Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Everglades Experiment Station ; EES69- 3
Title: Primary evaluation of phytoxicity of postemergence applied herbicides and herbicide- adjuvant combinations
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067469/00001
 Material Information
Title: Primary evaluation of phytoxicity of postemergence applied herbicides and herbicide- adjuvant combinations
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Weeds -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Herbicides -- Toxicology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Orsenigo.
General Note: "August, 1968."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067469
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 63791991

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/:7 I HUME LIBRARY
9 -3 *-*
SI Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES69-3 OCT 1 1968 August 1968

PRIMARY EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXICI OF POSTEMERGENCE APPLI D
HERBICIDES AND HERBICIDE-ADA&S Ofli T ia T

2/
J. R. Orsenigo-


Summary: This primary, non-replicated evaluation presented difficult
conditions for the herbicidal treatments tested: weed popula-
tion, especially panicum, was high and annual grasses had
tillered at time of postemergence application. Treatments were rated at 10
days after application; superior treatments at 20 days after application
are listed.

No herbicide alone, or herbicidal combination, reunited both a
high level of crop tolerance and effective annual weed control,
especially of grasses. Pyriclor*, MBC, CP-41820*, AMA and high
rates of ametryne*, applied alone, effectively controlled annual grasses at
10 and at 20 (*) days after application. Generally, the addition of low
rates of 2,4-D (h Ib/A) and surfactant (%) or surfactant to certain herbicides
reduced crop tolerance and increased annual weed control. (Tables 3, 6)

Non-phytotoxic oil atrazine combinations were noted by accept-
able crop tolerance but less than acceptable weed control.
Trebling the oil rates from 1.3 to 4 gpa reduced crop tolerance
slightly with a corresponding slight increase in annual weed control. The
several oils did not differ greatly in performance except that improved
broadleaf weed control was obtained with Amoco and Orchex oils. (Table 4)
Essentially no crop tolerance was noted for non-phytotoxic oil ametryne
combinations at either oil application rate, 1.3 or 4 gpa. Annual grass weed
control was complete except for the 1.3 gpa rate of Sinc-oil. High control
values were also recorded at 20 days after application. (Tables 4, 6) No
usable crop tolerance was observed following non-phytotoxic oil diuron
combinations. Grass weed control differed slightly among the oils but no
broadleaf weed control was recorded for Amoco and Sun oil combinations.
(Tables 4, 6)

AL-411 was an effective adjuvant with ametryne but not with
atrazine. (Tables 4, 6) The range of differences in crop tol-
erance and in annual weed control associated with atrazine -
surfactant combinations was great. Few of the combinations were acceptable
herbicidally. (Tables 5, 6)

A limited number of treatments were effective herbicides at 20
days after application. (Table 6) Herbicidal combinations which
were effective in earlier evaluations appeared less effective in
this trial. Differences in response appear to be related -nost closely to
weed development at time of application although weed growth rate and climate
are influential.

1/ This report of the relative performance of commercial and experimental
herbicidal treatments was prepared for herbicide researchers and industry
and the data neither constitute nor imply endorsement of any treatment
for any usage.

/ Horticulturist, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, Ever lades Ex eriment Station, Belle Glade, Florida 33430






- 2 -


Experiment:
Location:
Soil Type:
Cultural operations:


1088-26-68
Everglades Experiment Station, F 2 NW
Okeelanta peaty muck
Field preparation; February, March, 1968
Soil insecticide; 29 March 1968 (diazinon, 4 Ib/Aai,
disced in)
Fertilization & fitting; 29 March 1968 (800 lb/A,
0-12-16 + micronutrients, disced in after soil
insecticide disced in)
Discing; 2, 5 April 1968
Final fitting & rolling; 8 April 1968
Crops planted; 19 April 1968 through emerged weeds.


Routine fungicide-insecticide applications were made
weekly or more often as required.

Design: Non-replicated single treatment plots. Three crops
were drilled through emerged weeds in north-south rows.
Herbicide-treated strips (6 x 60 ft) traversed the
blocks in an east-west direction and were separated from each other by a
narrow untreated alley. Handweeded and unweeded strips were interspersed at
intervals.

Description of test crops: Refer to Table 1.


Description


Description


whichever ap
in terms of


of weed population: Weeds listed in Table 1 were generally
typical of the experimental area and the unweeded
controls.

of herbicidal treatments: Herbicides, adjuvants, other chemicals,
formulations and suppliers are listed in Table 2.
Rates of application are given as Ib/A ai or ae,
propriate, unless noted otherwise. Surfactant rates are similarly
ai v/v.


All treatments were applied postemergence as broadcast,
topical sprays over crops and weeds. Treatments were
applied in water (or oil-water emulsion) carrier at 62
gpa with an experimental small plot herbicide tractor using a Hypro nylon
roller pump and Spraying Systems Tee-Jet nozzles.


Herbicide application data:


2 May 1968 (1005-1130 AM; wind westerly at 0-5
mph, clear sky; moderate temperature)

3 May 1968 (0845-1035 AM; wind westerly 0-5 mph;
overcast sky; moderate temperature)

3 May 1968 (0335-0540 PM; wind westerly 0-4 mph;
overcast to clear sky; moderate temperature)

All applied in canal spray water; pH = 8,
hardness = 310 ppm.


Rainfall data:


2.22 in. of rainfall was recorded in the first 10 days
and 2.84 in. had accumulated in 20 days after appli-
cation.






- 3-


Temperature data:


Average temperature values for the first and second
10-day period after application follow:
max. 82 min. 65, mean 740F; and, max. 89, min. 60,
mean 786F.


Method of evaluation: Handweeded and unweeded control
and weed standards againstwhich
ments were compared on a 1 to 9
values were converted to percentages for this report.
were made at 10 and at 20 days after application.


plots served as crop
the herbicidal treat-
rating scale. The
Visual examinations


Table 1. Test crops and weeds.


S corn (Sweet Corn)
F corn (Field Corn)
Sorghum

Panicum
Goosegrass
Broadleaf principally1
Amaranth, spiny


lobelle
Cornelli 54
Hegari

Panicum adspersum
Eleusine indica

Amaranthus spinosus)


3-4 true leaves, 5-7 in. tall
3 true leaves, to 6 in. tall
3-4 true leaves, 6-8 in. tall

3-4 tillers, to 6 in. tall
2-3 tillers, to 4 in. tall

to 6 in. tall


Table 2. Herbicides, adjuvants, chemicals, formulations and suppliers.

Allied Chemical
2,4-D isooctyl ester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

Amchem Products
ACP 65-31 sodium salt of 2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid +
dimethylamine salt of 2,4-D (1.5 + 1 Ib/gal)
ACP 65-313 mixed isomers of l,l-dimethyl-4,6-diisopropyl-5-
indanyl and l,l-dimethyl-4,6-diisopropyl-7-indanyl
ethyl ketones

American Mineral Spirits
isopropanol isopropanol

American Oil
Amoco oil Amoco Crop Oil, ca 84 sec viscosity

Aquatrols Corp.
Aqua-Gro blended nonionic surfactants
Aqua-T alkylaryl polyethoxy alcohol

Atlas Chemical Industries
AL-209 Unspecified polyoxyethlene fatty acid ester
AL-210 do
AL-509 do
Tween 20 polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate
AL-411 surfactant-oil adjuvant






-4-


CIBA Agrochemical
Adjuvan-T
fluometurom
C-6313


Collodial Products
X-77
Buffer-X


Tronic


Dow Chemical
dalapon
dal-TCA

pyriclor


trimethylnonanol-ethyleneoxide complex
1,l-dimethyl-3-(a,a,a-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-urea (Cotoran)
3-(4-bromo-3-chlorophenyl)-l-methoxy-l-methylurea
(Maloran)


alkylaryl polyoxyethylene glycols
alkylaryl polyethoxy ethanol, free and combined fatty
and phosphatic acids, isopropanol (rlulti-Film
Buffer-X)
alkylaryl polyoxyethlene glycols, petroleum distillates,
alkyl sulfates, alkyl amine acetate


sodium salt of 2,2-dichloropropionic acid (Dowpon)
dalapon + sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid
(53.3 + 29.7%) (Dowpon-C)
2,3,5-trichloro-4-pyridinol (Daxtron)


E. I. duPont de Nemours
diuron 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (Karmex)
terbacil 3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil (Sinbar)
EmulAgt-A Amine salts of alkyl & alkylaryl sulfonates
(Emulsifying Agent A)
Surf-WK dodecylether of polyethylene glycol (Surfactant WK)

Geigy Agricultural Chemicals
ametryne 2-ethylamino-4-isopropylamino-6-methylmercapto-s-
triazine (Ametryne)
Atrazine 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine
(Atrazine)
prometryne 2, 4-bis(isopropylamino)-6-methylmercapto-s-triazine
(Caporal)


General Analine & Film
CO-630

Hercules Incorp.
norea


Hooker Chemical
MBC


Humble Oil & Refining
Orchex

Monsanto Company
CP-41820

Rohm & Haas
propanil
X-100
X-114
X-207


octylphenoxypoly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol


3-(hexahydro-4,7-methanoindan-5-yl)-1,1-dimethylurea
(Herban)


sodium chlorate + sodium metaborate tetrahydrate
(30 + 68%) (Hooker MBC)


Orchex N-795, ca 73 sec viscosity


classified


3',4'-dichloropropionanilide (Stam F-34)
octylphenoxy polyethoxy ethanol (Triton X-100)
do (Triton X-114)
alkylaryl polyether alcohol + nonionic solubilizer
(Triton X-207)






- 5-


Sinclair Oil
Sinc-oil Sinclair VC Spray Oil

Standard Spray & Chemical
Adju-saf unspecified polyoxyethylene fatty acid ester

Sun Oil
Sun 11E non-phytotoxic paraffin oil plus emulsifier system,
ca 100 sec viscosity
Folicote hydrocarbon emulsion transpiration suppressant

Thompson-Hayward
TH-407H,-417H morphactin (hydroxyfluorene-carboxylate) + 2,4-D
combinations, 0.75:2.5 lb/gal
T-Mulz A02 unspecified surfactant


Union Carbide Corp.
NPX
TMN
15-S-9
WetAgt l-X
AS-31266A

U. S. Borax & Chemical
MCD


Hibor



Velsicol Chemical
OCS-21693


Vineland Chemical
A4MA
MSMA


unspecified surfactant (Tergitol NPX)
trimethyl nonyl polyethlene glycol ether (Tergitol TMN)
unspecified surfactant (Tergitol Nonionic 15-S-9)
unspecified surfactant (Experimental Wetting Agent l-X)
unspecified surfactant (Agricultural Surfactant 31266A)


sodium metaborate tetrahydrate + sodium chlorate +
diuron (66.5 + 30.0 + 1.25%) (Monobor-Chlorate
Granular D)
sodium metaborate tetrahydrate + sodium chlorate +
bromacil (5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil) (66.5 +
30.0 + 1.50%) (Hibor Granular)


N-methoxy-N-methyl-2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-carbomethoxy-
benzamine


ammonium methanearsonate
monosodium methanearsonate


Acknowledgements: This evaluation was supported in part by grants from
Atlas Chemical Industries, Geigy Agricultural
Chemicals, Monsanto Company and Sun Oil Company.
Herbicides, adjuvants and other chemicals were furnished by the suppliers
listed above. Maintenance pesticides were supplied by Geigy Agricultural
Chemicals, Stauffer Chemical Company and Union Carbide Corporation. Crop
seed were furnished by A. Duda & Son and the Agronomy Section, Everglades
Experiment Station.






-6-


Table 3. Response of crops and weeds to postemergence applied herbicidal
treatments. Values are percentages of untreated controls at ten
days after application.


Herbicidal Treatment
Rate Ib/Aai or %ai
Handweeded control
Unweeded control


ACP 65-31, 1 gpa
2
fluometuron, 2 +
Adjuvan-T, z%
C6313, 2 +
Adjuvan-T, %
pyriclor, 1
terbacil, 2
terbacil, 2 + Su
ametryne, 1


ametryne,
+ S %*
atrazine, 1


+ 2,


Crop Tolerance
S corn F corn Sorghum


100% 100%
100 100


100
75


rf-WK, %

4-D,


atrazine, + 2,4-D,
+ S %
prometryne, 1
prometryne, + 2,4-D,
+ S %
norea, 2
norea, 1 + 2,4-D,
+ S %
MBC, 37
CP-41820, 2
CP-41820, 2 + S %
MCD, 37
Hibor, 37
AMA, 4
MSMA, 4
propanil, 2 +
ACP 65-313, 2
propanil, 2 +
OCS-21693, 2
ametryne,
1
1
2
3
4


*S = X-114 Surfactant


100%
100


Annual
Panicum
100%
0


Weed Control
Goosegr B'leaf
100% 100%
0 0


87 100 12 87
75 75 62 87


0
0
75
0
25

12
100

87
62

50
100

62
50
25
0
100
75
37
12


12 12


100
100


87 100

75 100
100 12
37 100
75 100
87 12

87 87
87 50

87 75
87 62

100 87
37 0

62 37
75 25-
87 0
100 25
12 12
50 25
75 12
62 12

50 100


50
25
50
50
75
87
100






-7-


Table 4. Response of crops and weeds to postemergence applied herbicidal
treatments. Values are percentages of untreated controls at ten
days after application.


Herbicidpl Treatment
Rate 1b/Aai or af
Handweeded control
Unweeded control

atrazine, 2
+ Amoco oil 1.3 gpa
+ Amoco oil 4.0
+ Orchex 1.3 gpa
+ Orchex 4.0
+ Sinc-oil 1.3 gpa
+ Sinc-oil 4.0
+ Sun 11E 1.3 gpa
+ Sun liE 4.0
Ametryne, 2
+ Amoco oil 1.3 gpa
+ Amoco oil 4.0
+ Orchex 1.3 gpa
+ Orchex 4.0
+ Sinc-oil 1.3 gpa
+ Sinc-oil 4.0
+ Sun lHE 1.3 gpa
+ Sun 11E 4.0
diuron, 2
+ Amoco oil 1.3 gpa
+ Orchex 1.3 gpa
+ Sinc-oil 1.3 gpa
+ Sun liE 1.3 gpa
+ AL-411 1 gpa
TH-407H, 1 pt
+ Sun lHE 1.3 gpa
TH-417H, 1 pt
+ Sun 11E 1.3 gpa
atrazine, 2
+ AL-411, 1 qt
2 qt
4 qt
ametryne, 2
+ AL-411, 1 qt
2 qt
4 qt
ametryne, + 2,4-D,
+ S %*
atrazine, + 2,4-D,
+ S %
dalapon, 4 + 2,4-D, 1h
dal-TCA, 4 + 2,4-D, 1

*S = X-114 surfactant


Crop Tolerance
S corn F corn Sorghum


100% 100%
100 100


100%
100


Annual Weed Control
Panicum Goosegr B'leaf


100%
0


100% 100%
0 0


62
62
75
87
37
50
37
75

100
100
100
100
87
100
100
100

87
62
50
25
37


75 75

75 87


100
75
87


87
100
100
100
12
75
25
37

100
100
100
100
0
100
100
100

0
100
100
0
0


0 12

0 12


87
100
100

100
100
100


25 12

62 62


75 62

75 25
62 37
62 25






- 8-


Table 5. Response of crops and weeds to postemergence applied herbicidal
treatments. Values are percentages of untreated controls at ten
days after application.


Herbicidal Treatment
Rate lb/Aai or % ai
Handweeded control
Unweeded control

atrazine, 2
+ Aqua-Gro 1%
+ Aqua-T 1%
+ Tween 20 1%
+ AL-209 1%
+ AL-210 1%
+ AL-509 1%
+ Adju-Saf 1%
+ Adjuvant-T 1%
+ X-77 1%
+ Buffer-X 1%
+ Tronic 1%
+ EmulAgt-A 1%
+ Surf-WK 1%
+ CO-630 1%
+ X-100 1%
+ X-114 1%
+ X-207 1%
+ Folicote 1%
+ T-Mulz A02 1%
+ NPX 1%
+ TMN 1%
+ 15-S-9 1%
+ WetAgt 1-X 1%
+ AS-31266A 1%
atrazine, 2 + X-114 1%
atrazine, 2 + X-114 7/8%
+ isopropanol 1/8%
atrazine, 2 + X-114 3/4%
+ isopropanol 1/4%
atrazine, 2 + X-114 %
+ isopropanol %
Atrazine, 2
+ Adju-Saf 1%
+ Adju-Saf .5%
+ Adju-Saf .3%
ametryne, + 2,4-D,
+ S %*
atrazine, 1 + 2,4-D,
+ S 3%
dalapon, 4 + 2,4-D, 1
dal-TCA, 4 + 2,4-D, 1.

* S = X-114 Surfactant


Crop Tolerance
S corn F corn Sorghum


100% 100%
100 100


50
62
62
50
87
100
100
87
37
87
75
75
62
37
50
87
75
75
62
87
87
62
50
87


50
62
75
62
100
87
100
87
87
87
50
75
75
50
87
87
75
75
75
87
87
50
75
62


100%
100


Annual
Panicum
100%
0


Weed Control
Goosegr B'leaf
100% 100%
0 0


62
75
75
75
87
87
87
75
75
100
75
87
75
62
75
87
87
87
75
75
75
75
62
75


75 62

75 75

87 87

62 50


25 25

50 50


F50
F50
P50


F37
F25


F37
F37


12 87

0 87

0 87

12 100


75 87

87 100
75 25
75 25






-9-


Table 6. Superior herbicidal treatments at 20 days after postemergence
application. Values are percent control.

Annual Weed Control/
Herbicidal Treatment, Rate Ib/Aai or % ai Grass B'leaf

pryiclor, 1 100% 100%
terbacil, 2 + Surf-WK, 2% 87 100
atrazine, + 2,4-D, + S %* 75 87
prometryne, h + 2,4-D, + S % 87 87
norea, 1 + 2,4-D, + S 1% 75 62
CP-41820, 2 75 12
CP-41820, 2 + S 1% 87 25
ametryne, + 2,4-D, + S -% 87 87
ametryne, 2 + Amoco oil, 1.3 gpa 92 100
ametryne, 2 + Amoco oil, 4 gpa 92 100
ametryne, 2 + Orchex, 1.3 gpa 100 100
ametryne, 2 + Orchex, 4 gpa 100 100
ametryne, 2 + Sinc-oil, 1.2 gpa 87 100
ametryne, 2 + Sine-oil, 4 gpa 100 100
ametryne, 2 + Sun IE, 1.3 gpa 92 100
ametryne, 2 + Sun 11E, 4 gpa 100 100
diuron, 2 + Orchex, 1.3 gpa 75 100
diuron, 2 + Orchex, 1.3 gpa 75 100
dalapon, 4 + 2,4-D, 1 75 87
dal-TCA, 4 + 2,4-D, 1 75 87
ametryne, 2 + AL-411, 1 qt 82 100
ametryne, 2 + AL-411, 2 qt 92 100
ametryne, 2 + AL-411, 4 qt 87 100
atrazine, 2 + Tronic, 1% 75 75
ametryne, 2 75 100
ametryne, 3 87 100
ametryne, 4 87 100


/ Principally panicum, goosegrass and spiny amaranth.

S = X-114 surfactant








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