Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; EES65- 10
Title: Sugarcane nematode control in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067489/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sugarcane nematode control in Florida
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 2 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Winchester, J. A
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nematoda -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.A. Winchester.
General Note: "October, 1964."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067489
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 64387326

Full Text



Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES65-10 October, l.tF

SUGARCANE NEMATODE CONTROL IN FLORIDA \
J A W i n c h e s t e r Al ,


Plant nematodes are among the most important pests of ca in
Florida. Nematodes feeding on sugarcane can cause stunting a
of the plant but the effects on the roots vary from one kind o
to another.

Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).-cause small knots or galls
near the root tips, fewer feeder roots reduced plant stand and often severe
stunting and yellowing of the plants.

Sheath Nematodes (Hemicycliophora parvana).-caused slight swelling of
the root tips when they were observed feeding in greenhouse pots. Their
feeding caused slight stunting of the root system but severe stunting and
yellowing of the plant and reduced plant stand under both greenhouse and
field conditions.

Stunt Nematodes (Tylenchorhyrchus martini).-caused blunt, coarse, small
feeder roots with brown lesions. A reduction of feeder roots was also
noted. They caused severe chlorosis resembling manganese deficiency and
short thin stalks.

Sting Nematodes (Belonolaimus longicaudatus).-were not found in any
muck soil samples but are frequently found in sand samples. They cause
severe stunting of sugarcane but only slight stunting of the roots with
numerous colorless lesions near the root tip. Further back from the root
tip the lesions were brownish, apparently due to invasion by secondary
organisms.

while other nematodes are frequently found in declining sugarcane
fields, their effects on the plant is not known: lance (Hoplolaimus cornnatus),
awl (Dolichodorus heterocephalus), meadow (Pratylenchus sppf, ring (Crico-
meoides similis) stubby-root (Trichodorus christiei) in addition to the
root-knot, stunt and sheath nematodes.

Sampling

Soil samples should be taken in any field with an unthrifty appearance
or before planting a new field. Take the samples in the same way as for
a fertilizer test, place weed roots in the sample if they are available,
and put sample in a plastic bag to prevent drying. Don't allow the sample
to overheat. The county agent can advise where to send the samples for
analysis.
Nematocide Treatments

Only two now on the market are approved for use on sugarcane: ethy-
lene dibromide and the dichloropropene-type materials (DD, Telone and Vidden
D). A test was initiated in 1964 to study their effectiveness in controlling
nematodes and for increasing cane yields under field conditions when applied
as broadcast treatments 3 weeks before planting Cl. 41-223 sugarcane. These
resulted in the yields shown in table 1. Parathion was applied at the recom-
mended rate by the grower at planting. Yields were estimated about 7 months
after planting/.







-2-


Table 1. Estimated sugarcane yields resulting from Nematocide and Parathion
treatments 3 weeks before planting.


Estimated tons per Acre
Treatment Rate/Acre +Parathion -Parathion Average
1. Check ----- 39 44 41.5
2. EDB W-85 11 gals. 35 47 41
3. EDB w-85 13.5 gals. 43 49 46
4. Telone 32 gals. 47 51 49
5. Telone 48 gals. 43 40 41.5

Average 41.4 46.2


The principal nematode in this test was the stunt although stubby root
and ring nematodes were also present in limited populations.

Both EDB and the DD-type materials gave sufficient nematode control
to permit the crop to produce a good plant yield although the population
was as high in the treated as the untreated plots at 6 months after treat-
ment.

When only root-knot nematodes are found in a field the rotation of
sugarcane with pangolagrass may be very helpful. Root-knot nematodes may
be controlled in sand or muck soils in one year or less by a good stand
of weedfree pangolagrass. Root-knot nematodes may not increase to a level
high enough to cause injury for several years.




















EES65-10
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