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Group Title: Mimeo Report - University of Florida Everlgades Experiment Station ; EES64-5
Title: Vitamins and minerals and their interrelationships
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067445/00001
 Material Information
Title: Vitamins and minerals and their interrelationships
Series Title: Everglades Station Mimeo Report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chapman, H. L ( Herbert L. ), 1923-
Everglades Experiment Station
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Belle Glade Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Nutrition -- Requirements -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 8).
Statement of Responsibility: H. L. Chapman, Jr.
General Note: "October, 1963."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067445
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 63670821

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Full Text
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Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES64-5 cOtb 1963
Vitamins and Minerals and Their Interrelationships ,//. .
b "
H. L. Chairman, Jr.
Everglades Experiment Station if

The field of nutrition has been greatly expanded since the di ery o9She
first vitamin. Both livestock producer and nutritionist have recog ed the heed
for properly balanced rations for optimum livestock production. Thishas been
accompanied by a realization that many nutrients are interrelated. More mad more
of these interrelationships are being discovered each year and as knowledge and
information continues to accumulate it is probable that most, if not all, of our
nutrients will be shown to be interrelated with one another. Animals have its
ability to adapt to certain conditions and it is possible that the nutritional
interrelationships will be affected by these adaptations. For example, recent work
has shown that the thyroid gland may compensate by increasing in size when the
metabolic activity is hindered by excessive nitrate nitrogen. It has also been
shown that additions of vitamin A and iodine assist in overcoming the stress of
the additional nitrate nitrogen. During periods of inadequate feed intake or poor
health the interrelationships may be changed. The presence of toxic materials in
the diet may alter the relationships. The increased utilization of feed additives
such as antibiotics will also affect the need for certain nutrients. All of these
factors only emphasize the fact that all nutrients -- proteins, fats, carbohydrates,
vitamins, and minerals -- are closely associated in their metabolism.

It is important that the interrelationship of each of these major classes of
nutrients be understood if the nutritional requirements of livestock are to be
properly evaluated. It is also necessary to be familiar with the nutritional
requirements of the various classes of livestock, the factors affecting these
requirements, and the physical manifestations of their deficiencies if nutritional
imbalances and deficiencies are to be separated from disease or other stress factors.

There are more thorough discussions of the nutritional needs of livestock
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 .8, 9, 10) and the purpose of this discussion will be to
briefly discuss the various vitamins, the essential minerals and the interrelation-
ships of these vitamins and minerals. Also, the practical implications of these
interrelationships to cattle and swine production will be discussed briefly.
Minerals
A number of mineral elements are essential to the normal function of animal
life. Some of these are referred to as "macro" elements (calcium and phosphorus)
and some as "micro", "minor" or "trace" elements. These connotations are sometimes
misleading since the total amount of an element needed by livestock is not nec-
essarily an indice of the relative importance of the element to the nutritional
well-being of an individual.

An understanding of the functions of mineral elements is necessary if their
interrelations are to be properly evaluated. The currently recognized functions of
the 15 known essential mineral elements are summarized in Table 1. Undoubtedly
other functions will be attributed to these elements as additional research is
conducted.

a) Presented at nutrition schools for veterinarians and county agents in Belle
Glade, Bartow, and Orlando, Florida, October 1563.


b) Animal Nutritionist.










Table 1. Summary of functions of essential mineral elements


Element

Calcium


Phosphorus


Function

Skeletal tissue formation.
Necessary for proper rumen microorganism
function.
Vital electrolyte of body fluid.
Blood clotting.
Proper heart action.
Neuromuscular excitability.
Enzyme activation.
Milk production.

Skeletal tissue formation.
Component of high-energy phosphorus compounds.
Necessary for proper rumen microorganism
function.
Vital electrolyte of body fluid.
Component in lipid metabolism.
Necessary in carbohydrate metabolism.
Constituent of nucleo-proteins.
Component of many enzyme systems.

Essential for erythropoiesis.
Component of many enzyme systems.
Proper central nervous system function.
Essential for bone tissue metabolism.
Part of certain body pigments.
Proper heart functioning.
Essential for proper rumen microorganism
function.


Copper


Cobalt


Component of vitamin B12.
Necessary for proper rumen
function.


microorganism


Component of hemoglobin.
Component of many enzyme system.


Sodium and Chlorine


Magnesium


Potassium


Essential buffer of cellular and extra-
cellular fluids.
Maintenance of proper osmotic pressure of
body fluids.

Enzyme activator.
Essential electrolyte of body fluids.
Constituent of skeletal tissue.

Principle cation of bcdy cells.
Maintain proper electrolyte balance.
Enzyme activator.


Iron









Functions

Enzyme activator.


Manganese


Sulfur


Iodine

Selenium a


Enzyme activator.
Normal skeletal formation.

Essential for protein metabolism.
Important intracellular anion.

Normal thyroid gland function.


Essential, but mode of action unclear.
Prevents exudative diathesis in chicks.
Prevents necrotic liver degeneration in rats.
Controls white muscular disease in ruminants.


Molybdenum a


Constituent of xanthine oxidase.


a) Selenium and molybdenum are potentially toxic to livestock.


Element


Zinc









Table 2. Summary of functions of vitamins.


Vitamin


Water Soluble Vitamins


C (Ascorbic acid)






Thiamine (B1)





Riboflavin (B2 G)


Niacin


Pyridoxine (B6)




Pantothenic acid



Choline


Inositol


Involved in connective tissue formation.
Prevention of scurvy.
Interrelated with fat and protein metabolism.
Intercellular constituent.
Anti-oxidant
Sperm motility.

Essential in CHO metabolism.
Constituent of enzrmne systems.
Prevents beri-beri.
Involved in nerve function.
Involved in normal heart function.

Constituent of many enzyme systems.
Involved in visual processes.

Prevents pellagra.
Constituent of enzyme systems.

Necessary for normal adrenal-cortical function.
Growth factor.
Component of many enzyme systems.
Necessary for normal vision.

Necessary for normal skin, central nervous
system and growth.
Component of many enzyme systems.

Involved in transmethylation reaction.
Lipotropic factor.
Precursor of acetylcholine.
Necessary for normal liver function.
Interrelated with other nutrients.


Lipotropic factor.


Biotin


Pteroylglutamic acid
(PGA, Folic acid)


p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA)


Growth factor.
Involved in many enzyme systems.

Growth factor.
Involved in hematapoieses.
Transmethylation factor.
Involved in enzyme systems.


Growth promoter.
Insufficient information about this vitamin.

Growth promoter.
Involved in hematopoises, transmethylation.


Function









Fat Soluble Vitamins:


Growth stimulant.
Maintains healthy epithelium.
Involved in enzyme systems.

Essential to skeletal development.
Involved in enzyme systems.

Anti-oxidant.
Enzyme constituent.
Necessary for normal reproduction.

Normal clotting of blood.


Interrelationships


As mentioned earlier, it
at least one other nutrient.
time. Some of the recognized

Nutrient


Copper


Sodium


Phosphorus


Calcium


Iodine


is probable that all nutrients are interrelated with
However, information is not this inclusive at this
relationships are listed below:

Related nutrients


Molybdenum
Phosphorus
Zinc
Manganese
Iron
Cobalt
Choline
Panothenic Acid
Vitamin A
Vitamin E


Potassium
Biotin
Phosphorus


Carbohydrate metabolism
Lipid metabolism
Protein metabolism
Molybdenum
Copper
Calcium
Vitamin D
Iron
Manganese


Phosphorus
Vitamin D


Nitrate nitrogen
Vitamin A










Nutrient

Sulfur


Magnesium


Potassium


Related nutrients


Protein metabolism.
Copper.

Phosphorus (DNA)
Thyroxine.


Phosphorus
Amino acids


Zinc


Carbohydrate metabolism
(DPN and TPN)


Manganese


CHO, fat, and protein metabolism
(as enzyme activator)


Biotin


Choline


Krebs cycle
Amino acid deamination


Transmethylation
Lipid metabolism
Methionine


Vitamin E


Inositol


Fatty acid metabolism
Vitamin A


Thiamine
Fat metabolism
Choline
Vitamin E


Pyridoxine


Riboflavin


Protein metabolism
Trypthophane--Niacin
Fatty acid metabolism

Thiamine
Niacin
Protein metabolism

CHO metabolism
Phosphorus metabolism


Thiamine


PGA (Folic acid)


Vitamin C


Pantothenic acid


Methionine
Cystine
Pyridoxine
Tyrosine
Vitamin C


Tyrosine
PGA


Vitamin B
Protein metabolism
Ascorbic acid









Nutrient Related nutrients

Niacin Vitamin Bg
Tryptophane
Riboflavin

Vitamin A Vitamin E

Vitamin B2 PGA
Ascorbic acid
Choline (and Betaine)
Methionine

Protein
Fat and CHO
Homocystine
Cobalt

Applied Significant of Nutrient Interrelationships

The obvious question arises as to what this information means to the
livestock producer in Florida. Many of the essential nutrients for swine
and cattle are natural constituents of the diet or are synthesized in the
gastro-intestinal tract. However, some of the essential nutrients need to
be provided as supplements to the available feed or forage. Cattle in
Florida should be provided supplemental calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron,
cobalt, trace mineralized salt, and Vitamin A. Currently available infor-
mation does not indicate a need for a supplemental source of other minerals
and vitamins for cattle in this state.

Swine should be provided supplemental calcium, phosphorus, trace
mineralized-iodized salt, manganese, zinc, copper, iron, niacin, ribo-
flavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B, vitamins A and D, and possibly
choline (if a heavy corn ration is uilized) and possibly pteroylgutamie
acid. Other minerals and vitamins are usually furnished by feeds or
synthesized by the animal.








REFERENCE MATERIAL

1. Barnett, A. J. G. and R. L. Reid. 1961. Reactions in the rumen. Edward
Arnold Publishers, Ltd., London.

2. Chapman, H. L., Jr. and R. W. Kidder. 1963. Copper and cobalt for beef cattle.
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. (IN PROCESS OF PUBLICATION).

3. Chapman, H. L., Jr., R. W. Kidder, C. E. Haines, R. J. Allen, Jr., V. E. Green,
Jr., and W. T. Forsee, Jr. 1963. Commercial beef cattle production on organic
soil of South Florida. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 662.

4. Chapman, H. L., Jr., F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley and T. J. Cunha.
1963. Supplemental feeding of beef cattle on pasture in South Florida. Fla.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 655.

5. Cunha, T. J. 1957. Swine feeding and nutrition. Interscience Publishers,
Inc., New York.

6. Cunha, T. J., R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. B. Ammerman, G. K. Davis,
.W. G.. Kirk and J. F. Hentges, Jr. 1963. Minerals for beef cattle in Florida.
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. (IN PROCESS OF PUBLICATION)

7. .Eddy, W. H. 1949. Vitaminology. Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore,
Maryland.

8. Lewis,;D. 1961. Digestive physiology and nutrition of the ruminant.
Butterworths, London.

9. Maynard, L. A. and J. K. Loosli. 1956. Animal nutrition, 4th edition.
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.

10. Morrison, F. B. 1956. Feeds and feeding, 22nd edition. The Morrison
Publishing Co., Ithaca, New York.

















EES Mimeo 64-5
400 copies




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