Evergades Station Mi
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PROGRESS REPORT ON MINERAL INVESTIGATIaIS WITH BEEF CATTLE
H. L. Chapman, Jr.,/
Rate of Mineral Consumption. Mineral consumption records of mature beef
cows in the Everglades Station herd were kept for a twelve-month period during
1956. The purpose of this study were to (1) compare consumption of a mineral
mixture containing one percent phenothiazine with a mixture containing no pheno-
thiazine, (2) see if there was any relationship between the season of the year
and mineral intake and (3) determine if supplemental feeding program used during
the winter months affected the mineral consumption of mature beef animals.
Eight groups of mature cows containing approximately 25 animals each were
allotted randomly. Four groups received a mineral mixture containing no pheno-
thiazine and four a mineral mixture containing one percent of phenothiazine.
The composition of the mineral mixtures used are given in Table 1. The mineral
mixtures were available to the animals at all times.
Table 1. Mineral Mixture Composition
Steamed bone meal
Mixture No. 1
100 to 130
Mixture No. 2
100 to 120
Effect of One Percent Phenothiazine Upon Mineral Consumption. The average
consumption of the mineral containing one percent ph3nothiazine for the year was
0.11 pounds per animal per day as compared to 0.09 pounds per animal per day for
the mineral mixture containing no phenothiazino. The average daily mineral con-
sumption of the entire eight groups of beef cows for the year was 0.10 of pounds
per animal. The average daily mineral intake per animal per day for the various
months is given in Figure 1.
1/ Assistant Animal Nutritionist, University of Florida, Everglades Experimht:
Station, Belle Glade, Florida J
March 1, 1957
Average Daily Mineral
Consumption per animal per day for each month
0 S S 0 S S 0 0 0
. -No Phenothiazine
.0 / /
. _/. -- \ -. .
./ A / Aver.
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Records were kept for an 84-day period to determine if supplemental feed-
ing program in the winter had any effect upon mineral consumption of beef cows.
The results of these studies are given in Table 2.
These data indicate that supplemental feeding of molasses to beef animals
will result in a subsequent decrease in mineral consumption. The same trend
appeared to be the case to a lesser degree when grass silage was fed to the beef
cows. The effect of temporary pasture in the winter upon mineral consumption of
beef cows has not been consistent, there being a decrease in some instances and
increase in other instances.
Table 2. Effect of Supplemental Molasses or Silage Upon Mineral Mixture Intake
Pasture Supplemental Average No. Mineral Consumption
Grass Feed Aninals per animal per day
St. Augustine - 2 .14
St. Augustine Molasses 28 .06
St. Augustine Temp. Pasture 19 .16
St. Augustine Temp. Pasture 23 .03
St. Augustine - 24 .1
St. Augustine Grass Silage 31 .08
Para Grass Silage 30 .11
Carib Grass Silage 26 .06
Copper-Phenothiazine Treatment. For some time a condition has been recog-
nized in the Everglades area affecting a small percentage of principally yearling
stock. Cattle effected with this condition become emaciated, have a rough hair
coat and diarrhea. If the condition is not arrested death of the animal may
Efforts to determine the causative agent of this condition have currently
been unsuccessful. However, preliminary studies in cooperation with cattlemen
in the area have indicated that benefit may be realized by drenching these
animals with six ounces of a four percent copper drench followed within 15 to
301seconds with six ounces of phenothiazine drench. The treatment should be
repeated in 21 days.
This treatment has been used by several cattlemen in the area with satis-
factory results. In addition, excellent results were also obtained from
preliminary studies by Experiment Station workers. Yearling steers which were
given this treatment quit scouring and there was a subsequent gain in weight,
strength and condition.
Thereason for this benefit has not been satisfactorily explained. How-
ever, there are several possible theories. Copper sulfate possessies
anthelmintic properties; there may be increased utilization of the phenothiazine
when given in combination with copper sulfate; and, also, benefit may be derived
from the copper sulfate as a mineral element.
This treatment is suggested for use dth yearling stock exhibiting this
group of symptoms. No injurious affects will be realized through the use of
the four percent copper sulf-te solution(appro:dmately 1/4 pound:blue stone per
gallon of water) and phenothiazine treatment.
Relationship of Previcus Nutritional History of Beef Cattle to Present
Performance. Previously reported experiments from this station have emphasized
the need for providing a satisfactory mineral mixture for cattle at all times.
A definite relationship has been demonstrated between previous mineral nutrition
and the length of time required for an animal to become mineral deficient. Cows
maintained on inadequate levels of copper for approximately 12 months prior to
the experiment became severely depleted in this element within 2-4 weeks as
compared to an 18- to 20-week period for cows which previously received a satis-
factory mineral intake. When maintained on a low copper intake calves of the
first cows became copper depleted within a 3- to 8-week period as compared to
an 18- to 2h-week period for calves whose mothers came from the Station herd.