Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES 65-25 April 1965
HERBICIDES FOR SUGARCANE IN THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES
J. R. Orsenigo
Recommendations and suggestions given here are based
primarily on research conducted by the Everglades Ex-
periment Station but may be supplemented by data devel
oped elsewhere. Growers are urged to observe the K\
manufacturer's label and precautions for commercial
use of herbicides in sugarcane. '
Herbicides are effective, economical tools in sugarcane production but are
not substitutes for good agronomic practice. The best chemical performance is
obtained by adhering to certain guides: USE the RIGHT CHEMICAL for the particu-
lar weed problem at the RIGHT TIME, in the RIGHT AMOUNT, WAY AND PLACE.
The economics and potential of weed control chemicals in farm management
must be evaluated by each grower for his particular situation. Initial use of
these chemicals should be restricted to a limited acreage for familiarization.
Many preemergence herbicides are effective only against germinating weed
seed and small annual weed seedlings. These chemicals generally do not control
emerged weeds and should be applied promptly after planting or to freshly weeded
soil. Preemergence chemicals perform best when applied to a moist soil surface
or when application is followed by moderate rainfall.
Broadcast-overall herbicide application is indicated in plant sugarcane
since the conventional ridge-and-furrow planting system does not permit ready
tillage of row middles when chemicals are applied to the drill. Less pronounced
ridge-and-furrow to almost flat planting are desirable if preemergence herbicides
are to be used..
Herbicide rates in this mimeo report are stated on a PER TREATED ACRE basis
in terms of the usual commercial formulation. Thorough, uniform ground or weed
coverage is necessary. Sprayable (soluble salts, emulsifiable concentrates and
wettable powders) and granular formulations (some chemicals) are available. The
customary active ingredient content of herbicides mentioned in this report is
given in the Glossary along with herbicide nomenclature and terminology.
RECOMMENDED herbicidal treatments (chemical, rate, manner of use) are those
generally reliable for commercial production when used as specified. Growers
without prior herbicide experience should confine initial applications to a li-
SUGGESTED herbicidal treatments represent promising materials not fully
evaluated locally or materials approved for sugarcane not generally applicable to
the Everglades. Growers may wish to use these on a very limited acreage.
A revision of EES64-8 and earlier Mimeo Reports.
Associate Horticulturist, University of Florida, Everglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade, Florida.
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR SUGARCANE
PREEMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN PLANT CANE
A. Early-fall planting (mid-August.to mid-October): Use'a modified ridge-and-
furrow and apply herbicides immediately after covering and bedding when
mature seed of good quality .is planted at the proper rate. Use proce-
dure "B" if seed cane quality is poor or planting rate is low.
B. Late-fall planting (after mid-October): Cultivate until need for replanting
"skips" can be determined. After replanting "skips" in stand or after
a decision not to replant: clean-cultivate to a modified ridge-and-
furrow and apply herbicides immediately with a directed or semi-directed
spray to minimize wetting the cane foliage. Granular formulations may
be applied over the plants.
FOR ORGANIC SOILS
10 qts/A Uspally requires a postemergence broadleaf weed
control treatment at 1 to 2 months after appli-
8 to 10 qts/A .This combination will provide good grass and broad-
+ leaf weed control for several months under average
2 qts/A .soil moisture and rainfall conditions.
8 qts/A A commercial formulation of "Randox" and 2,4-D
Note "Randox" and "Limit" are not postemergence herbi-
cides and will not control perennial or established
weeds. Grass weed control is improved with good
soil moisture or light rainfall and is decreased by
heavy, persistent rainfall.
6 qts/A Duration of good annual grass and broadleaf weed
control is 2 to 4 months after fall or spring
S4 to 5 lb/A application. The combination also has postemergence
activity against small grass and broadleaf weeds but
cane foliage contacted by the combination will be
Provides good annual grass weed control which has
continued into the ratoon crop following applica-
tion. Usually requires a postemergence broadleaf
weed control treatment 1 to 2 months after appli-
4 to lb/A
2 to 4 b/A
FOR SANDY SOILS
Good soil moisture or light rainfall is essential.
Broadleaf weed control may be superior to annual
grass weed control. May be used as a split appli-
cation: 2 1/2 lb/A preemergence and 2 1/2 Ib/A
later as required. Application may be delayed
until small weeds and cane have emerged.
Controls broadleaf weeds better than grasses,
especially under low soil moisture. An additional
directed postemergence spray of 2 Ib/A may be
applied to'prolong weed control.
PREEMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN RATOON CANE: ALL SOILS
C. Before or after emergence of stubble growth in trash-free rows only:
After fertilization, tillivate row middles, then apply chemicals, listed for
plant crops above. Apply soon after ratooning in early fall and late spring har-
vest; do'not delay more than 2 weeks during remainder of season. Tillivate and
apply herbicides to trash rows when trash has decomposed. Tillage machinery
should not throw weedy soil onto chemically treated areas.
POSTEMERGENCE TO SUGARCANE AND
ANNUAL WEEDS: ALL SOILS
D. For emerged annual grasses only: Alexandergrass, crabgrass, goosegrass, etc.
Apply as directed or semi-directed sprays to avoid
wetting cane foliage. Apply 2 or 3 times at 7 to
14 day intervals. Bermudagrass and other perennial
grasses will be controlled also. Serious yield
reduction can occur if much sugarcane foliage is
wet repeatedly. Grass weeds die slowly following
Apply only to seedling grass (and broadleaf) weeds
2 to 3 inches tall and with not more than 3 ex-
panded leaves. Semi-directional equipment pre-
ferred. With good soil moisture or light rainfall
this treatment will provide some residual control
of annual grass and broadleaf weeds, especially on
a. "Atrazine" or 1 lb/A
b. 2,4-D amine 1/2 Ib/A
c. Surfactant 1/2% by vol.
Apply combination as directed or semi-directed
spray to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings
not more than 3 inches tall. 2,4-D may be omitted
in fields near sensitive crops.
E. Spot treatments to control emerged annual and perennial grasses:
7 to 10 lb.
per 100 gal.
Apply as light foliage wetting spray to clumps or
individual plants of annual or perennial grasses,
especially Napiergrass, paragrass, Bermudagrass,
barnyardgrass, wild sorghum, Alexandergrass, crab-
grass, goosegrass and others. These "spot sprays"
should be applied 1 or 2 times. Hand gun booms
may be fitted with inverted funnels which can be
used to push cane leaf cover aside.
F. For emerged broadleaf weeds:
For 2,4-D susceptible weeds: 2,4-D up to 2 qts/A Amine salt preferred
For 2,4-D resistant weeds (dog fennel, ground cherry, nightshade, ragweed):
2,4,5,-T up to 1 1/2 qts/A Amine salt preferred
silvex up to 1 qt/A
For mixed broadleaf weeds:
(When Florida labelling
2,4-D + 2,4,5-T at 3/4 lb/A each in tank mixture.
For pellitoryweed (artilleryweed)
a. "Atrazine", "Karmex" or "Telvar" at 1/2 to 3/4 Ib/A
b. 2,4-D amine at 1/2 Ib/A
c. Surfactant at 1/2 to 1% by volume
Note: The 2,4-D component may be omitted in fields near sensitive
crops or where other broadleaf weeds are not a problem.
These combinations should be applied with directional spray
G. For mixed annual grass and broadleaf weeds:
For small seedling weeds: Use "D" recommended, "Atrazine" or "D" suggested
For larger established weeds: Use "Dowpon" plus 2,4-D as "D" and "F" above.
GLOSSARY AND STATUS OF HERBICIDES CLEARED FOR SUGARCANE
Chemicals recommended or suggested for Florida
Atrazine 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine. Geigy "Atrazine 80W",
an 80% wettable powder. Maximum cleared rate: 5 lb/A per application,
12 1/2 lb/A per crop.
Dowpon Sodium salt of 2,2-dichloropropionic acid. Dow "Dowpon", 74% acid
equivalent. Maximum cleared rate.11.1 lb/A acid equivalent. Effective
against established grasses. Should be used in repeated or split appli-
2,4-D Amine salt formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing
4 lb/gal acid equivalent. Treatment rates must be adjusted for 6 lb/gal
formulations. Many suppliers. Maximum cleared rate 2 Ib/A acid equiva-
lent applied prior to cane emergence or postemergence until layby. Use
caution to prevent damage to nearby sensitive crops.
Fenac Sodium salt of 2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid. Amchem "Fenac" con-
taining 1.5 lb/gal acid equivalent.
Karmex diuron, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Karmex", an
80% wettable powder. Maximum.cleared rate for Florida is 4 lb/A pre-
emergence to weeds after planting with additional postemergence sprays
to a maximum of 6 Ib/A.
Randox CDAA, 2-chloro-N,N-diallylacetamide. Monsanto "Randox" containing 4
lb/gal active. Maximum cleared rate is 10 lb/A: do not apply more than
once per crop nor within 10 months of harvest. Monsanto "Limit" contains
Randox and 2,4-D acid.
Silvex propyleneglycolbutyletheresters of 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic
acid. Formulations containing 4 Ib/gal acid equivalent are available
from Amchem, Chipman and Dow. Cleared for use in Louisiana only at
1 1/2 Ib/A acid equivalent preemergence to cane and weeds or after off-
barring and until cane reaches 3 to 3 1/2 feet tall. Cleared for use
in Hawaii only at 5 Ib/A acid equivalent preemergence after planting
or ratooning and before cane emergence. Use is limited to 2 applications
per crop. Precautions similar to 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are required.
Telvar monuron, 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Telvar", an 80%
wettable powder. Cleared rate same as for "Karmex".
2,4,5-T amine salt formulations of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing
4 lb/gal acid equivalent. Treatment rates must be adjusted when 6 lb/
gal formulations are used. Many suppliers. Rate of 1 lb/A acid equi-
valent cleared for postemergence use in established cane up to 2 feet
tall. Use caution to avoid damage to nearby susceptible crops.
Surfactant non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, or others of similar activity..
Cleared chemicals not suggested for Florida.
PCP or Pentachlorophenol. Available from several suppliers. Cleared at 4.5
Penta Ib/A when used preemergence to 'cane at 1 to 2 days after planting.
Cleared at same rate for directed postemergence sprays before weeds
are 2 inches tall.
NaPCP or Sodium salt of pentachlorophenol. Available from several suppliers.
SPCP Cleared at 44 lb/A preemergence immediately after planting and before
weed seedlings emerge. A rate-of 10 1/2 lb/A is cleared for use immed-
iately after weed seedlings emerge.
Simazine 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine. Geigy "Simazine 80W", an 80%
wettablee powder. Application rates and conditions similar to Atrazine.
NaTCA or Sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid.. Available from many suppliers in
STCA, formulations containing about 80% TCA equivalent. Cleared at 31.7 lb/A
for pre- and.early postemergence and at 45 Ib/A acid equivalent as late
postemergence directed sprays at base of 'cane plants.
2,4,5-T As given above. Cleared at 4.5 lb/A acid equivalent for preemergence
use in Hawaii only.
SHORT GLOSSARY OF HERBICIDE TERMINOLOGY
Band application Using the herbicide in a narrow, continuous strip in, over or
along the crop row rather than over the entire field.
Broadcast application Using the herbicide over an entire field or area.
Contact herbicide An herbicide that kills primarily by direct contact with plant
tissue rather than by translocation within the plant.
Directed application Using an herbicide in a restricted location such as the
crop row or bed at the base of plants to avoid wetting plant foliage.
Overall application Applying an herbicide from directly above plants.
Postemergence treatment Application after crop plants emerge. Treatments may
also be specified as postemergence to weeds or both crop and weeds.
Preemergence treatment Application after a crop is planted but before it emerges.
Treatments may be specified preemergence to weeds or both crop and weeds.
Treatments may be specified preemergence to weeds but postemergence to
the crop. Usually, preemergence treatments are made before both crop and
weeds emerge. Contact preemergence treatments kill emerged weeds by
contact action and are applied before the crop comes up. Residual pre-
emergence treatments kill weeds as their seed germinate or as seedlings
emerge, either before or after crop come-up.:
Preplanting treatment Application of an herbicide before planting a crop.
USE CAUTION WHEN APPLYING 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
Chlorophenoxy herbicides are capable of causing severe injury to sensitive
vegetable, fruit and ornamental cropsseveral miles from the actual spraying site.
The degree of hazard in the use of these chemicals is related directly to the manner
of application and weather conditions. Aerial application is most hazardous. Ground
equipment should be operated with low spray volume and at low spraying pressure.
Not more than 10% of a farm unit should be treated per day. Chlorophenoxy herbi-
cides should not be applied within one-half mile of susceptible crops except under
the most carefully controlled and supervised conditions. These chemicals should
not be applied when wind velocity exceeds 8 mph in isolated areas nor when wind
exceeds 4 mph when sensitive crops are grown less than 2 miles downwind. The
safest formulations are the salts, particularly amine salts. The above rules-of-
thumb are guides not guarantees for prevention of damage. For more detailed infor-
mation refer to Mimeo Reports EES64-12 and EES65-21.
READ THE LABEL
Labels on herbicide containers should be read and understood prior to use of
the chemical contained therein. This is the final and most appropriate guide to
economical and successful chemical usage.
EQUIPMENT FOR SUGARCANE HERBICIDE APPLICATION
A separate mimeographed report, EES64-9, contains information on basic spray-
ing equipment, calibration, shielded sprayer design and methods of application.