Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; EES71- 5
Title: Chopped sugarcane tops as a feedstuff for cattle and horses
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067509/00001
 Material Information
Title: Chopped sugarcane tops as a feedstuff for cattle and horses
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pate, F. M ( Findlay Moye ), 1941-
Beardsley, D. W
Hayes, B. W
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: F.M. Pate, D.W. Beardsley and B.W. Hayes.
General Note: "February, 1971."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067509
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 64666756

Full Text

0/ HUME LIBRARY

7 *-*
S- SP 11 1972
LES Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES71-S FebrTary, 1971


CHOPPED SUGARCANE TOP IF '1E2 e Florida
FOR CATTLE AND HORSES

F. M. Pate, D. W. Beardsley and B. W. Hayes /


Sugarcane tops are a major waste product of the 200,000 acre sugarcane
industry in south Florida. It has been estimated that there are 5 to 10
tons of green tops per acre of sugarcane. At present this material is being
left in the field to decompose when it could possibly be salvaged as a
feedstuff. The following study was undertaken to gain preliminary infor-
mation regarding the nutritive-value of cane tops as a feed source for beef
cattle and horses.

Experimental Procedure

Fresh cane tops were hand collected twice-weekly from fields immediately
following the harvesting of cane which had been burned to eliminate dead leaves
and other trash. Tops were stockpiled as collected, then processed through a
mechanical chopper, weighed and sampled immediately prior to a once-daily
feeding. Daily samples were analyzed for dry matter content and composite on
a weekly basis for crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen-
free extract (NFE) determinations. Tops from sugarcane variety Cl. 41-223 were
fed except for one week when variety C. P. 50-23 was used. To obtain an
estimate of cane top yield, tops were collected from four 100-foot trash rows
and weighed.. Each trash row was made up of tops, suckers and miscellaneous
residue from four rows of Cl. 41-223 estimated to produce 35 tons of millable
cane per acre.

Ten beef steers of mixed breeding and averaging 745 pounds were randomly
divided into two groups of equal numbers. Steers in both groups were full-
fed cane tops in drylot for a period of 64 days between January 15 and March
18,,1963. After 14 and 36 days on feed, all steers were supplemented with
1 and 2 pounds of cottonseed meal per head daily, respectively. Cottonseed
meal was sprinkled over the cane tops at feeding. A mineral supplement
was offered free choice. Steers were weighed at intervals corresponding
to changes in cottonseed meal supplementation, and at completion of the study.
Animal performance was measured by weight gains and cane top dry matter intake.

In a second part of this study, 4 mature saddle horses were offered
fresh cane tops daily on an ad libitum basis while grazing St. Augustine-
grass pasture. This experiment was conducted to determine the palatability
of fresh cane tops to horses, therefore, only fresh cane top intake was
recorded.


1/ Assistant Professor, (Assistant Animal Nutritionist); Professor, (Animal
Nutritionist) and Head, and Assistant Professor, (Assistant Animal Nutrition-
ist), respectively, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida,
33430.







-2-


Results

Proximate analysis data on weekly composite samples of cane tops
collected over an eight week period are shown in Table 1. Although some
variation in weekly composition was evident, no meaningful trends with time
were detectable.

In determining cane top yield 2576 pounds of tops were collected from
four 100-foot trash rows. Calculated yield per acre would be approximately
7 tons of fresh material or 2 tons of dry matter on a 30% dry matter basis.
This yield value is comparable with estimates on cane top yield in south
Florida.

Average daily gain and cane top dry matter intake by steers are
summarized in Table 2. Steers in lot 1 maintained their weight when fed
cane tops alone and exhibited moderate weight gains when supplemented with
1 and 2 pounds of cottonseed meal per head daily. Steers in lot 2 lost
weight when fed cane tops only and had pronounced weight losses when sup-
plemented with 1 pound of cottonseed meal per head daily. However, large
weight increases were obtained by steers in lot 2 during the period cotton-
seed meal was supplemented at a rate of 2 pounds per head daily. This con-
siderable variation in weight changes by steers in lot 2 relative to steers
in lot 1 may be attributed to fill at time of weighing. Over the entire
experiment steers in both lots gained quite well.

Dry matter intake data indicated that fresh cane tops alone are
fairly palatable to beef .cattle. However, intake was improved by sprinkling
cottonseed meal over the fresh tops at feeding. The improved dry matter
intake and weight gains by steers when cane tops were supplemented with
cottonseed meal, along with the chemical analysis data, indicate that
protein is the most limiting factor in sugarcane tops. A similar conclusion
was drawn from studies conducted in Brazil on the value of cane tops as a
cattle feed (1).

Intake data showed that horses also readily consumed fresh cane tops
in addition to a small quantity of concentrate supplement and St. Augustine-
grass pasture. Average daily fresh material intake was 42 pounds per head
daily which would be approximately 13 pounds of dry matter.


Summary

A study was conducted to obtain information on the feeding value of
fresh sugarcane tops for beef cattle and horses. The quantity of cane
tops available following the sugarcane harvest is substantial and the
chemical composition of this material appears to remain relatively constant
throughout the latter half of the cane harvesting season. Results showed
that both cattle and horses will readily consume chopped cane tops.
Performance data suggested that cane tops alone will not maintain beef cattle
but in conjunction with an adequate quantity of protein supplement can be
utilized as a beef maintenance ration and moderate weight gains by growing
cattle can be expected.








-3-



Literature Cited

1. Estima, A. L., G. C. Caldas, S. P. Viana, '!. F. Cavalcante, A. R. L.
de Carvalho, M. S. Farias and G. P. Lofgreen. 1967. 'Molasses,
cassava and cottonseed meal as supplements to fresh and ensiled sugar-
cane tops. IRI Research Institute, Inc, Bull. No. 32.






- 4 -


Table 1. Chemical composition of sugarcane tons by weeks.


Week

Week 1
1/15 1/22

Week 2
1/23 1/30


Week 3
1/31 2/6


Week 4
2/7 2/13


Week 5
2/14 2/20


Week 6
2/21 2/27


'eek 7
2/28 3/5


Week 8
3/6 3/12


Week 9
3/13 3/18


Av.


% % % %
Dry Crude Ether Crude
Matter Protein Extract Fiber


As fed
Moisture free


As fed
Moisture free


As fed
Moisture free


As fed
Moisture free


As fed
Moisture free


As fed
Moisture free


As fed
moisture free


As fed
Moisture free


As fed
Moisture free


29.7



28.8



27.9



33.8



31.7



35.6



32.9



33.6



31.7


1.95
6.56


1.77
6.16


1.67
6.00


2.01
5.94


1.75
5.53


2.14
6.00


1.98
6.03


2.02
6.00


1.91
6.03


0.61
2.07


0.55
1.91


0.50
1.S1


0.57
1.69


0.49
1.54


0.57
1.60


0.51
1.56


0.53
1.58


0.54
1.72


9.07
30.55


9.05
31.44


8.92
31.97


10.72
31.73


10.24
32.32


11.03
30.97


10.08
30.63


10.00
29.76


9.89
31.17


% %

Ash NFE




2.03 16.03
6.84 53.98


1.87 15.55
6.51 53.98


2.05 14.75
7.35 52.87


2.25 18.24
6.67 53.97


3.49 15.72
11.02 49.59


2.49 19.38
6.99 54.44


2.13 18.20
6.46 55.32


2.34 18.72
6.96 55.70


2.33 17.07
7.35 53.73


lost in drying oven due to overheating.


- Composite sample for week 1 was


-- "






- 5-


Table 2. Weight gain and dry matter intake, in pounds, by steers fed fresh
sugarcane tops at various levels of protein supplementation.

Lot 1 and 2
Item Lot 1 Lot 2 Av.


No. steers
Av. initial weight

Days 1-14, no CSM
Av. daily gain
Daily DM intake from cane tops

Days 15-36, 1 lb. CSM/nead daily
Av. daily gain
Daily DM intake from cane tops

Days 37-64, 2 Ibs. CSM/head daily
Av. daily gain
Daily DM intake from cane tops

Days 1-64, overall experiment
Av. daily gain
Daily DM intake from cane tops


5
726


0.00
12.9


1.09
16.5


1.14
16.7


0.87
15.7


-0.36
12.8


-2.45
13.6


3.57
16.0


10
745


-0.18
12.9


-0.68
15.1


2.36
16.4


0.66 0.77
14.5 15.1


/ Cottonseed meal, 41% crude protein.



























EES71-5
350 copies




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