Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES 64-9 January 1964\
EQUIPMENT FOR SUGARCANE HERBICIDE APPLICATION -
J..R. Orsenigo and T. W. Casselman 2 I
An effective sugarcane weed control program requires selection of the right
chemical and then accurate application with the proper equipment. Equipment for
maximum benefits from herbicidal chemicals differs from common fungicide-insecti-
cide sprayers. Premergence chemicals are applied broadcast over the sugarcane
field while postemergence chemicals may be applied broadcast over cane and weeds
or may be band-applied only to the plant row. Some chemicals will cause injury to
the sugarcane plant if not applied directionallyy" to avoid wetting the cane foliage
Recommended and suggested chemicals and appropriate application methods are given
in EES Mimeo Report 64-8 and are supplemented by the manufacturer's chemical label.
The suggestions herein will assist sugarcane growers in choosing, modifying
and operating weed control spray units.
SHORT GLOSSARY OF HERBICIDE TERMINOLOGY
Band application using the herbicide in a narrow, continuous strip in, over or
along the crop row rather than over the entire field area.
Broadcast application using the herbicide over an entire field or area.
Directed application using an herbicide in a restricted location such as the
crop row or bed at the base of plants to avoid wetting plant foliage.
Overall application applying an herbicide from directly above plants.
Post-emergence treatment application after crop plants emerge. Treatments may
also be specified as post emergence to weeds or both crop and weeds.
Pre-emergence treatment application after a crop is planted but before it emerges.
Treatments may be specified pre-emergence to weeds or both crops and
Treatments may be specified pre-emergence to weeds but post emergence
to the crop. Usually, pre-emergence treatments are made before both
crop and weeds emerge. Contact pre-emergence treatments kill emerged
weeds by contact action and are applied before the crop comes up.
Residual pre-emergence treatments kill weeds as their seeds germinate
or as they emerge, either before or after crop come-up.
Pre-planting treatment application of an herbicide before planting a crop.
1. A revision of part of EES Mimeo Report 62-5. This mimeo suggests methods
of applying herbicides recommended or suggested in EES Mimeo Report 64-8.
2. Associate Horticulturist and Assistant Agricultural Engineer, University
of Florida, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida.
USE CAUTION WHEN APPLYING 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
Chlorophenoxy herbicides are capable of causing injury to sensitive vegetable,
fruit and ornamental crops several miles from the actual spraying site. Suggestions
for safe, effective use of these chemicals are given in EES Mimeo Report 64-12.
BASIC SPRAYING EQUIPMENT
.Satisfactory results may be obtained with liquid spray equipment using flat-
fan herbicide nozzles and operating with a spray volume of 20 to 60 gpa at 20 to
40 psi. Many combinations of tractor speeds and nozzle tips will accomplish this
range of pressure and gallonage rates. Generally, spray drift is minimized by low
pressures and large nozzles which deliver coarse spray. Pressures and spray
volumes greater than listed are not necessary and may prevent best chemical
performance. Most fungicide and insecticide sprayers are poorly adapted for
Essential sprayer components are: herbicide tank with by-pass return for
agitation; foot and/or line strainer; nylon roller or multiple piston pump adequate
for number of rows to be carried; pressure regulator and guage; quick-acting
shut-off valve; hose and fittings; and flat-fan type herbicide nozzle tips.
TABLE FOR CHECKING SPRAYER CALIBRATION BROADCAST BOOM APPLICATION
(Please see page 3 for general calibration procedure)
Volume of spray Gallons applied per acre
delivered by 1 when nozzle tip spacing on boom is
nozzle in 300 ft. 15 inches 18 inches 21 inches
.24 ounces 22 -
28 25 21 -
32 (1 qt) 29 24 21
36 32' 27 23
40 36 30 26
44 40- 32 28
48 (1 qt.) 44 36 31
52 47 39 34
56. 51 42 36
60 54 45 39
64 (2 qt.) 58 48 42
68 62 51 44
72 65 55 47
76 69 57 49
Example: Nozzles are spaced 18 inches apart on a spray boom.
A single tip delivers 68 ounces of spray solution
in a 300 foot run across a field. Locate 68 in the
left-hand column and read across to the 18 inch
spacing column to find that output was 51 gpa. Check
more than one tip to ensure correct calibration.
SPRAYER CALIBRATION GENERAL PROCEDURE BROADCAST SPRAYING
Initial calibration of a sprayer may be accomplished easily as follows:
1. Adjust nozzles, spraying pressure and tractor speed as they are to be operated
in the field.
2. Fill herbicide tank completely with water.
3. With tractor operating as in number (1) above, spray water over a measured
course of several hundred yards in a field prepared for planting.
4. Determine amount of water required to refil tank to replace that sprayed over
the measured course.
5. Calculate area sprayed: boom spread in feet times distance travelled in feet.
6. From (4) and (5) above calculate quantity of water applied per acre:
Galle 43560 sq. ft. x gallons of water sprayed (14)
Gallons/acre = area sprayed ()
area sprayed (175)
7. Rate of application per acre can be decreased by: smaller nozzle tips, lower
pressure or faster tractor speed.
8. Rate of application per acre can be increased by: larger nozzle tips,
greater pressure or slower tractor speed.
9. Complete calibration by repeatedly adjusting and testing unit until desired
gallonage per acre is reached.
Example: A sprayer carries a swath 20 feet wide. When driven over
870 feet it sprays 20 gallons of water.
Gallons/acre = 43560 sq. ft x 20 gallons = 50 gallons/acre
20 feet x W70 feet
10. Add desired quantity of herbicide per acre to amount of water applied per
acre when filling spray tank.
11. Keep a running check on calibration by occasional testing and by records
of amount of herbicide used to treat each block. Calibration may also be checked
with the table on page 2.
CALIBRATION OF BROADCAST GRANULAR HERBICIDE APPLICATORS
Equipment for band application of granular herbicides is available widely
but broadcast granular applicators are not common.
1. Adjust delivery openings on applicator at estimated or approximate
setting and fill hopper iwth chemical to be applied.
2. Set tractor or unit speed as it will be operated in the field.
3. Operate unit over a measured course of several hundred yards in a fitted
field while collecting the granules discharged with pails or a trough under the
4. Accurately weigh the amount of chemical delivered. Individual or separate
units should be adjusted to deliver identical amounts.
5. Calculate the area that would have been treated over the course: multiply
swath width in feet by distance covered in feet. This equals area of the measured,
treated course in square feet.
6. From (#4) and (#5) above calculate the amount of granules applied per acre
Pounds per acre 3560 sq. ft. x pounds granules applied over course (
Pounds per acre area of measured course in square feet (#5)
This value is pounds per acre (Ibs./a) of granular formulation applied. To
determine amount of active ingredient applied multiply pounds per acre by percent
active ingredient and divide by 100 as follows:
Slb/A granules from above x % active
Pounds per acre active = 100
7. Rate of application is increased by wider delivery openings or lower
8. Rate of application is decreased by narrower delivery openings or higher
9. Complete calibration by repeatedly adjusting and testing unit until
desired quantity of granules is delivered. Individual or separate units should.
have identical output.
10. Keep a running check on calibration by occasional testing and by records
of amount of herbicide formulation used to treat each block.
Example: A granular chemical applicator treats a swath 10 feet wide. When
operated over a distance of 870 feet the output was 10 pounds of
43560 sq. ft. x 10 pounds granules 50 Ib/A granules
Pounds per acre = 0 feet x 870 feet
If the active ingredient concentration of the granules was 20%, the rate of
active material applied per acre was:
Pounds per acre = 50 lb/A granules x 20fo = 10 lb/A active.
EES Mimeo 64-9
DIRECTED APPLICATION OF HERBICIDES WITH NOZZLES MOUNTED ON TOOL-BAR SKIDS
(Adapted from units at Fellsmere Div., Okeelanta Sugar Refinery)
/, ~-1. Tractor tool-bar- -.- .. -,
S1/,,.--2. Universal joint to permit'.z---
swing and rise-fall action
3. 2-inch pipe "leg" --_.t>.
-- t. Chemical hose
\\ i from pump or )
-e-5. "Tee-Jet" type /
double-swrivel nozzle .
bodies on sliding .-"
leg clamp. -,
MANUAL DIRECTED APPLICATION WIT- ,- AND-HED SPRAY GU, .S FM fSPRAYE
MANUAL DIRECTED APPLICATION WITH HAND-HEID SPRAY GUNS FROM POWER SPRAYER
-< Hand spray gun and
^, -. '. J T
It is preferable to use trigger-controlled hand. spray guns with "Tee-Jet"-type
flat-fan herbicide nozzle tips. Operators walking behind power sprayer apply
herbicides on weeds as needed using caution to avoid wetting sugarcane foliage.
1/ 4 \\.,
EES DOW SHIELDED SPRAY UNIT FOR DIRECTIONAL APPLICATION
S;.-- Lift chain
"'/ Tool bar &
2911 .--Coil spring
\ / ^^ Shield /
---- -Main frame
.1^-'' 1" pipe
^,---------- L8Qn -----------------^,\r
Rear view illustrating nozzle tip
placement and spray patterns.
EES DOW SHIELDED SPRAY UNIT FOR DIRECTIONAL APPLICATION
L--3/16" x 4" strap skid
0" x 1 1/2" strap frame
1/4" x 1 1/2" strap frame
BOOM ARRANGEMENT FOR BROADCAST
NOZZLE DROP ARRANGEMENT FOR
DIRECTED SPRAY APPLICATION
-_- Boom -
USE "Tee-Jet"*TYPE FIAT-FAN NOZZLE
TIPS. ADJUST BOOM HEIGHT SO THAT
THERE IS 1/4 to 1/3 NOZZLE PATTERN
OVERLAP TO ASSURE UNIFORM COVERAGE.
The same arrangement is used for
overall application of post emer-
gence herbicides like 2,h-D; The
boom should be raised, however, so
that the nozzle spray patterns
intercept above the tops of the weeds.
USE "Tee-JET"-TYPE FLAT-FAN
OR OFF-CENTER TIPS ADJUSTED
TO GIVE UNIFORM SPRAY DENSITY