feeding of garbage to swine has been practiced for many years and has
recently become more important in areas adjacent to supplies of garbage. Greater
emphasis is being placed on garbage feeding as the population in the United
States continues to increase. In Florida, there are at present, many small
garbage feeding establishments.
In recent years, the value of antibiotics to swine has demanded consider-
able attention by both producers and research institutions. Generally, anti-
biotic materials have aided the swine industry by reducing enteric and disease
disorders and improving gains and feed efficiency. Antibiotics which have
been established as effective agents in swine production are aureomycin,
terranycin, penicillin and combinations of these with bacitracin or strepto-
nycin. More recently, the value of an antifungal antibiotic, mycostatin, to
swine has been explored both alone and in combination with other antibiotics.
The other antibiotics have been known to be active against intestinal bacteria
and mycostatin against yeast and molds. These trials have involved the feeding
of garbage as well as concentrate mixtures.
The study reported herein was conducted to determine the value of mycos-
tatin supplementation to pigs being fattened on cooked garbage. The efficiency
of garbage as a fattening ration and periodic analyses of the feeding material
are also reported.
The study was conducted at the Glades State Prison Farm and followed a
similar preliminary trial at the same location. Forty-five crossbred pigs
(Duroc, Poland China and Hampshires) were divided into two comparable groups
on the basis of average group weights and confined to concentrate pens con-
taining shade, concrete feed troughs and water. Both groups of pigs were
full-fed cooked garbage once daily for 112 days and group weighed at 28 day
intervals. In addition to the garbage, one pound of soybean oil meal con-
taining a mineral mixture was provided for each pig daily.
The soybean oil meal for one group was supplemented with nycostatin at a
rate to provide an average of 200 milligrams of antibiotic material daily per
pig. It was estimated that this rate would be equivalent to approximately 50
grams of mycostatin per ton of total dry feed., The soybean oil meal premix
was sprinkled over the garbage at feeding time.
1 1.ycostatin supplied as Ircostatin-20 by E. R. Squibb & Sons, New Brunswick,
2 Haines, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, Florida. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. G. A.
Raulerson and other participating personnel of the Glades State Prison
Farm staff for the conduct of this trial.
The garbage was cooked daily in a mobile cooker and contained residue
from the prison farm kitchen, slaughter plant and vegetable processing plant.
The hot garbage was delivered to the swine unit and stored in metal drums until
it was fed. The volume, in gallons, of the garbage fed to each group daily was
recorded and periodic samples were obtained for proximate analysis. Since
there was considerable variation in the quality of the garbage from day to day,
duplicate samples were secured every eight days during the entire test to more
accurately determine the overall average composition of the feeding material.
Results and Discussion
The results of the feeding trial are summarized in Table 1 and indicate
that mycostatin was responsible for improving gains by about four and one half
pounds a pig. These additional gains can be attributed to the mycostatin
because both lots were full-fed similar garbage and given the same amount per
head of the soybean oil meal premix. Therefore, it may be assumed that the
antibiotic improved the feed conversion rate. Although the average daily
gains shown, were approximately 1.2 pounds for all.pigs they increased from
an average of 0.8 pound during the first 28 day period to 1.5 pounds during
the final 28 day period.
The amount of garbage consumed per pig daily increased as the pigs got
larger. During the first, second, third and fourth (final) 28 day periods
the pigs were provided with an average of 1.9, 2.2, 2.8 and 3.8 gallons of
garbage per head daily, respectively. Converting these volume figures to
pounds of wet garbage show that the pigs increased from an average daily
allowance of 15 pounds of garbage to 30 pounds per day during the final period
of the trial. The overall average of 2.8 gallons of garbage provided per pig
daily, as shown in Table 1, would be equal to 22.4 pounds of wet garbage.
Table 1. Summary of Feeding Garbage to Swine.
Experimental Treatment No Ircostatin Mycostatin
Number of pigs1 21 22
Days on test 112 112
Average initial weight (Ibs.) 58.5 58.0
Average final weight (Ibs.) 190.7 194.9
Average total gain (Ibs.) 132.2 136.9
Average daily gain (Ibs.) 1.18 122
Feed provided per2pig daily
Garbage (gel.) 2.8 2.7
Soybean Oil M'eal (Ibs.) 1.0 1.0
Feed provided per2pound of gain
Garbage (gal.) 2.37 2.21
Soybean Oil Meal (Ibs.) 0.85 0.82
1 One pig removed from each lot during experiment 45 pigs initially.
2 All garbage was full-fed on a volume basis and daily amount provided
was dependent upon degree of consistency of particular batches.
The consistency of the garbage varied considerably from time to time. A
summary of the proximate analyses for the 28 samples (14 duplicates) is shown
in Table 2. One sample went as high as 92 percent moisture and the duplicate
of this sample was 91 percent moisture. The fiber content of the feeding mat-
erial did not greatly exceed that recommended for fattening rations but the
fat content was extremely high.
Table 2. Summary of the Proximate Analyses of 14 Garbage Samples Taken in
Duplicate at 8 Day Intervals.
Item Range (%) Average (%)
Dry Matter 8.1 -.59.3 44.6
Protein 1 13.8 24.1 19.1
Fatl 1 5.5 46.4 28.1
Fiber 5.8 26.1 11.4
Ash 1 4.3 12.6 6.8
Values given are on dry matter basis.
The average dry matter content of 44.6 percent for the entire 28 garbage
samples can be used to estimate the amount of dry feed, as garbage, which was
supplied to the pigs. The average figure of 22.4 pounds of wet garbage pro-
vided per pig daily would be equal to almost 10 pounds of dry feed containing
19 percent protein. It is pointed out however, that this amount does not
necessarily represent the actual intake because there was often considerable
wastage during feeding due to several factors. In some cases, inedible mat-
erials such as bones were in the garbage, usually the pigs "coated" themselves
with the feedstuff during the process of eating and sometimes large pieces of
garbage were contaminated with the feces in the pen when the pigs dragged them
from the feed troughs. Also, some of the garbage, particularly from the slaughter
house, did not always appear completely palatable to the pigs. However, the
garbage used during this feeding test was typical of the material that has been
used at this establishment to fatten approximately 30 feeder pigs a month
throughout the year. Therefore, the analyses and the quantity of garbage
needed for the pigs in this study may be considered representive for this
Forty-three feeder pigs were full-fed cooked garbage plus one pound of
soybean oil meal per head daily for 112 days. Twenty-two of these pigs also
received 200 milligrams of mycostatin, an antifungal antibiotic, daily.
The group of pigs receiving the mycostatin gained an average of 136.9
pounds compared to 132.2 pounds for the comparable group of pigs not provided
the antibiotic. Since both groups received the same feed these results indi-
cate that mycostatin improved feed conversion. Garbage samples secured every
eight days during the trial emphasized a great variation in day to day com-
position. An average of the proximate analyses showed this feeding material
to contain 44.6 percent dry matter, 19.1 percent protein, 28.1 percent fat,
11.4 percent fiber, and 6.8 percent ash.