Group Title: Mimeo Report - University of Florida Everlgades Experiment Station ; 69-17
Title: Some celery responses to fertilizer levels and soil test results
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067458/00001
 Material Information
Title: Some celery responses to fertilizer levels and soil test results
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 13 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Burdine, Howard W., 1909-
Guzman, V. L ( Victor Lionel ), 1914-
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Celery -- Soils -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Celery -- Fertilizers -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.W. Burdine and V.L. Guzman.
General Note: "May 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067458
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 63762604

Full Text
/OO0




Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES69-17 May 1969

tJ~-=M.UM~mi--l --"l *"r '**"""-- l ll' --M-i-s^.
SOME CELERY RESPONSES t0 EP gT E fEl

AND SOIL TEOT RESULTS
MiVAY 2 61S jG
H. I'. Burdine and V. L. Guzman
I I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florid.

Soil tests by methods used at the Everglades Experiment Station have been
used for more than twenty years to predict vegetable crop response to fertilizer
application. One of the primary values of a soil test is that it estimates
residual plant nutrients available for plant use, and makes it possible to
calculate additional amounts of nutrients required for maximum yields and quality
of specific crops.

There are many types of extracting solutions used in soil test procedures.
The most important consideration is the correlation of yields and qualities of
individual crops with the relative amounts of nutrients extracted by the parti-
cular extracting solution used in a particular test. The large variability in
soil types in this country explains partly the diversity of extracting solutions
used. The particular extractants used at the Everglades Experiment Station were
chosen for these organic soils after much experimental work with many types of
extracting solutions. There may or may not be a close relationship between
different extracting solutions and methods; however, the issue of primary impor-
tance is the above mentioned correlation of crop responses to the varying
amounts of the elements in question found in a particular extractant. To
obtain such correlation data, painstaking factorial experiments are required.
Correlations have been made for 10 or 12 vegetable crops at the Everglades
Experiment Station.

Another factor affecting crop response to applied nutrients are variety
responses that differ measurably from responses obtained from previously used
standard varieties. This was noted when Everglades celery growers switched
from the Summer Pascal types to a Utah type. The following data was obtained
from two experiments conducted to determine response of the Utah celery and
selections used commercially in the Everglades celery growing area.

Experimental Results

A. Experiment on virgin soil.

The first experiment was conducted on virgin soil in the Gladeview area.
The experimental area was considered to be a virgin sawgrass area. This experi-
ment was conducted with one variety, Fla. 2-13, grown on plots on which 3 levels
of phosphorus, 3 levels of potassium, and 3 levels of nitrogen were applied.
Phosphorus was applied at rates of 80, 280 and 480 pounds of P 05 per acre.
Potassium was applied at rates of 370, 570 and 770 pounds of KO2 per acre.
These elements were broadcast and disked in before transplanting along with
25.0, 12.5, 7.5, 5.0 and 12.5 pounds per acre of CuO, MnO, B203, ZnO and Fe203








-2-

respectively. Nitrogen was sidedressed at rates of 0, 75 and 150 pounds per
acre, 42 days after transplanting. The water table was maintained at about 18
inches. However, during the latter part of the growing period, soil in the
root zone was considered to be on the dry side. It is believed this may
explain much of the magnitude in yield differences between this experiment and
the second which was conducted on soil with several years cropping history.








3 -

Table 1. Soil test results before and after fertilization of a virgin sawgrass
peat soil. Phosphorus was extracted with water, potassium with
0.5N acetic acid.


Phosphorus Sampling
as P2 0 before or Potassium in pounds K20 per acre
in pounds after fer-
per acre tilization 370 570 770 Ave.


a. Phosphorus levels

before

after I;


before

after


before

after


b. Potassium levels

before

after 1


80




280




480







80




280




480


6

30


7

40+


29

49


23

149


22

164


23

205


21

194


24

205


24

260


23

287


26

249


8

40+


25

205


22

210


24

206


Ave. before 25

after 154

Soil pH ranged from 5.8 to 6.0

pH data are not given in detail as
conduct of this experiment.


23

201


24

265


soil pH did not measurably change during the


before

after


before

after








- 4 -


Table 2.


Average estimated yields in crates per acre of Fla. 2-13 celery grown
on virgin sawgrass peat with 3 levels of phosphorus and 3 levels of
potassium.


Phosphorus Potassium levels as pounds per acre K20
as pounds
per acre P205 370 570 770 Ave.

80 595 611 628 611

280 619 633 643 632

480 604 632 633 623


Ave. 606 625 635








Table 3. Number of cracked petioles on 30 plants of Fla. 2-13 celery grown on
virgin sawgrass peat with varying potassium and nitrogen levels.


Nitrogen Potassium as pounds per acre K20
as pounds per
acre of N 370 570 770 Ave.

0 59 61 67 62

75 57 63 73 64

150 71 77 78 75


62 67


Ave.








-5 -


Table 4. Percent of Fla. 2-13 celery plants with pencil
by nitrogen and phosphorus treatments.


stripe as influenced


Nitrogen applied Phosphorus as pounds P205 per acre
in pounds N
per acre 80 280 480 Ave.

0 20.2 23.3 21.6 21.7

75 18.5 25.0 25.8 23.1

150 19.9 29.3 29.1 26.1


Ave.


19.5


25.9


25.5


Soil potassium levels did not significantly affect pencil stripe severity.


Table 5. Phosphorus
P, dry wt.
treatments


content of Fla. 2-13
basis, at harvest as
on virgin Everglades


celery outer petiole tissue as percent
influenced by phosphorus and potassium
peat.


Phosphorus Potassium applied as pounds K20 per acre
applied as pounds
P205 per acre 370 570 770 Ave.

80 .68 .66 .70 .68

280 .81 .83 .79 .81

480 .90 .86 .85 .87


.80 .78


Ave.










-6-


Table 6. Potassium content as percent K,
grown on varying P and K levels


dry wt. basis, of Fla. 2-13 celery
on virgin Everglades peat.


Phosphorus applied Potassium applied as pounds K20 per acre
as pounds P205
per acre 370 570 770 Ave.

80 5.61 6.18 6.74 6.18

240 5.51 6.22 7.15 6.29

480 5.74 6.17 6.61 6.17


5.62 6.19


Ave.


6.83









7 -

B. Experiment on soil with a cropping history.

A second experiment is reported below because it was conducted on soil
that had been cultivated periodically over a period of many years. However,
fertilizer used on this area before this experiment had not been heavy. This
experiment was located on the Experiment Station Farm, in Field F2E 5 and 6.
This experiment was a variety x P x K x maturity factorial. 'Nitrogen as
ammonium nitrate was sidedressed uniformly to all plots at the rate of 133
pounds of N per acre, 42 days after transplanting. Micronutrients in each
fertilizer mixture were also supplied at 10.0, 7.5 and 7.5 pounds per acre of
MnO, B20 and Zn0 respectively. Plots were harvested March 27 28, April 3 4
and April 10 11.








-8-


Table 7. Effect of varying phosphorus and potassium levels on soil test values
from a celery experiment in a field with a cropping history.


Phosphorus Potassium applied as K20 in pounds per acre
applied in pounds
P205 per acre 200 400 600 Ave.


a. soil pH

before
after

before
after

before
after

before
after


5.93
5.66

5.93
5.63

5.93
5.62

5.93
5.64


5.89
5.62

5.92
5.61

5.90
5.58

5.90
5.60


5.93
5.64

5.93
5.58

5.90
5.57

5.90
5.60


5.92
5.64

5.93
5.61

5.91
5.59


b. Phosphorus, lbs. water soluble per acre


before
after

before
after

before
after

before
after


9
40+


9
40+


c. Potassium, lbs. 0.5 acetic acid soluble per acre


before
after

before
after

before
after

before
after


500


Ave.


Ave.


500


Ave.









-9-


Table 8. Estimated yields in 60 pound crates of celery per acre of three
celery varieties as influenced by varying phosphorus levels.


Phosphorus as pounds P205 per acre

Variety 100 300 500 Ave.

Utah 52-70 996 1061 1055 1037

Fla. 2-13 1105 1095 1120 1107

Fla. 683 1092 1130 1115 1112


Ave. 1064 1095 1097









Table 9. Estimated yields in 60 pound crates of celery per acre of three
celery varieties as influenced by varying potassium levels.


Potassium as pounds K20 per acre

Variety 200 400 600 Ave.

Utah 52-70 941 1077 1094 1037

Fla. 2-13 1032 1123 1165 1107

Fla. 683 1011 1149 1177 1112


Ave. 994 1116 1145








10 -

Table 10. Phosphorus content of outer petiole
as influenced by phosphorus levels.


tissue, percent of dry weight,


P applied in pounds P205 per acre

Variety 100 300 500 Ave.

Utah 52-70 .50 .60 .64 .58

Fla. 2-13 .52 .58 .65 .58

Fla. 683 .51 .59 .63 .58


Ave. .51 .59 .64









Table 11. Potassium content of outer petiole tissue, percent of dry weight as
influenced by potassium levels.


K applied in pounds K20 per acre

Variety 200 400 600 Ave.

Utah 52-70 6.24 7.94 8.93 7.70

Fla. 2-13 6.52 7.76 8.88 7.72

Fla. 683 6.37 7.99 9.05 7.80


Ave. 6.38 7.90 8.95








- 11 -


Table 12. Number of pithy petioles per plant on three celery varieties as
influenced by potassium levels.


K applied as pounds K20 per acre

Variety 200 400 600 Ave.

Utah 52-70 4.5 3.4 3.0 3.7

Fla. 2-13 5.1 4.3 3.9 4.4

Fla. 683 5.8 4.5 3.8 4.7


Ave. 5.1 4.1 3.6









Table 13. Number of cracked petioles on 30 plants of three celery varieties
as influenced by potassium levels.


K applied as pounds K20 per acre

Variety 200 400 600 Ave.

Utah 52-70 16 26 32 25

Fla. 2-13 28 41 47 38

Fla. 683 6 10 13 9


Ave. 17 26 31







- 12 -


Table 14.


Percent of plants of three celery varieties with pencil stripe as
influenced by phosphorus levels.


P applied as pounds P205 per acre

Variety 100 300 500 Ave.

Utah 52-70 1.2 2.4 3.6 2.4

Fla. 2-13 2.2 4.9 8.2 5.1

Fla. 683 0.6 1.5 2.4 1.5


Ave. 1.4 2.9 4.7


DISCUSSION

Differences in yield magnitude between the two experiments, point up the
need for good cultural practices, particularly in the areas of water management
and disease control for economic fertilizer use by celery. in this experiment
the root zone was much drier during latter part of the growing period. The
water table was maintained at about 18 inches. One of the chief reasons for
the large differences in yield between the two experiments was no doubt the
slower water movement from the water table into the root zone because of lower
capillary attraction in the relatively undecomposed virgin soil. Celery res-
ponds to large amounts of phosphorus and potassium on these soils, however good
management practices are necessary to get favorable economic returns from these
high rates of fertilizer. Good disease and water control are primary factors.

Phosphorus levels by soil test were higher in both experiments than pre-
dicted. In the first experiment, pH change was small. However it is well
known that less phosphorus is required per unit of change in virgin organic
soil than in those soils with a few years cropping history. In the second
experiment the pH decreased about 0.3 unit which increased phosphorus avail-
ability and soil test values.
SUMMARY

1. On the virgin soil with no significant pH change, about 13 pounds P 20 were
required to raise soil test values 1 pound of P per acre. On the soil with a
cropping history and a pH drop from 5.9 to 5.6, about 15 pounds of P205 was
required to raise soil test phosphorus values 1 pound P per acre.

2. On the virgin soil about 3 pounds of K 0 were required to raise soil test
values 1 pound K per acre while on the soil with several years cropping history,
about 2 pounds of K20 were required to raise soil tests an equivalent amount.









- 13 -


3. Pencil striping significantly increased with increasing levels of both phos-
phorus and nitrogen in the first experiment, and with increasing phosphorus
levels in the second where nitrogen was used uniformly.

4. Nodal cracking increased significantly with increased potassium levels in
both experiments.

5. Phosphorus and potassium recommendations for celery on these soils are to
apply sufficient amounts of these elements to bring Everglades Experiment Station
soil test levels of P to 25 pounds and K to 350 pounds after fertilizer applica-
tion.

6. Outer petiole tissue content of P should be about 0.50%, and of K about 8.00%,
dry weight basis, at maturity for maximum growth and yields of this crop.

































EES69-17
550 copies




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs