Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; EES70- 1
Title: Sugarcane herbicides for the Florida Everglades
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Sugarcane herbicides for the Florida Everglades
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1969
Subject: Sugarcane -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Weeds -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Herbicides -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Orsenigo.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November, 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067498
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 64400667

Full Text
1 0

E5 70o-

Everglades Station Himeo Report EES70-1 November, 1969


J. R. Orsenigo -

Recommendations and suggestions given here are based on
research conducted by the Everglades Experiment Station.
Growers are urged to observe the manufacturer's label and
precautions for commercial use of herbicides in sugarcane.

Herbicides are effective, economical tools in sugarcane production but do
not substitute for good management, The best chemical performance is obtained
with these guides: THE RIGHT CHEMICAL for the particular weed problem at the

The economics and potential of weed control chemicals must be evaluated
by each grower for his particular situation. Initial use of these chemicals
should be restricted to a limited acreage for familiarization.

Many preemergence herbicides are effective only against germinating weed
seed and small annual weed seedlings. These chemicals generally do not control
emerged weeds and should be applied promptly after planting or to freshly
weeded soil. Preemergence chemicals perform best when applied to a moist soil
surface or when application is followed by moderate rainfall.

Broadcast-overall herbicide application is indicated in plant sugarcane
since the conventional ridge-and-furrow planting system does not permit ready
tillage of row middles when chemicals are applied to the drill. Less pro-
nounced ridge-and-furrow to flat planting are desirable if preemergence herbi-
cides are to be used.

Herbicide rates in this mimeo report are stated on a PER TREATED ACRE
basis in terms of the usual commercial formulation. Thorough, uniform ground
or weed coverage is necessary.. The customary active ingredient content of
herbicides mentioned in this report is given in the Glossary along with
herbicide nomenclature and terminology.

RECOMMENDED herbicidal treatments (chemical, rate, manner of use) are
those generally reliable for commercial production when used as specified.
Growers without prior herbicide experience should confine initial applications
to a limited acreage.

SUGGESTED herbicidal treatments represent cleared chemicals and'combina-
tions not fully evaluated locally. Growers should use these on a very limited
trial acreage.

1/ A revision of EES69-4 and earlier Minieo Reports.

SPlant Physiologist, University of Florida, Everglades Experiment Station.
Belle Glade, Florida.

- 2 -




10 qts/A

"Randox" 8 to 10 qts/A
plus +
2,4-D amine 2 qts/A





8 qts/A

6 qts/A
4 to S bs/A
4 to 5 lbs/A

8-9 lb/A


"AAtrex" 4 to 5 lbs/A

2. to 4 Ibs/A



A.- Early-fall planting (mid-August to mid-October): Use flat planting or a
modified ridge-and-furrow and apply herbicides immediately after covering
and bedding when mature seed of good quality is planted at the proper rate.
Use procedure "B" if seed cane quality is poor or planting rate is low.

B. Late-fall planting (after mid-October): Cultivate until need for replanting
"skips" can be determined. After replanting "skips" in stand or after a

Usually requires a postemergence broadleaf weed
control treatment at 1 to 2 months after appli-
cation. Read Glossary note.

This combination will provide good grass and
broadleaf weed control for several months under
average soil moisture and rainfall conditions.

A commercial formulation of "Randox" and 2,4-D
acid. Read Glossary note.

Duration of good annual grass and broadleaf weed
control is 2 to 4 months after fall or spring
application. The combination also has post-
emergence activity against small grass and broad-
leaf weeds. Cane foliage contacted by the
combination will be "burned" but future growth
is unaffected.

Provides good annual grass weed control which
has continued into the ratoon crop following
application. Usually requires a postemergence
broadleaf weed control treatment 1 to 2 months
after application and in the following crop.

Good soil moisture or light rainfall is essential.
Broadleaf weed control may be superior to annual
grass weed control. May be used as a split appli-
cation: 2h lb/A preemergence and 2 lb/A later as
required. Application schedule may be delayed
until small weeds and cane have emerged.

Control of broadleaf weeds better than grasses
especially under low soil moisture. An additional
directed postemergence spray of 2 Ib/A may be
applied to prolong weed control.


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decision not to replant: clean-cultivate to a modified ridge-and-furrow
or level soil and apply herbicides immediately with a directed or semi-
directed spray to minimize wetting the cane foliage. Granular formulations
may be applied over the plants.


C. Before or after emergence of stubble growth:


After fertilization, tillivate row middles, then apply chemicals listed
for plant crops above. Apply soon after ratooning in early fall and late spring
harvest; do not delay more than 2 weeks during remainder of season. Tillivate
and apply herbicides to trash rows when trash has decomposed. Tillage machinery
should not throw weedy soil on chemically treated areas.


D. For emerged annual grasses only: Alexandergrass, crabgrass, goosegrass, etc.




+ 2,4-D amine
+ Surfactant

4 lb/A

4 lb/A

1 lb/A
% by vol.

"AAtrex' 1 lb/A
+ 2,4-D amine lb/A
+ Nonphytotoxic oil 2 gpa

Apply as directed or semi-directed sprays to avoid
wetting cane foliage. Apply 2 or 3 times at 7 to
14 day intervals. Bermudagrass and other peren-
nial grasses will be controlled also. Serious
yield reduction can occur if sugarcane foliage is
wet repeatedly. Grass weeds die slowly following

Apply only to seedling grass (and broadleaf) weeds
2 to 3 inches tall and with not more than 3 ex-
panded leaves. Semi-directional equipment prefer-
red. With good soil moisture or light rainfall
this treatment will provide some residual control
of annual grass and broadleaf weeds, especially
on sandy soils.

Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed spray
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. 2,4-D may be omitted in
fields near sensitive crops. May be applied 2 or
3 times as required by weed growth. Effectiveness
diminishes in April and when applied to estab-
lished or tillering grasses.

Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed spray
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. Use and performance
similar to combination listed immediately above
but may control slightly larger weeds.


"Ametryne" to 1 Ib/A

+ 2,4-D

1 2h Ib/A,
1 to 1 lb/A

+ 2,4-D amine
+ surfactant

to % by

Apply ONLY as a directed or semi-directed spray to
annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings up to 3
inches tall. Especially effective against Alexan-
dergrass. For mixed infestations, particularly
with other annual grasses, activity is increased
by adding h Ib/A 2,4-D amine and/or % v/v surfac-
tant to the tank mix. Repeat once as needed.

a.i. Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed spray
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. May be repeated within
2 or more weeks as required by weed growth. Annual
grass seedlings not killed will have restricted
root growth.

Apply tank-mix combination ONLY as directed spray
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. 2,4-D may be omitted in
fields near sensitive crops. May be repeated
once as required by weed growth.

E. Spot treatments to control emerged and perennial grasses.


"Dowpon" 7 to 10 lb.
per 100 gal.

Apply as light foliage wetting spray to clumps or
individual plants of annual or perennial grasses,
especially Napiergrass, paragrass, Bermudagrass,
barnyardgrass, johnsongrass, sudangrass, giant
foxtail, Alexandergrass, crabgrass, goosegrass and
others. These "spot sprays" should be applied 1
or 2 times. Hand gun booms may be fitted with in-
verted funnels which can be used to push cane leaf
cover aside.


"Urox 11%"

3/4 ounce or
20 grams per
square yard

Distribute uniformly over Napiergrass stools in
spring ratoon growth as soon as Napiergrass can
be distinguished from sugarcane. Urox is a soil
sterilant at this application rate and will injure
or kill sugarcane immediately adjacent to treated
grasses. Do not apply more than 25 pounds per
acre of sugarcane. "Urox 22%" may be used at one-
half the rate indicated.

F. For emerged broadleaf weeds;


For 2,4-D susceptible weeds: 2,4-D up to 2 Ibs/A amine salt preferred.

For 2,4-D resistant weeds (dog fennel, ground cherry, nightshade, ragweed):
2,4,5-T up to 1 Ib/A Amine salt preferred.

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silvex up to 1 Ib/A

For mixed broadleaf weeds: 2,4-D + 2,4,5-T at 3/4 lb/A each in tank mixture.

For pellitoryweed (Artilleryweed) and young broadleaf weed seedlings
a. "AAtrex", "Karmex" or "Telvar" at 1/2 to 3/4 lb/A
b. 2,4-D amine at Ib/A
c. Surfactant at to 1% by volume

Note: The 2,4-D component may be omitted in fields near
sensitive crops or where other broadleaf weeds are
not a problem.

These combinations should be applied with directional spray

G. For mixed annual grass and broadleaf weeds:

For small seedling weeds: Use "D" recommended or "D" suggested combinations

For larger established weeds: Use "Dowpon" plus 2,4-D as "D" and "F" above.


Chemicals recommended or suggested for Florida

AAtrex atrazine, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine.
Geigy "AAtrex" an 80% wettable powder. Maximum cleared rate:
5 lb/A per application, 12 lb/A per crop.

Ametryne ametryne, 2-methylthio-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine.
Geigy "Ametryne 80W" an 80% wettable powder. Maximum cleared
rates: 10 lb/A preemergence or after ratooning (Not recommended
for Florida); one or two 5 lb/A between-row applications before
cane closes in (Not recommended for Florida); not more than 20
lb/A/crop (Not recommended for Florida). See page 4 for Florida
use suggestions.

Dowpon dalapon, sodium salt of 2,2-dichloropropionic acid. Dow
"Dowpon" 74% acid equivalent. Maximum cleared rate 11.1 lb/A
acid equivalent. Effective against established grasses.
Should be used in repeated or split applications.

2,4-D Formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing 4 lb/
gal acid equivalent, amine salt preferred. Treatment rates
must be adjusted for 6 lb/gal formulations. Many suppliers.

-6 -

Maximum cleared rate 2 Ib/A acid equivalent applied prior to
cane emergence or postemergence until layby. Use caution to
prevent damage to nearby sensitive crops.

Fenac fenac, sodium salt of 2,3,6-trichllorophenylacetic acid. Amchem
"Fenac" containing 1.5 Ib/gal acid equivalent. Tenneco "Trifen"
is a 2.5 lb/gal formulation.

Karmex diuron, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Karmex"
an 80% wettable powder. Maximum cleared rate for Florida is 4
Ib/A preemergence to weeds after planting with additional post-
emergence sprays to a maximum of 6 lb/A.

Nonphytotoxic nonphytotoxic paraffinic crop or spray oil, preferably in the 90
oil to 110 SUS viscosity range, formulated with emulsifier and
intended for use as herbicide adjuvants.

Randox CDAA, 2-chloro-N,N-diallylacetamide. Monsanto "Randox" contain-
ing 4 Ib/gal active. Maximum cleared rate is 10 Ib/A: do not
apply more than once per crop nor within 10 months of harvest.

Silvex Low volatile esters of 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid.
Formulations containing 4 Ib/gal acid equivalent are available
from Amchem, Chipman and Dow. Cleared for Florida at 1.5 lb/A
broadcast with a second application before cane is 3h feet tall.
Cleared for use in Louisiana only at lh Ib/A acid equivalent pre-
emergence to cane and weeds or after off-barring and until cane
reaches 3 to 3 feet tall. Cleared for use in Hawaii only at
5 lb/A acid equivalent preemergence after planting or ratooning
and before cane emergence. Use is limited to 2 applications per
crop. Precaustions similar to 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are required.

Surfactant non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, or others of similar activity.
ACL-209 (Adju-Saf base) has been effective and has minimized
crop injury.

Telvar monuron, 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Telvar",
an 80% wettable powder. Cleared rate same as for "Karmex".

2,4,5-T Formulations of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing 4
lb/gal acid equivalent.amine salt preferred. Treatment rates
should be adjusted when 6 Ib/gal formulations are used. Many
suppliers. Rate of 1 Ib/A acid equivalent cleared for postemer-
gence use in established cane up to 2 feet tall. Use caution to
avoid damage to nearby susceptible crops. Cleared at 4.5 lb/A
acid equivalent for preemergence use in Hawaii only.

Urox monuron TCA. Allied Chemical "Urox 11 Weed Killer", 11% granular
formulation. Also available in a 22% granular formulation. This
is a soil sterilant formulation not cleared for crop use.

Cleared chemicals not suggested for use in Florida

Diquat diquat, l,l'-ethylene-2:2'-dipyridylium dibromide. Chevron
"Ortho Diquat", 35% solution. One gpa as postemergence spray

- 7 -

directed to weeds less than 6 inches tall and before cane closes
in; Hawaii only.

Herban norea, 3-(hexahydro-4,7-methanoindan-5yl)-l,l-dimethylurea. Her-
cules "Herban" an 80% wettable powder. Cleared at 4 lb/A pre-
emergence or 3 lb/A postemergence to cane; all applications prior
to weed seed germination and not less than 5 months to harvest.

Princep simazine, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine. Geigy "Prin-
cep" an 80% wettable powder. Application rate and conditions
similar to Atrazine.

Sinbar terbacil, 3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil. duPont "Sinbar"
an 80% wettable powder. Hawaii only: one preemergence applica-
tion @ 2.5 lb/A in plant crop. Puerto Rico only: one 3 lb/A
application in plant crop.

TCA, STCA, sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid. Available from many suppli-
NaTCA ers in formulations containing about 80% TCA equivalent. Cleared
at 31.7 lb/A for pre- and early postemergence and at 45 lb/A acid
equivalent as late postemergence directed sprays at base of cane

Treflan trifluralin, a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine.
Elanco "Treflan". 2 lb/A preemergence. Soil incorporated to
plant cane in fall. And, 2 lb/A at emergence, soil incorporated
in spring. Mainly for Louisiana


Band application Using an herbicide in a narrow, continuous strip in, over or
along the crop row rather than over the entire field.

Broadcast application Using an herbicide over an entire field or area.

Contact herbicide An herbicide that kills primarily by direct contact with
plant tissue rather than by translocation within the plant.

Directed application Using an herbicide in a restricted location such as the
crop row or bed at the base of plants to avoid wetting plant
foliage. Semi-directed sprays contact some low and lateral

Overall application Applying an herbicide from directly above plants.

Postemergence treatment Application after crop plants emerge. Treatments may
also be specified as postemergence to weeds or both crop and

Preemergence treatment Application after a crop is planted but before it emerges.
Treatments may be specified preemergence to weeds or both crop
and weeds. Treatments may be specified preemergence to weeds
but postemergence to the crop. Usually, preemergence treatments
are made before both crop and weeds emerge. Contact preemergence

to V FEB

8 -

treatments kill emerged weeds by contact action and are applied
before the crop comes up. Residual preemergence treatments kill
weeds as their seed germinate or as seedlings emerge, either
before or after crop come-up.

Preplanting treatment Application of an herbicide before planting a crop.


Chlorophenoxy herbicides are capable of causing severe injury to
sensitive vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops several miles from the actual
spraying site. The degree of hazard in the use of these chemicals is related
directly to the manner of application and weather conditions. Aerial application
is most hazardous. Ground equipment should be operated with low spray volume and
at low spraying pressure.

Not more than 10% of a farm unit should be treated per day.
Chlorophenoxy herbicides should not be applied within one-half mile of susceptible
crops except under the most carefully controlled and supervised conditions. These
chemicals should not be applied when wind velocity exceeds 8 mph in isolated
areas nor when wind exceeds 4 mph when sensitive crops are grown less than 2 miles
downwind. The safest formulations are the salts, particularly amine salts. The
above rules-of-thumb are guides not guarantees for prevention of damage. For
more detailed information refer to Mimeo Reports EES64-12 and EES65-21.


Labels on herbicide containers should be read and understood
prior to use of the chemical contained therein. This is the final and most
appropriate guide to economical and successful chemical usage.


A separate mimeographed report, EES64-9, contains information on
basic spraying equipment, calibration, shielded-sprayer design and methods of
application. Calibration procedures are detailed in Florida Extension Circular

NOTE: Registration of TCA for sugarcane may not be extended beyond calendar
1970. Residue programs to establish tolerances for silvex, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and
dalapon are underway. The Everglades Station is sampling experimental cane
treated with dalapon, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

500 copies

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