Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; 62- 5
Title: Chemical weed control for sugarcane on organic soils of the Everglades
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067508/00001
 Material Information
Title: Chemical weed control for sugarcane on organic soils of the Everglades
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Diseases and pests -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Weeds -- Control -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Humus -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Orsenigo.
General Note: "15 September, 1961."
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067508
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 64666613

Full Text




Everglades Station Mimeo Report 62-5


CHEMICAL IEED CONTROL FOR SUGARCANE ON ORGANIC SOILS OF THE
EVERGLADES

J. R. Orsenigoi

Recommendations and suggestions herein are based on
research conducted by the Everglades Experiment Sta-
tion and are supplemented by data developed elsewhere.
Growers are urged to observe the manufacturer's label
and precautions for commercial use of herbicides in
sugarcane.

This report is for grower assistance and familiarization with herbicides
and application methods in sugarcane on organic soil. The economics and potential
of these chemicals must be evaluated by each grower in his situation. Initial
use of herbicides should be restricted to a limited acreage.

Although herbicides are effective, economical tools in sugarcane pro-
duction, they are not substitutes for good agronomic practice. Certain guide-
posts should be followed for best chemical performance. USE the RIGHT CHEMICAL
for the particular weed situation at the RIGHT TIME in the RIGHT AMOUNT, WAY and
PLACE.

Most pre-emergence herbicides are effective only against germinating
weed seed and small annual weed seedlings. Ordinarily, these chemicals will
not control emerged weeds and should be applied promptly after planting or to
freshly weeded soil. Pre-emergence chemicals are most effective when applied
to a moist soil surface or when application is followed by rainfall. Good,
uniform ground coverage is necessary. Sprayable (soluble salts, emulsifiable
concentrates and wettable powders) and granular formulations (of some chemicals)
are available.

Broadcast overall herbicide application is indicated in plant sugarcane
since the conventional ridge-and-furrow planting system does not permit ready
mechanical tillage of row middles required if chemicals are band-applied in the
crop drill. But, less pronounced ridge-and-furrow to almost flat planting are
desirable if pre-emergence herbicides are to be used. This will prevent soil
shifting,exposure of untreated soil and subsequent weed growth.

All herbicide rates are given on a PER TREATED ACRE basis in terms of
usual commercial formulation. The customary active ingredient content of herbi-
cides mentioned in this report is given in the Glossary along with herbicide
nomenclature and terminology. Equipment calibration techniques and illustrations
of application methods are appended.

RECOMMENDED herbicidal treatments (chemical, rate and manner of use) are those
considered generally reliable for commercial production when used as specified.
Growers without prior herbicide-use experience should confine initial applica-
tions to a limited acreage.

I/ Associate Horticulturist, University of Florida, Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle G3ade, Florida.


15 September 1961







SUGGESTED herbicidal treatments represent promising materials not fully eval-
uated locally, materials without current FDA approval, and materials approved
for sugarcane under conditions not generally applicable to the Everglades.
Growers may wish to use suggested chemicals on a very limited acreage.


CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR SUGARCANE

PRE-EMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN PLANT SUGARCANE

A. Early-fall planting (mid-August to mid-October): When mature seed of good
quality is planted at the proper rate use a modified ridge-and-furrow
and apply herbicides immediately after planting. If poor quality seed
or low planting rates are used follow procedure "B" below.

B. Late-fall planting (after mid-October): Keep cane fields clean-cultivated
until necessity for replanting "skips" can be determined. After re-
planting "skips" in stand or after a decision not to replant: clean-
cultivate to a modified ridge-and-furrow and immediately apply herbi-
cides with a directed or semi-directed spray to minimize wetting the
cane foliage. Granular formulations may be applied over the cane.


RECOMMENDED
"RANDOX"


"RANDOX" 8 1
+
2,4-D amine


10 qts/A


to I


SUGGESTED
"ATRAZINE"


Or, 50 Ib/A of 20% granular formulation.
Weed control is improved with good soil
moisture or light rainfall and decreased
by heavy, persistent rainfall. It will
be necessary to supplement this treatment
with a post-emergence 2,4-D spray for broad-
leaf weed control at 1 to 2 months after
planting.


.0 qts/A This combination will provide good grass and
broadleaf weed control for extended periods
2 qts/A under average soil moisture and rainfall
conditions.


5 lb/A Or, 50 lb/A of 8N granular formulation.
Dosage may be repeated directed post-
emergence to prolong weed control until
total amount applied reaches 12.5 Ib/A.
Good soil moisture or rainfall shortly
after application is essential for best
control. Alexandergrass control is poor
when soil moisture is low. Atrazine fre-
quently controls broadleaf weeds better
than annual grasses. This chemical has
post-emergence activity against small
annual grass and broadleaf weeds (see "D"
and "G" below).

5 1b/A Or, 100 lb/A of % granular formulation.o
Comments above for Atrazine apply here
except that Simazine has little or no
post-emergence activity.








4 Ib/A


"TELVAR"

"FENAC"


2,4-D amine


4 lb/A

9 lb/A


2 qt/A


And, an additional directed post-emergence
spray of 2 lb/A may be made if needed. These
approved application rates usually are not
sufficient for good control in the Ever-
glades except under optimum conditions of
moisture. Karmex controls broadleaf weeds
better than annual grasses, especially under
low soil moisture.

The same comments apply here as for Karmex.

This chemical is cleared only for use in
seed cane crops.

2 lb/A acid equivalent. For short duration
weed control where broadleaf weeds, especially,
are a problem. Repeat as necessary; see
"F" below.


PREEEMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN RATOON CANE


C. Before or after emergence of stubble growth in trash-free rows only:


SUGGESTED


Tillivate row middles, then apply spray or granular formulations of
chemicals listed for plant cane ("A" and "B" above) in drill or
broadcast overall. Apply soon after ratooning in early fall and
late spring harvest; do not delay more than 1 to 2 weeks during
rest of harvest season. hen trash decomposes, tillivate and apply
herbicides to trash rows.

WEED CONTROL POST-EMERGENCE TO SUGARCANE AND ANNUAL WEEDS

Apply with directed or semi-directed sprays to minimize herbicide
contact with cane foliage.

D. For emerged grasses only: Alexandergrass, bermudagrass, crabgrass, goose-
grass and others:


RECOMMENDED
"DOUPON"


SUGGESTED


"ATRAZINE"


4 lb/A


4 lb/A


Rate applies to treated or sprayed acreage
only. A second spray may be applied 1 to 3
weeks after the first. If needed, make a
third application 3 weeks after-the second.
Use this material with caution. Serious
yield reduction can occur if much foliage
is repeatedly wetted by the herbicide.

Apply only to seedling grass and broadleaf
weeds 2 to 3 inches tall and with not more
than 3 leaves. With good soil moisture or
light rainfall this treatment will provide
residual control of annual grass and broad-
leaf weeds; see "A" and "B" above.







E. Spot treatments to control emerged annual and perennial grasses;


RECOMMENDED ,
."DOWPON' 7 to 10l Ib
per
100 gal water.


F. For emerged broadleaf weeds:

RECOMMENDED
For 2,4-D susceptible weeds:
2,4-D 2 qt/A


For 2,4-D resistant
2,4,5-T


Apply as light foliage wetting spray only
to clumps or individual plants of annual
or perennial grasses, especially Napier-
grass, paragrass, barnyard grass, wild
sorghum species, and others.


Amine salt preferred.


weeds (nightshade, dog fennel, ground cherry and others):
l1- qt/A Amine salt preferred.


For mixed broadleaf weeds:
2,4-D 3/4 qt/A


For Pellitory weed:
2,4,5-T


3/4 qt/A




l' at/A


S"KAREX" 2 ib/A

"TELVAR" 2 Ib/A


Amine salt preferred. -Apply as a tank mix
of both materials. For compatibility it is
best to obtain both chemicals from the same
formulator. Combined formulations are
available.


Amine salt preferred.

Avoid wetting cane foliage with directed spray.

Avoid wetting cane foliage with directed spray.


For Pellitory and other broadleaf weeds:
"TELVAR" ,2 lb/A Karmex may be substituted for Telvar in this
+ tank mixture.


2,4-D


l- qct/A


G. For mixed annual grass and broadleaf weeds:


SUGGESTED
For small seedling weeds:
"ATRAZINE" 4 lb/A

For larger established'weeds:
"DOPON" 4 Ib/A
+" *


As for "D" above.


As for "D" and "F" above. Tank mixture.


2,4-D l-D to 2 qt/A






-5-


GLOSSARY AND STATUS OF HERBICIDES CLEARED FOR SUGARCANE CHEMICALS
EECCMMEIDED OR SUGGESTED FOR FLORIDA

Atrazine 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine. As Geigy "Atrazine
80W" 80% wettable powder or "Atrazine 8G" 8% granules. Maximum rate
4 Ib/A active ingredient. Apply at or immediately after planting and
before cane or weeds emerge. In ratoon crop apply immediately after
harvest or before cane shoots emerge. Post-emergence to sugarcane -
continue with one application over cane or two directed sprays between
rows not later than 2- months after planting or ratooning.

Dalapon Sodium salt of 2,2-dichloropropionic acid. As Dow "Dowpon" 74% acid
equivalent. Maximum cleared rate 11.1 Ib/A acid equivalent. Apply
pre- or post-emergence to cane after grass is established.

2,4-D Amine salt formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing
4 Ib/gal acid equivalent. Many suppliers. Maximum cleared rate 2
lb/A acid equivalent applied prior to cane emergence or post-emergence
until lay-by. Use caution to prevent damage to near-by susceptible
crops.

Fenac Sodium salt of 2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid. Amchem Products'
"Fenac" containing li Ib/gal acid equivalent. Maximum cleared rate
9 Ib/A acid equivalent. For use pre-emergence to seed cane crops only.

Karmex diuron, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,l-dimethylurea. As Dupont's "Karmex"
wettable powder containing 80% active ingredient. Maximum registered
rate for Florida is 3.2 Ibs/A active ingredient applied pre-emergence
to weeds after planting with added post-emergence sprays to a maxi-
mum of 4.8 lbs/A active.

Telvar monuron, 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea. As Dupont's "Telvar"
wettable powder containing 80 active ingredient. Maximum cleared
rate for Florida is same as Karmex.

Randox CDAA, 2-chloro-N, N-diallylacetamide. As Monsanto's "Randox" con-
taining 4 Ib/gal active or 20% "Randox Granular". Do not apply more
than once per crop nor within 10 months of harvest. Maximum cleared
rate is 10 lb/A active.

Simazine 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine. As Geigy "Simazine 80'O 80%
wettable powder or "Simazine 4G" 4% granules, Application rates and
conditions similar to Atrazine.

2,4,5-T Amine salt formulations of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing
4 lb/gal acid equivalent. Many suppliers. Rate of 1 lb/A acid equiv-
alent cleared for use post-emergence to weeds growing vigorously in
established cane. Use caution to prevent damage to near-by susceptible
crops.







Other cleared chemicals not suggested for Florida.

PCP or Pentchlorophenol. Available from several suppliers. Cleared at 4.5
Penta lb/A when used pre-emergence to cane at 1 to 2 days after planting.
Cleared at same rate for post-emergence directed sprays before weeds
are 2 inches tall.

NaPCP or Sodium salt of pentachlorophenol. Available from several suppliers.
S PCP Cleared at 44 Ib/A pre-emergence immediately after planting and before
weed seedlings emerge. A rate of 102 lb/A is cleared for application
immediately after weed seedlings emerge.

Silvex Propylene glycol butyl ether esters of 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)
propionic acid. Agricultural formulations containing 4 Ib/gal acid
equivalent available from Dow and Chipman. Cleared for use in
Louisiana only at 1 Ib/A acid equivalent pre-emergence to cane and
weeds or after off-barring and not when cane exceeds 3 to 3 feet
tall. Cleared for use in Hawaii only at 5 Ib/A acid equivalent
pre-emergence after planting or ratooning and before cane emergence.
Use limited to 2 applications per crop. Precautions similar to
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T necessary in vicinity of sensitive crops.

NaTCA or Sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid. Available from many suppliers
S TCA in agricultural formulations containing about 80p TCA equivalent.
Cleared at 31.7 Ib/A for pre- and early post-emergence and at 45
Ib/A acid equivalent as late post-emergence directed sprays at base
of cane plants.

2,4,5-T As above. Cleared at 4.5 Ib/A acid equivalent for pre-emergence use
in Hawaii only.


SHORT GLOSSARY OF HERBICIDE TERMINOLOGY

Band application using the herbicide in a arrow, continuous strip in, over or
along the crop row rather than over the entire field area.
Broadcast application using the herbicide over an entire field or area.
Contact herbicide an herbicide that kills principally by direct contact with
plant tissue rather than by translocation within the plant.
Directed application using an herbicide in a restricted location such as the
crop row or bed at the base of plants to avoid wetting plant foliage.
Overall,application applying an herbicide from directly above plant.
Post-emergence treatment application after crop plants emerge. -Treatments
may also be specified as post emergence to weeds or both crop and weeds.
Pre-emergence treatment application after a crop is planted but before it emerges.
Treatments may be specified pre-emergence to weeds or both crops and
weeds.
Treatments may be specified pre-emergence to weeds but post emergence
to the crop. Usually, pre-emergence treatments are made before both
crop and weeds emerge. Contact pre-emergence treatments kill emerged
weeds by contact action and are applied before e the crop comes up.
Residual pre-emergence treatments kill weeds as their seed germinate
or as they emerge, either before or after crop come-up.

Pre-planting treatment application of an herbicide before planting a crop.







BASIC SPRAYING EQUIPMENT

Satisfactory results may be obtained with liquid spray equipment using
flat-fan herbicide nozzles and operating with a spray volume of 20 to 60 gpa at
20 to 40 psi. Many combinations of tractor speed and nozzle tips will accomplish
this range of pressure and gallonages. Generally, spray drift is minimized by
low pressures and large nozzles which deliver coarse spray. Pressures and spray
volumes greater than listed are not necessary and may prevent best chemical per-
formance. Most fungicide and insecticide sprayers are poorly adapted for herbi-
cide use.

Equipment for band application of herbicides is available widely but
few broadcast granular applicators are available.

Essential sprayer components are: herbicide tank with by-pass return
for agitation; foot and/or line strainer; nylon roller or multiple piston pump
adequate for number of rows to be carried; pressure regulator and gauge; quick-
acting shut-off valve; hose and fittings; and flat-fan type herbicide nozzle tips.

SPRAYER CALIBRATION GENERAL PROCEDURE
Initial calibration of a sprayer may be accomplished easily as follows:
1. Adjust nozzles, spraying pressure and tractor speed as they are
to be operated in the field.
2. Fill herbicide tank completely with water.
3. With tractor operating as in number (1) above, spray water over a
measured course of several hundred yards in a fitted field.
4. Determine amount of water required to refill tank to replace that
sprayed over the measured course.
5. Calculate area sprayed: boom spread in feet times distance
travelled in feet.
6. From (4) and (5) above calculate quantity of water applied per acre:

Gallons/acre = 43560 sq. ft. x gallons of water sprayed (#4)
area sprayed (U5)

7. Rate of application per acre can be decreased by: smaller nozzle
tips, lower pressure or faster tractor speed.
8. Rate of application per acre can be increased by: larger nozzle
tips, greater pressure or slower tractor speed.
9. Complete calibration by repeatedly adjusting and testing unit
until desired gallonage per acre is reached.

Example: A sprayer carries a swath 20 feet wide. When driven
over 870 feet it sprays 20 gallons of water.
Gallons/acre = 43560 sq. ft. x 20 gallons 50 gallons/acre
20 feet x 870 feet
10. Add desired quantity of herbicide per acre to amount of water
applied per acre when 'filling spray tank.
11. Keep a running check on calibration by occasional testing and by
records of amount of herbicide used to treat each block. Calibration may also
be checked easily with the table on page 9.










-8-
CALIBRATION OF BROADCAST GRANULAR HERBICIDE APPLICATORS
1. Adjust delivery openings on applicator at estimated or approximate
setting and fill hopper with chemical to be applied.
2. Set tractor or unit speed as it will be operated in the field.
3. Operate unit over a measured course of several hundred yards in a
fitted field while collecting the granules discharged with pails or a trough
under the delivery openings.
4. Accurately weigh the amount of chemical delivered. Individual or
separate units should be adjusted to deliver identical amounts.
5. Calculate the area that would have been treated over the course:
multiply swath width in feet by distance covered in feet. This equals area of
the measured, treated course in square feet.
6. 1From (#4) and (J5) above calculate the amount of granules applied
per acre as follows:
Pouds3er acre 560 sq.ft. x pounds granules applied over course()
area of measured course in square feet (#5)
This value is pounds per acre (lb/A) of granular formulation applied.
To determine amount of active ingredient applied multiply pounds
per acre by percent active ingredient and divide by 100 as follows:

Pounds per acre active = lb/A granules from above x active
100
7. Rate of application is increased by wider delivery openings.
8. Rate of application is decreased by narrower delivery openings.
9. Complete calibration by repeatedly adjusting and testing unit
until desired quantity if granules is delivered. Individual or separate units
should have identical output.
10, Keep a running check on calibration by occasional testing and by
records of amount of herbicide formulation used to treat each block.

Example: A granular chemical.applicator treats a swath 10 feet
wide. Mten operated over a distance of 870 feet the
output was 10 pounds of herbicide granules.
Poundper acre = .3560 sq. ft. x 10 pounds granules = 50 lb/A granules
Poundsper are 10feet xk 370feet
If the active ingredient ,concentration of the granules was 20 ,
the rate of active material applied per acre was:

Pounds per acre = 50 lb/A granules x 20 = 10 lb/A active.
active ingredient 100








SPRAYER CALIBRATION TABLE BROADCAST BOOM APPLICATION


Volume of spray
delivered by
1 nozzle in 300 ft.

24 ounces
28
32 (1 qt)
36
40
44
48
52
56
60o
64 (2 qt)
68
72
76


Gallons per acre applied
when nozzle spacing on boom is
15 inches l8 inches 21 inches


22 gpa
25
29
32
36
40
44
47
51
54
58
62
65
69


21 gpa
24
27
30
32
36
39
42
45
48
51
55
57


21 gpa
23
26
28
31
34
36
39
42
44
47
49


Example: Nozzles are spaced 18 inches apart on a spray boom.
A single tip delivers 68 ounces of spray solution
in a 300 foot run across a field. Locate 68 in
left-hand column and read across to 18 inch spacing
to find that output was 51 gpa. Check more than
one tip to ensure correct calibration.


BOOM SET-UP FOR BROADCAST SPRAYING


DIRECTED SPRAY APPLICATION
WITH NOZZLE DROPS


V;~ -.~ .


USE "Tee-Jet" TYPE FLAT-FAN NOZZLE
TIPS. USE 1/4 to 1/3 NOZZLE PATTERN
OVERLAP TO ENSURE UNIFORM COVERAGE.


USE "Tee-Jet" TYPE FLAT-FAN OR
OFF-CENTER TIPS ADJUSTED TO
GIVE UNIFORM SPRAY DENSITY
ACROSS PATTERN BAND.


Boom






-10-


DIRECTED APPLICATION OF HERBICIDTS WITH NOZZLES MOUNTED ON TOOL-BAR SKIDS
(Adapted from units. at Fellsmere Division, Okeelanta Sugar Ref.)


1. Tractor tool-bar ---- Z"
\ ~ -- 2. Universal joint to --
permit swing and rise-fall -
action
--- 3. 2-inch pipe '"--.------

\ \, Chemical hose from pump --
\\ or manifold

,X 5. "Tee-Jet" double-swivel ~
Snozzles on sliding .
clamp .....


N


6. Skid fooi
,** *r -** '>" -


MANUAL DIRECTED APPLICATION WITH HAND-HEID SPRAY GUNS FROM POWER SPRAYER


-Hand spray gun and supply hose
from stub boom
-Sugarcane row :


S{ .-tV.., A....!L F[T Power


Tractor


*W\i zlj9 Q.Wf~ ~.-! I


It is preferable to use trigger-controlled spray guns equipped with
"Tee-Jet" type flat-fan herbicide nozzle tips. Operators walking
behind power sprayer apply herbicides on weeds as needed using
caution to avoid wetting sugarcane foliage




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