Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; EES69- 4
Title: Herbicides for sugarcane in the Florida Everglades
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067470/00001
 Material Information
Title: Herbicides for sugarcane in the Florida Everglades
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Weeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Herbicides -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Orsenigo.
General Note: "September, 1968."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067470
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 63791973

Full Text
/o ...
I HUME LIBRARY

S / Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES69- OU CT 1 968 eptember, 1968

HERBICIDES FOR SUGARCANE ]i F LODA E LADES1
-univ. r f ri
J. R. O ren


Recommendations and suggestions given here are based on
research conducted by the Everglades Experiment Station.
Growers are urged to observe the manufacturer's label and
precautions for commercial use of herbicides in sugarcane.

Herbicides are effective, economical tools in sugarcane production but do
not substitute for good management. The best chemical performance is obtained
with these guides: THE RIGHT CHEMICAL for the particular weed problem at the
RIGHT TIME, in the RIGHT AMOUNT, WAY AND PLACE.

The economics and potential of weed control chemicals must be evaluated
by each grower for his particular situation. Initial use of these chemicals
should be restricted to a limited acreage for familiarization.

Many preemergence herbicides are effective only against germinating weed
seed and small annual weed seedlings. These chemicals generally do not control
emerged weeds and should be applied promptly after planting or to freshly
weeded soil. Preemergence chemicals perform best when applied to a moist soil
surface or when application is followed by moderate rainfall.

Broadcast-overall herbicide application is indicated in plant sugarcane
since the conventional ridge-and-furrow planting system does not permit ready
tillage of row middles when chemicals are applied to the drill. Less pro-
nounced ridge-and-furrow to almost flat planting are desirable if preemergence
herbicides are to be used.

Herbicide rates in this mimeo report are stated on a PER.TREATED ACRE
basis in terms of the usual commercial formulation. Thorough, uniform ground
or weed coverage is necessary. The customary active ingredient content of
herbicides mentioned in this report is given in the Glossary along with
herbicide nomenclature and terminology.

RECOMMENDED herbicidal treatments (chemical, rate, manner of use) are
those generally reliable for commercial production when used as specified.
Growers without prior herbicide experience should confine initial applications
to a limited acreage.

SUGGESTED herbicidal treatments represent cleared chemicals and combina-
tions not fully evaluated locally. Growers should use these on a very limited
trial acreage.



1/ A revision of EES 67-3 and earlier Mimeo Reports.

2/ Horticulturist, University of Florida, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, Florida.






- 2 -


CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR SUGARCANE

PREEMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN PLANT CANE (See plant cane note at end)


RECOMMENDED FOR


ORGANIC SOILS


"Randox"



"Randox"
plus
2,4-D amine


"Limit"


"Randox"
plus
"Atrazine"


"Fenac"


10 qts/A



8 to 10 qts/A
+
2 qts/A


8 qts/A


6 qts/A

4 to 5 lbs/A


6 gpa


SUGGESTED FOR SANDY SOILS

"Atrazine" 4 to 5 lbs/A


"Karmex"
or
"Telvar"


2 to 4 lbs/A


Usually requires a postemergence broadleaf weed
control treatment at 1 to 2 months after appli-
cation. Read Glossary note.

This combination will provide good grass and
broadleaf weed control for several months under
average soil moisture and rainfall conditions.

A commercial formulation of "Randox" and 2,4-D
acid. Read Glossary note.

Duration of good annual grass and broadleaf weed
control is 2 to 4 months after fall or spring
application. The combination also has post-
emergence activity against small grass and broad-
leaf weeds. Cane foliage contacted by the
combination will be "burned" but future growth
is unaffected.

Provides good annual grass weed control which
has continued into the ratoon crop following
application. Usually requires a postemergence
broadleaf weed control treatment 1 to 2 months
after application and in the following crop.


Good soil moisture or light rainfall is essential.
Broadleaf weed control may be superior to annual
grass weed control. May be used as a split appli-
cation: 2 Ib/A preemergence and 2 lb/A later as
required. Application schedule may be delayed
until small weeds and cane have emerged.

Control of broadleaf weeds better than grasses
especially under low soil moisture. An additional
directed postemergence spray of 2 lb/A may be
applied to prolong weed control.


PLANT CANE NOTE:
A. Early-fall planting (mid-August to mid-October): Use a modified ridge-and-
furrow and apply herbicides immediately after covering and bedding when
mature seed of good quality is planted at the proper rate. Use procedure
"B" if seed cane quality is poor or planting rate is low.

B. Late-fall planting (after mid-October): Cultivate until need for replanting
"skips" can be determined. After replanting "skips" in stand or after a
decision not to replant: clean-cultivate to a modified ridge-and-furrow and
apply herbicides immediately with a directed or semi-directed spray to
minimize wetting the cane foliage. Granualar formulations may be applied
over the plants.





- 3-


PREEMERGENCE TO ANNUAL WEEDS IN RATOON CANE:

C. Before or after emergence of stubble growth:

SUGGESTED FOR ALL SOILS


After fertilization, tillivate row middles, then apply chemicals listed
for plant crops above. Apply soon after ratooning in early fall and late spring
harvest; do not delay more than 2 weeks during remainder of season. Tillivate
and apply herbicides to trash rows when trash has decomposed. Tillage machinery
should not throw weedy soil on chemically treated areas.


POSTEMERGENCE TO SUGARCANE AND ANNUAL WEEDS: ALL SOILS: PLANT OR RATOON CROPS

D. For emerged annual grasses only: Alexandergrass, crabgrass, goosegrass, etc.

RECOMMENDED POSTEMERGENCE


"Dowpon"







"Atrazine"


"Atrazine"
+ 2,4-D amine
+ Surfactant


4 lb/A







4 lb/A


1 lb/A
h lb/A
% by vol.


Apply as directed or semi-directed sprays to avoid
wetting cane foliage. Apply 2 or 3 times at 7 to
14 day intervals. Bermudagrass and other peren-
nial grasses will be controlled also. Serious
yield reduction can occur if sugarcane foliage is
wet repeatedly. Grass weeds die slowly following
treatment.

Apply only to seedling grass (and broadleaf) weeds
2 to 3 inches tall and with not more than 3 ex-
panded leaves. Semi-directional equipment prefer-
red. With good soil moisture or light rainfall
this treatment will provide some residual control
of annual grass and broadleaf weeds, especially
on sandy soils.

Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed spray
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. 2,4-D may be omitted in
fields near sensitive crops. May be applied 2 or
3 times as required by weed growth. Effectiveness
diminishes in April and when applied to estab-
lished or tillering grasses.


SUGGESTED POSTEMERGENCE

"Ametryne" to 1 Ib/A


Apply ONLY as a directed or semi-directed spray to
annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings up to
2 to 3 inches tall. Especially effective against
Alexandergrass. For mixed infestations, particu-
larly with other annual grasses, activity is
increased by adding lb/A 2,4-D amine and/or
% v/v surfactant to the tank-mix. Repeat once
as needed.






-4-


"Fenac" 5 to 6 qts/A
+ 2,4-D 1 to 1 Ib/A


"Karmex"
+ 2,4-D amine
+ Surfactant


lb/A
Ib/A
to % by
vol.


Apply tank-mix combination as semi-directed spray
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. May be repeated within
2 or more weeks as required by weed growth.
Annual grass seedlings not killed will have
restricted root growth.

Apply tank-mix combination ONLY as directed spray
to annual grass and broadleaf weed seedlings not
more than 3 inches tall. 2,4-D may be omitted in
fields near sensitive crops. May be repeated
once as required by weed growth.


E. Spot treatments to control emerged and perennial grasses.

RECOMMENDED


"Dowpon" 7 to 10 lb.
per 100 gal.
water


Apply as light foliage wetting spray to clumps or
individual plants of annual or perennial grasses,
especially Napiergrass, paragrass, Bermudagrass,
barnyardgrass, johnsongrass, sudangrass, giant
foxtail, Alexandergrass, crabgrass, goosegrass and
others. These "spot sprays" should be applied
1 or 2 times. Hand gun booms may be fitted with
inverted funnels which can be used to push cane
leaf cover aside.


SUGGESTED

"Urox 11%"


3/4 ounce or
20 grams per
square yard


Distribute uniformly over Napiergrass stools in
spring ratoon growth as soon as Napiergrass can
be distinguished from sugarcane. Urox is a soil
sterilant at this application rate and will injure
or kill sugarcane immediately adjacent to treated
grasses. Do not apply more than 25 pounds per
acre of sugarcane. "Urox 22%" may be used at one-
half the rate indicated.


F. For emerged broadleaf weeds:

_jCOi'MENDED

For 2,4-D susceptible weeds: 2,4-D up to 2 lbs/A Amine salt preferred.

For 2,4-D resistant weeds (dog fennel, ground cherry, nightshade, ragweed):
2,4,5-T up to 1 lb/A Amine salt preferred
or
silvex up to 1 lb/A

For mixed broadleaf weeds: 2,4-D + 2,4,5-T at 3/4 lb/A each in tank
mixture.






- 5-


For pellitoryweed (artilleryweed) and young broadleaf weed seelings
a. "Atrazine", "Karmex" or "Telvar" at 1/2 to 3/4 lb/A
plus
b. 2,4-D amine at Ib/A
plus
c. Surfactant at to 1% by volume

Note: The 2,4-D component may be omitted in fields near
sensitive crops or where other broadleaf weeds are
not a problem.

These combinations should be applied with directional spray
equipment.

G. For mixed annual grass and broadleaf weeds:

For small seedling weeds: Use "D" recommended or "D" suggested combinations
above.

For larger established weeds: Use "Dowpon" plus 2,4-D as "D" and "F" above.

GLOSSARY AND STATUS OF HERBICIDES FOR SUGARCANE

Chemicals recommended or suggested for Florida

Ametryne ametryne, 2-methylthio-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine.
Geigy "Ametryne 80W" an 80% wettable powder. Maximum cleared
rates: 10 Ib/A preemergence or after ratooning (Not recommended
for Florida); one or two 5 Ib/A between-row applications before
cane closes in (Not recommended for Florida); not more than 20
Ib/A/crop (Not recommended for Florida). See page 3 for Florida
use suggestions.

Atrazine 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine. Geigy
"Atrazine 80W" an 80% wettable powder. Maximum cleared rate:
5 Ib/A per application, 12 Ib/A per crop.

Dowpon dalapon, sodium salt of 2,2-dichloropropionic acid. Dow
"Dowpon" 74% acid equivalent. Maximum cleared rate 11.1 Ib/A
acid equivalent. Effective against established grasses.
Should be used in repeated or split applications.

2,4-D Formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing 4 Ib/
gal acid equivalent, amine salt preferred. Treatment rates
must be adjusted for 6 Ib/gal formulations. Many suppliers.
Maximum cleared rate 2 Ib/A acid equivalent applied prior to
cane emergence or postemergence until layby. Use caution to
prevent damage to nearby sensitive crops.

Fenac fenac, sodium salt of 2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid. Amchem
"Fenac" containing 1.5 Ib/gal acid equivalent. Tenneco "Trifen"
is a 2 Ib/gal formulation.





- 6 -


Karmex diuron, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Karmex"
an 80% wettable powder. Maximum cleared rate for Florida is
4 lb/A preemergence to weeds after planting with additional
postemergence sprays to a maximum of 6 lb/A.

Randox CDAA, 2-chloro-N,N-diallylacetamide. Monsanto "Randox" containing
4 Ib/gal active. Maximum cleared rate is 10 Ib/A: do not apply
more than once per crop nor within 10 months of harvest.

Silvex Low volatile esters of 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid.
Formulations containing 4 lb/gal acid equivalent are available
from Amchem, Chipman and Dow. Cleared for Florida at 1.5 Ib/A
broadcast with a second application before cane is 3 feet tall.
Cleared for use in Louisiana only at 1 lb/A acid equivalent pre-
emergence to cane and weeds or after off-barring and until cane
reaches 3 to 3h feet tall. Cleared for use in Hawaii only at
5 Ib/A acid equivalent preemergence after planting or ratooning
and before cane emergence. Use is limited to 2 applications per
crop. Precautions similar to 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are required.

Surfactant non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, or others of similar activity.
ACL-209 (Adju-Saf base) has been effective and may minimize crop
injury.

Telvar monuron, 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea. duPont "Telvar",
an 80% wettable powder. Cleared rate same as for "Karmex".

2,4,5-T Formulations of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing 4 lb/
gal acid equivalent amine salt preferred. Treatment rates should
be adjusted when 6 Ib/gal formulations are used. Many suppliers.
Rate of 1 Ib/A acid equivalent cleared for postemergence use in
established cane up to 2 feet tall. Use caution to avoid damage
to nearby susceptible crops. Cleared at 4.5 Ib/A acid equivalent
for preemergence use in Hawaii only.

Urox monuron TCA. Allied Chemical "Urox 11 Weed Killer", 11% granular
formulation. Also available in a 22% granular formulation. This'
is a soil sterilant formulation not cleared for crop use.

Cleared chemicals not suggested for use in Florida

Diquat diquat, l,l'-ethylene-2:2'-dipyridylium dibromide. Chevron "Ortho
Diquat", 35% solution. One gpa as postemergence spray directed to
weeds less than 6 inches tall and before cane closes in; Hawaii
only.

Herban norea, 3-(hexahydro-4,7-methanoindan-5yl) -1,1-dimethylurea.
Hercules "Herban" an 80% wettable powder. Cleared at 4 lb/A pre-
emergence or 3 lb/A postemergence to cane; all applications prior
to weed seed germination and not less than 5 months to harvest.
Cane treated preemergence should not receive postemergence
application.






- 7-


Simazine



Sinbar


TCA, STCA,
NaTCA




Treflan


simazine, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine. Geigy "Simazine
80W" an 80% wettable powder. Application rates and conditions
similar to Atrazine.

terbacil, 3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil. duPont "Sinbar" an
80% wettable powder. Hawaii only: one preemergence application
@ 2.5 Ib/A in plant crop. Puerto Rico only: one 3 Ib/A application
in plant crop.

sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid. Available from many suppliers
in formulations containing about 80% TCA equivalent. Cleared at
31.7 Ib/A for pre- and early postemergence and at 45 Ib/A acid
equivalent as late postemergence directed sprays at base of cane
plant.

trifluralin, a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine.
Elanco "Treflan". A tolerance has been established by FDA; USDA
label approval for sugarcane is imminent but has not been granted
at this writing.

SHORT GLOSSARY OF HERBICIDE TERMINOLOGY


Band application Using an herbicide in a narrow, continuous strip in, over
or along the crop row rather than over the entire field.

Broadcast application Using an herbicide over an entire field or area.

Contact herbicide An herbicide that kills primarily by direct contact with
plant tissue rather than by translocation within the plant.

Directed application Using an herbicide in a restricted location such as the
crop row or bed at the base of plants to avoid wetting plant
foliage.

Overall application Applying an herbicide from directly above plants.

Postemergence treatment Application after crop plants emerge. Treatments may
also be specified as postemergence to weeds or both crop and weeds.


Preemergence


treatment Application after a crop is planted but before it
emerges. Treatments may be specified preemergence to weeds or
both crop and weeds. Treatments may be specified preemergence
to weeds but postemergence to the crop. Usually, preemergence
treatments are made before both crop and weeds emerge. Contact
preemergence treatments kill emerged weeds by contact action and
are applied before the crop comes up. Residual preemergence
treatments kill weeds as their seed germinate or as seedlings
emerge, either before or after crop come-up.


Preplanting treatment Application of an herbicide before planting a crop.






-8-


USE CAUTION WHEN APPLYING 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

Chlorophenoxy herbicides are capable of causing severe injury to
sensitive vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops several miles from the actual
spraying site. The degree of hazard in the use of these chemicals is related
directly to the manner of application and weather conditions. Aerial applica-
tion is most hazardous. Ground equipment should be operated with low spray
volume and at low spraying pressure.

Not more than 10% of a farm unit should be treated per day.
Chlorophenoxy herbicides should not be applied within one-half mile of sus-
ceptible crops except under the most carefully controlled and supervised
conditions. These chemicals should not be applied when wind velocity exceeds
8 mph in isolated areas nor when wind exceeds 4 mph when sensitive crops are
grown less than 2 miles downwind. The safest formulations are the salts,
particularly amine salts. The above rules-of-thumb are guides not guarantees
for prevention of damage. For more detailed information refer to Mimeo Reports
EES64-12 and EES65-21.

READ THE LABEL

Labels on herbicide containers should be read and understood prior
to use of the chemical contained therein. This is the final and most appro-
priate guide to economical and successful chemical usage.

EQUIPMENT FOR SUGARCANE HERBICIDE APPLICATION

A separate mimeographed report, EES64-9, contains information on
basic spraying equipment, calibration, shielded-sprayer design and methods of
application. Calibration procedures are detailed in Florida Extension Cir-
cular 275A.














EES69-4
500 copies




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