Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; EES65- 9
Title: Preemergence herbicide screening in sugarcane on sand soils
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067488/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preemergence herbicide screening in sugarcane on sand soils
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Herbicides   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Orsenigo.
General Note: "October, 1964."
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067488
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 64387882

Full Text




Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES65-9 October, 1964
1
PREEMERGENCE HERBICIDE SCREENING IN SUGARCANE ON SAND SOIL

J. R. Orsenigo/


Summary: Preemergence herbicides were evaluated f \theirdfect
on C.P. 50-28 plant cane and on weeds at sanvoil
locations. Certain herbicides visibly affected 'cane stand and row, par
cularly after rainfall was sufficient to move the herbicides into the,
zone. The substituted uracils (bromacil and isocil) were most harnf ny
chemicals effective against annual weeds caused reduced 'cane growth. Lack
of uniformity of rainfall during early stages of these trials may have affected
both crop and weed responses.

Many individual treatments maintained acceptable or better annual weed
control while a few chemicals effectively reduced bermudagrass populations.
Encap petroleum mulch apparently increased 'cane tolerance to atrazine,
diuron and fenac.

Few treatments demonstrated acceptable tolerance and effective annual
weed control. Herbicides with the greatest promise at one or both locations
included: amiben, atrazine, dicamba, diuron, fenac, norea, propazine and
simazine. (Underlined chemicals are cleared for sugarcane).

----------------------------------mm --mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm-m------mmmmmmmmmmm

Name of experiment: Primary evaluation of preemergence herbicides in sugar-
cane on said soil (692-43-64)
Location: P* Tom Perry Ranch, Moore Haven

Soil: Sand.

Design: Randomized complete block with 2 replications. Plots
were 3 rows (15 ft) wide by 75 ft long.

Description of crop: The variety C.P. 50-28 was not emerging at the time of
herbicide application.

Description of weed population: Lack of rainfall reduced the density of the
weeds to a level lower than that desirable for evalua-
tion purposes. The principal grass weeds. ,ere: bermudagrass,Cynodon dactlyon:
and foxtail, Setaria sp. Ragweed, Ambrosia sp., was the major broadleaf weed-
while mixed infestations of the following occurred throughout the plot area:
bedstraw, Bishop's Hocd, Dichondra and purslane.


SThis tabulation was prepared for herbicide researchers and the industry.
The data herein neither constitute nor imply recommendation of any herbi-
cide for any usage.
SAssociate Horticulturist, University of Florida, Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade, Florida.







-2-


Description of herbicidal treatments: The herbicides are designated by accepted
common name or code in the data table. All application
rates are given as active ingredient or acid equivalent per sprayed acre. The
chemicals were applied with an experimental small-plot tractor herbicide unit
in 50 gpa water carrier (unless indicated otherwise).

Application data: Date- 7 October 1563 0900 AM to 0215 PM
Sky- bright overcast to full sun
Wind- S to SE 8 15 mph
Spray water- pH = 7, hardness = 310 ppm
Surface soil moisture was less than 2%

Rainfall and temperature data: Accumulated rainfall and average maximum and
minimum temperature values, for the general area, are
given for the periods indicated.

Time after Accum. Average Temperature OF
application rainfall Max. Min.


1 week 0.10 in 84 65
2 weeks 0.31 83 62
4 weeks 0.32 83 59
2 months 2.99- 79 56
3 7.19 70 45
4 9.74 71 50
5 14.54 72 49


Method of evaluation: Periodic ratings of sugarcane stand and growth and of
annual grass and broadleaf weed control compared the
treatments with the unsprayed controls on a 1 9 rating scale. The rating
values have been converted to their corresponding percentages of the best
treatments for this report.

Experimental results: Only the substituted uracils (bromacil and isocil)
markedly affected sugarcane stand and growth for a
prolonged period. The harmful effects did not become evident until the second
and third months after application when rainfall was sufficient to move the
herbicides into the rooting zone. In general, sugarcane stand and tolerance
was acceptable with most of the other herbicides tested (Table 1).

Grass and broadleaf weed populations lower than desired developed under
the dry soil and low rainfall conditions early in the trial. Almost all
treatments provided grass weed control at commercially acceptable or higher
levels. Broadleaf weed control was more variable among the treatments.
Fenac, some of the triazines, dicamba and diuron were among the effective,
promising chemicals (Table 1).








-3-


Table 1. Response of sugarcane and weeds to preemergence herbicides at 20
weeks after application on sand soil (Moore Haven).


Sugarcane*- Weed Control*
Herbicide and Rate (Ib/A ai) Stand Growth Grass B'leaf


amiben
dicamba
fenac
fenac
2,4-D amide (EMID)
2,4-D amine
2,4-D amine
2,4-D amine
2,,4-D amine 4 Ib i
30 gpa diesel oil
silvex
atrazine
simazine
propazine
prometone
prcmetryne
ametryne
Geigy-34696
diuron
monuron
isocil
bromacil
alipur
cycluron
Bayer-40557
DCPA
dichlobenil
diphenamic (Lilly)
diphenamid (Jpjohn)
EITC +.2,4-D incorp
swep
FW-925
trifluralin incorp.
tritac
Limit


6
4
6
9
6
2
4
8
n

5
4
4
4
4
4'
4
4
4.8
4.8.
2.4
2.4
6
6
7
15
10
8
8
6+3
8
8
6
10
2 gpa


* Percentages of the best treatment.


100%
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100
94
100
100
100
100
87
62
62
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
94
100
100
94
100


100%
100
100
100
100
94
100
87

100
100
94
100
94
87
94
94
100
94
81
44
50
100
100
100
100

100
87
100
81
- 94
100
94
94


94%
100
100
100
81
94:
81
81

94
100
94
100
62
100
94
100
94'
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
81
81
100
100
100
94
94
100
94
100


75%
94
75
87
12
56
50
75

87
81
94
100
94
87
75
44
81
69
100
69
94
25
62
75
44
94
44
81
56
31
81
69
81
31









Name of experiment; Secondary evaluation of preemergence herbicides in
sugarcane on sand soil (692-47-64)

Location: H. Clayton McDonald Farms, Immokalee

Soil: Sand

Design: Randomized complete block with 3 replications. Plots
were 4 rows wide (20 ft) by 43.5 ft long.

Description of crop: The variety C.P. 50-28 was beginning to emerge at time
of installation. The entire experimental area, sugar-
cane and weed vegetation was sprayed topically with paraquat at the rate of
1/2 lb. cation per acre to kill emerged weed vegetation. All emerged cane
shoots were killed.

Description of weed population: Major grass weeds were: bermudagrass, crab-
grass and goosegrass. The principal broadleaf weeds
were: dog fennel, Commelina, purslane, cudweed, ground cherry and Dichondra.
These weed species were present as small seedlings prior to the paraquat
treatment. The same species continued to germinate after paraquat treatment.
Volunteer Sesbania became an important late-spring and summer infestant.

Description of herbicidal treatments: The herbicides are listed according to
accepted common name or code designation in the data
tables. Application rates are given as active ingredient or acid equivalent
per sprayed acre. Chemicals were applied with an experimental small-plot
tractor herbicide unit in 60 gpa water carrier. Encap petroleum mulch was
applied in a 2- ft band, centered on the cane drill, after herbicide appli-
cation using hand-carried, CO2 powered spray equipment. The Encap rate was
250 gpa.

Application data: Date- 4 March 1964, 0620-0730 PM
Sky- sundown
Wind- SSE 4 mph
Spray water- PH 7, hardness 300 ppm

Date- 5 March 1964, 0610-1005 AM (0100-0300 PM for Encap)
Sky- bright sun
Wind- S 0-8 mph
Spray water- pH 7, hardness 300 ppm

Surface soil moisture 6 March 1964
Drill; shallow (0-3/8 inch) = 0.6%
deep (3/8-1 inch) 1.8
Middles; shallow(0-3/8 inch)= 0.3
deep (3/8-1 inch) = 1.1







-5-


Rainfall and temperature data: Accumulated rainfall and average maximum and
minimum temperature values for the general area are.
given for the period indicated.

Time after Accum. Average temperature 0F.
application rainfall Max. Min.

1 week 0.00 in 87 61
2 0.16 87 62
4 2.16 80 57
6 '4.35 86 58
8 5.14 88 59
10 5.20 89 62


Method of evaluation: Periodic ratings of sugarcane stand and growth and of
annual grass and broadleaf weed control compared the
treatments with the unsprayed controls on a 1 9 rating scale. The rating
values have been converted to their corresponding percentages of the best
treatment for this report.

Experimental results: Emerged weed seedlings and 'cane shoots were killed
without apparent residual effect on unemerged sugarcane
or weeds by paraquat ( lb. cation/A) applied before initiation of this
experiment.

Many of the herbicides visibly affected sugarcane stand and/or tolerance
(Table 2). Most of these chemicals provided acceptable to excellent annual
grass and broadleaf weed control (Table 2). Relatively few herbicides cou-
pled good annual weed control with good 'cane tolerance (Table 3).

At 6 and at 10 weeks after application the better herbicidal treatments
included: fenac, diuron, and several triazines (Table 3). Encap petroleum
mulch applied on-top-of atrazine, diuron and fenac apparently improved 'cane
stand and tolerance. Herbicidal activity of diuron against annual weeds
appeared to be reduced slightly by Encap. Activity of the 3 herbicides
against bermudagrass was lowered by Encap.

Paraquat was applied with shielded equipment in postemergence sprays
directed to the base of the 'cane plants at 3 months after initiation to
control emerged weeds. All plots received the same application regardless
of degree of weed infestation.,

At 6 months after herbicide application the best sugarcane growthlwas
observed in the following treatments: amiben, fenac, diuron, atrazine, pro- *
pazine, simazine and norea.










Table 2. Response of sugarcane and weeds at 6 and 10 weeks
sand soil (HImokalee). Values are percentages of


after application of preemergence herbicides on
the best treatment.


Sugarcane


Herbicide and Rate/A ai


Stand
6 wk 10 wk


Tolerance
6 wk 10 wk


Annual grass
6 wk 10 wk


Weed Control
Broadleaf
6 wk 10 wk


,Bermudagrass
6 wk 10 wk


amlben
fenac, Amchem
fenac, Amchem
+ Encap 250 gpa
fenac, Amchem
pyrazon
DCPA
brcmacil
diuron
diuron, 4.8 Ib.
+ Encap 250 gpa
linuron
monuron -
fenac, duPont
ametryne
atrazine
atrazine, 4 Ib.
+ Encap 250 gpa
atrazine
prometone
prometryne
propazine
simazine
norea


6 Ib.
6 Ib.


9
10
16
2.4
4.8


4.8
4.8
9
4
4


Ib.
lb.
Ib.
Ib.
lb.


lb.
Ib.
lb.
lb.
lb.


lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
Ib.
Ib.


tritac 10 Ib.
diphenamid (Lilly) 8 Ib.
trifluralin, incorp.6 Ib.


83%
70

95
79
83
100
79
83

95
87
83
95
87
95
100
79
87
91
91
83
91
91
87
87


75%
58

87
58
87
87
37
87

91
79
75
87
87
91

10C
79
87
91
91
75
83'
87
83
87


87
66

95
66
83
87
58
79

87
70
66.
87
79
83

91
79
87
83
87
79
70
87
75
83


62%
45

95
45
66
87
25
58

91
66
58
66
79
79

95
75
79
75
83
62
66
70
75
79


87%
100

100
100
87
87
100
95

91
100
100
100
100
95

91
100
95
95
95
100
100
87
100
87


62%
95

100
100
87
75
100
100

75
91
91
100
75
87

87
91
83
75
83
87
95
45
83
83


75%
100

100
100
91
87
100
100

95
100
100
100
95
100

95
95
91
87
95
100
95
95
87
83


25%
100

100
100
87
87
100
100

95
95
100
100'
83
87

100
91
79
45
87
100
91
91
45
33
33


20%
87

58
87
i33
25
95
79
62
87-
75
87
83
70

58
83
70
50
58
70
83
29
41
37


37%
75

70
83
29
S. 37
100
58

66
54
66
87
54
58

50
62
45
45
50
58
75
37
45
33


I _


I


--









Table 2. Continued.


---- Sugarcane ....... Weed Control
Herbicide and Rate/A ai Stand .-.. Tolerance Annual grass Broadleaf Bermudagrass
.... 6.k ..10 wk .6 wk .. l7k v 10 wk 6 k 10 wk. 6 wk 10 wk

trefmid 6 lb. 91 95 95 87 95 87 79 33 41 41
trefmid, incorp. 6 lb. 83 87 79 70 91 75 83 25 45 33
CP 522 16 lb. 91 83 87 66 95 91 91 100 45 37
CP 18907 8 Ib. 100 91 87 87 91 62 83 58 54 20
CP 31393 6 Ib. 91 91 87 79 91 37 79 16 50 33
CP 31393 10 Ib. 83 87 83 83 91 75 75 20 20 12
CP 31675 8 1b. 79 75 58 37 100 100 100 70 87 75
swep 8 lb. 87 83 83 70 100 70 91 79 50 20
TOK-25E 8 lb. 91 87 87 75 91 50 75 37 25 12
SD-7961 8 lb. 83 83 87 83 100 87 87 75 45. 16
dichlobenil 10 Ib. 83 87 87 83 95 70 95 70 50 12
diphenamid (Upjohn)8 Ib. 70 83 75 70 95 62 75 33 12 16
alipur +
cycluron 6 Ib. 83 87 79 66 91 79 91 83 33 12
dicamba 4 Ib. 87 79 70 62 100 100 100 100 54 16










Table 3. Summary of sugarcane and weed responses to the better preemergence herbicidal treatments
at 6 and 10 weeks after application on sand soil (Immokalee).


'Cane Stand & Tolerance Annual Weed Control Bermudagrass
Herbicide and Rate/A ai Good-Excel. Acceptable Good-Excel. Acceptable Good control

fenac 6 lb + Encap 250 gpa xx xx
ECPA 16 lb. xx xx
diuron 4.8 lb.+ Encap 250 gpa xx xx
fenac (duPont) 9 lb. xx xx xx
ametryne 4 lb. xx xx
atrazine 4 lb. xx xx xx
atrazine 4 lb.+ Encap 250 gpa xx xx
atrazine '5 Ib. xx xx xx
prometone 4 lb. xx xx
propazine 4 lb. xx xx
SD 7961 8 lb. xx xx


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