A STUDY OF AMERICAN POLICIES AND NEGOTIATIONS
FOR AN INTEROCEANIC CANAL
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
.*, '. *. '
Siane the realisatinL of Colubusl dream of a estera ater roue
te the OriLent m have eavioaed a still shorter route. Finally,
after more tan four eenturies of eploratiot investigattier *epeou
atio sad noegtiatteiw the onstreuti S of an interooeeaio watenwa
through e Isotma of Puhsa has reduced the western water route fr
uarepe to Asia about eight thousaed miles. The lag history of the
istheia eaao project is filled with tantrure rem e*, and intrigue.
May movements end oeurreM ese ef the past four hndred years have at-
feted th oourse ot proj.ets for am Ameriesm istldmiam ena* The doe
teat of the lSpeaih Ardas, the levn Tears War, the Frzenh revelutima
ot 1848, the Oriman War, the Ameriosa Civil War, the westward movement
in the Iaited Statoe* the emopletie of the AmeriOes trenasoontinental
railroeds* the oastruettlet of the Sues Canal, sad the Spanish-nlerieen
Warm bal hbae art f ted the eal history.
This study 4ee naet purport to give a detailed au nt ef all the
41amei events w1h have shaped the historitl coursee of istaist di-
plemey. Xowevers these events hav not be neglected Where they in-
flusmee the terataem of Amorliean nal pelioloes ad the eondust of
Amelea isttbani nlegtitiiaus It would be lprestieable la the limits
fa a Master's thesis to ive a miateo doseriptie of all the eamal
sehemn, ~iasessins, and aterprirses ia Central Amries N nevertheless
the Waer has attempte to give a elear piotune of thbe vrious iypce
fe estepreisc beth private asd gveammetal out of wvMeh the Antelm
eithatie pelllete "ad m(gtiatins have evolved
This stal is aot as-ormn with tb hibtery of the eaiauertia
em asitatim in the Oasal semo or th tells preblesi Rather it
maidmr the diplemey whieh mae possible the soastruotiom of th e snal.
The purpose of this tudy is not to eeaem or to justify the astias at
aq indivliduoal or matime or groups of titdviduals or natimto but to
port truly the history of isrthli em~al diplemoy. It* therefore,
Medal h as toma *M plse ia this sherry, it is ely treat whMe
vital to a true derstaaditag of the aegetiattioe ,
The wri tr is gretly adebted to Dr. Jems Killer Leae, uader
whe diruetim this thet* s as witten, for his helpful eritleims
ut suggestioms, e tl above a11, for his understadiag uad aneeerage
amat. The writer wish alse to press his grsatefl appruiatie to
Lillia TurlSnte Neolteeh, his witf, and t the staft of the aiver-
ity to Florida Library for their helpful eoxperatipte
R. H. MI
I 'lbs Strt of thb strait' ....... ...............0 1
II ?be N~quts, Question *seauegeoeeeoe.4
III Tbs Diplumbte Oempvmine. of 18M0 ................. so
IV A %so& of Dip1.oy o...eese.o..e....... .7
V Shiftip InAmerisma Cal Ps.1...Pol....l.e 91
VI A Now Treaty ..1...,..1*,*..****.......,,.. 116
VIIIl *A Flight to ell..e....19....,............. 1
Appendri .......go......***. *eteeeo.eeeoeeeee.s. ee 306
Sibliogr aa sou
aTm B SOMT OF TMB TRAIT'
The desoriptiea f t wealth of Chia and Japea by Maro P.lo,
t liatrneduem f the Sempass tr the asUt, the awly disooeverd art
of satiilr agtint the vwlaa, ad the losing of the BlaLk Sea to the
mnrshats of OGmo by th Ottema Turks leb to te, revival of the theory
of the sptoriolty of the earth sad to he serol for a water route to
te Oriet.1 Ohristopher Columbuss, he Genoos navigator who o*hsploned
the sphortkety teory, toeo the first stp toward opening a wester
warkr rute to t 1 ore eastern part of the globe when he discovered
AmriMs. Colabus believed that h had relhe the **st ef India aad
that what afterward boeai huemo as Central Amrrita ostaied a sort
strait whMich wold lead to he wealth of the IUas It wa in seauh
ot a passage srs OCentral Anris that he mad his fourth and lat
voyage to the lw World in 508o. Celumbus died ushaldk I his belief
that a hiddem vwato y cd ites and for a deasdo ftllowig his death
Central Amries was oxplored in searhl of the strait
Ia 150?, Martin Woldsemnllor published a map of the ow World in
whi h he pietered North Amrlres sad loath Amnrio separated by a strait.
1. Baranrdu J. L., sad Iorbsh, A. 0., o e. of World Progre
t. lorbe*Lsadsay oharles Psma sad the C oanal s (her-
after refred to as Ptrb*eos-Lade
*. madariag. 0hristoobr 0*l4u BOiLA te Life o*f the Macani-
Ig 1e 10.
Nor s bhoy etf fto g Mw strait given up til after the 4isoveTry
er tihe ?ale O by Dalbes an ISeptmbr 25 1615.1 DIpite the
ftert that AmriP Tfpllml RedrigL do Btie, J ma Dia do lsolis
Virast Tamos PieseM Alasme do OJ4da Diego liNosuasr 0easalo do
ftada&o Louls d Mrnad, m A ethe S4 sougrt it ia vsla, adI a4 *
*ea2m *saBvr ito reported t have advoofste la 1517, the dicggig
of fa -mml, Oortes, s lat] as 114, still khoep to fiad natural
If the Strait is femda I shall hold it to be th greatest *s*r
viee I have ylt lWeredn It would maks the Ilag of I8pea maser
el y lnds that he Imgt *e11 hiaselt the Lord of the whole
The uaivs who teld Coelabm *f "narrow ple1s between tm
great bodies of wacr my hbav reforrd merely to an isthmus however
mere till exists amin t atives of OCntrl Anerite a belief per-
haps entirely legendary that thee was eme a watr rout heroes the
Itme s by mwy e ae Iman Ju Riv, LaB Iioearagu san LabD Muagu.,
to tw Bay tof reasem ad tha t 1 had bere oloose by veolomo stain.
AlthOgh it is possible that the natural strait my have existed merely
Lto ogad it is interesting to moto that the *cure of the mythical
I, Aer s, C. Le. #, Old PO *Asme s Castilla Del Ore 17-l9.
t. Pesrb Libassy, .
JohaMao, rMt Cat.ri e*f *e at M a 19, l I0, aMl T,
(hereafter refcrrlnej WS73SSSW -- --
hsetr, ** &-* Ts, lto La B5, (herefter re
ferred to ofas 8 t).
s5 eweema HBo B m N. N, t c ft3 4@ (herrafter referred to
5. leasess, I3.
7. Sumet, 1-3.
So Johmowa, 9.
strait ie eeetally that of the llioarasa route favored by Ameriesa
oagigrs, 1 d tha it ws the fear of volosane omptis whih played a
de0isiv role na its rojeotimn by Oomgress 1902 ia favor of th
All theso osploraties in sareh of a strait failed ad Cortes o*ea
*m to r1alie that th 'eeret of te Strait lay ia the digging of as
irtlain ansl. Although the waith of thw Orieat ws not sooa t pass
through the Ilsthma the3 ospIratioms ia *sarh t a strait led to the
establitsiat of everior roeds amser wbieh pased the gold sad silver
of Sth Arite for trmsfor to the treasure ship of 8pafna A orud
read we out oeansetiag ambre do itos with Pmm oa om after the found
iag of the latter sity and the esoloratims of Cort aftr the oa-
quest of eiioo, fielUitatet the establirgolut of a rout in tho roegi
of oehmawtopo,* Abott tho same tim th explorations of Davil pavr
the wy fot a route s roee the HNioargu eoatry. Although these lead
route boom i tHo nmelms of the ma omsirosal l ans of Cetrma Ameri
ttil the comypltiem of the Pna Railred sm Jamary 2 1856, piuas
tor ma iaater e arnalw weon rme ovu a the early sixteath oeatury.
By 1829, Samnota h prepare plro o fe tho mcc truetie of a soa l at
Pamuus sad the four possible major essal routem-*areim Pua m
1* ~ olOCN o loW M5th OCagrm e, let Soesiom*, Rport of thb
IthSi 18s-1i901 Wlft r. Jo* 0. Prosidol 1. YC17.
;to _08 Walmmr. gmw Commilske).
ts Bwu VarilUa, Phillippe'O Gro-i o PaUam. I0-10,
(horeafter referred to as u-a V ITS '--)
S. Start, 4. B.0 lati Amerios C Fd I 8MWtat** 8 (hre*
after referred to as Stw. u61 w7 -a
4. Bill 0. 2 jLos A55&tio. 54?. (hoereoafter referred
to as nill, ti).--
o. erboetLliadeay, 11.
Wisoas and TIlsmaepe-had bee indioatod by Gemra and Galvano.
Although sasedra died before he was able to present his plan to
Oharles V, the interest of the Spaish King had already been aroed4.
In 134, he orered Anadagoys, Governor of osata Finrm o Pna to
ae surveys in the valley et the Ohagres livor and ols ere lan order
to detwoia the feasibility of oennooeti th two ooeans by using the
navigable waters eaalabloe. Although Andageys report was utraorable
to dthe soatruties of a ossal, Charles V douared, in 1551, that mny of
the tour routes a d by Galvano was praetioal*8
In 18T, his muoosser Philip II sent Batista Antenlli to survey
the Iiearague route sad he reported ufaevorably.4 Philip then sub
Mittod th Anteelli report to the Deinoan Friars, who, unable to mks
an intelligent report attqepted to vor their ignoraes by a quotation
trea the Bibles IWMat God hath joied together let no man put asmnder.6
uIstead of eanoelfing thir ignorance of engineeriag matters they ado
it seeo questiaenble whthor they were able properly to interpret the
Bely oSriptureos tr the quotation oitod roters to marriages of huma
boingsI, t o oatiLaests. eHovrr, their report was satistetory to
Philip boease had begun to doubt the advisability of building a
oaal throu~ g Central Amrioae The growag sea power of Great Britain
ado a doubt his ability to control the oanal after it was opened,.
1. stuart Latin Ameria,. 66.
., ForbeswL ay X
.* 4Johas, 55.
S. Udrea-e 4-6.
NBsoe it suiteA his purposes to ocmludae that the eoastruoti of the
0crl would be *oetra7 to the Dirva Will.1 lot only did Philip abmndea
all s**hee tr the semetruetLm of a eaal aores the isthum, but be
tortbefo penalty of deaths ay me to venture up the maadlig or
Atrat Rivers Je ome should sek a better route asors the isteb
the th en erlm trail rem Pborte ello Psuuma,
oPr nearly half a century the i 0 aai pro~et wu tboo0 ia $8pdas
but la 1IU, Philip III direoote Diego Ferdris do Valtasee Goverao
ot OutilA 6del Ore, to miae a surv fow a soel by voy of the Gult of
Darit end the Atrate RiveTo As the mature of Valsso's report is un-
kanem it is important to the history of the esaml5
In 1Md, anglu d began to establish her power l tbo Caribbom,
whieh, bit for the misearriag of a letter treI hBry VII seOptlla the
oftr of Columbrs' wrrisee might have bs established ore them a
oaBtury Men eomsbalt earlier. During the English vwr with pain, 1 65
Oroemll sHt a fleet mtdr Pem satd Venables to operate s me the West
andian Islsands Alst without a blew they took the islead of Jamies,
Mhose lhit value them was its use as base for operate ias by Hary
Moran ud other burewano 8 8paln reserved to herself the mlrusive
petrilleg et trading with hlr Amrian ooloanis, but other nattios
a "Johem a -s* U 4
$* iT OB C, *** ft ma4 A8ister of rItish Progrt
engaged i trade with the Spanish oleaioes by illiit moas1 nglland
established a oamenal 'wdergromad railay' through sllusiam with the
Meeon Indianut O hose nom was trafotrmod int the Mosquito Indianae
bhey wre a hybrdl people of Indisan negpel sa Bnglish blood, who lived
along the **eat of Nioaragcua, British pirates established se4ttlmnt
A te *eoat of Itendure sad IIaragua, and a party of sdvontrers under
Udwar Darvid wat up the Bs Juaa River stormed Fort San Carloes, seud
Le an d s plodlre th hores of Lake I liarpiag*4 Although by the Asito
of IT115 ngland had feed Spa to great her a special eenmrial pri-
vileo$8 the British oastizd to exploit the logwood industry in C0ntral
Ameria in defianeo of Spain. Not only did Britain earry on her illielt
trade I Central Amrrioas but sho violated the special oemeroial privi-
loe granted her. This eomoreial rivalry beame an are seonaniat in
IT$1 in the *o*callod War of Jem *as Na and was eoatiued is the
War of Austritm Suesioen. In 17t9 mad ia 1740 Inglan tried to rouse
the Mosquito landian against Spaisn aod British ships operated alcag
the Moequito oeat *nd alen the Paoiite c st of Sliaraa.
1. Willieam, 1. IIW, T e o and cities of eti Ari 176.
(hratr referred to as i 1tti a IMrloat
8. Ide.. -----" ..
5o "3Ksen. S.
S, I s, C0. Je N. A Political sad Social Riatoryf Moderm
r -Is, U10.ll. (horea reToVWM 3 W eTa BayJ.
W iiliam, Leati America, 1i.
I# Ibid, 504
S9,1 7"tS "4
During this eni t British troop vwre larded mad British fortse o e
eastruoted a th Moeqw&to territory.1 The Treaty of Alz.la-Chpell,
174, adi ado settled Britain*' elaid to the solaioes an the mainland of
Omatral iAmrloa whihs she held that $pain had reeganisd by a treaty
Ia U170 Ths treaty onfirmed to the British forever all the land
whish they held ina ad about the West Indlooes The Englih Goveramnt
hold that the treaty toluded the settlements made by pirate and free-
bostersi whle Spain ela med that it roftrred soly to Jamal io d other
islands rightaflly hold by Great Britain but not to may settIl~nts ea
About the tim of the treaty of 167T 014mOn, Chief of the Mosquito
Indiansm pruenaded by the Britiash proolalnd hmsw t King sad an ally
of Bis lritaeuse ftajty. Upon 0Odlm 's death in 16870 his son o erm
booae *Kliag* ea wrt t Jamioa to ask the British Goramant to tabk
his kigkdom udr the "protetiem* of the British romwn After. soa
tim tih Govrner of JameIa spared to support Jermy as "Itg by sup*
plying bin with meosy ead umm ia retur for the less of a omapmy of
fifty ms to aid in tih oapture of rumy r slaves JimiO. This past
ws ratifld by the iso Assembly. IoNrever, the Brities Prlinmt
*asmod to thtak that the treaty gave England no rights in the mainland
Larwm o e .f0saytea, April 19, 1850, in Mamnlr, We. R., Diplomt
Y ,f the Vnl Bt VII, s886 hereaftere referred i
To Johbaea, 5145.
ter on Juamuay 1S, 1699# a report of the Comissiaers of Trade and
.Pl atime opposed the Darin BExpeditions, sttiag that *the lottish
tk#oent was Lnsoorsat with the treaties betwe England and Spain
ad would lead to ope ruptl r with the latter ..,,
The DarlUe BEpeditllo was organized by Williaa Pattelrsm, founder
ot the Bank of Iaglend. to oolonis Central AmIerieso The Sooteh Par.
11emut autheried the expedition and Willisa III, King of Englandi
snstimod the proejot.5 O thousand two hundred ooloeisto sailed
from LSith an July IT, .lN,4 uad landed in Central Ameries at the oity
of Aelas, whre Pierias had murdered Balbea in 1617. The projt was
eeo abUadond, howevr, after the ooleon had been reduced to a fte
hundred by disease ad atteeks by hostile Indians.
In the century tellowing Patterson's expedition little was doe
toward prombetL a *anl. The failure of the Darien Company *onvines
the bSets that they Aid not hav the power or resources successfully to
establih selmies a their oa behalf7 and the British govnrmt at
that timn opposed sue osleoniatie as it was winaensistent with the
treaties betuies tlanlmd M i 8pa*in. In Ingland private eitiseas see
10s asntidieme in spoeulatia in the Seouth Se because of the ollapee
1. Pro 4i s sad Debates o the British Parliments Comooraing
North aes. ------M' -
SH.. history of Sot III, 2,(hereafter referred
to aus rz). t--~
3. Prooood sa d Debates of the British Parliamsts Ceoaeerna
N 4 r Broah a II1, 8,
6. debasmae 18.
** ForwbeP-Ladaa 14-17.
T. Trvelyua, *. a, HIR terY of gland 481.
of the s eth Bo Dubble1 and the Oovermnt oonaoornd itself with
politlal sad military problems of mere imdiato iaportanc to Ibalaad.
Toward the eleo of the Amertian Revolutien, when 8ppa entered
the war being wlage by the Amerioa Celenies and the PranLh against
baglaAd, she tried to drive the British colonists from the mainland
ia eoaduras and lNeairagca. Inland seat a fleet to protest her o01-
enlats in OQntral AmArloa and Ia 1780 Horatio Nelsoe, them a p]st
eaptaa, Vwa sent to establish a *Ilitary bas i I oarags. else
fully realize the 5Iportamn ofe his missions
In oer to give facility to the groat object of goverOmat
I Intend to possess the Lake liearagua, whioh, for the present,
y be lOobod upos au tie ilal Gibraltar of Spanslh Ameries
As it oemands the only water pass between the eoanse its
situatim met ver reader it a primripal post to ineure pa-
saO to the Southern Ooe aq td, by our possession of it, Spanish
Ameriea is divided in t.'
Ieloe mr with only temporary suoess in 0Cntral Amerioa, sad the
British were seen driven fr m Central Americ eoopt for their posl-
tiesu as the Mosquito eaet.
the foellwag year nua l Oslisteo surveyd the proposed
liauraguan rout reporttg to the 8panish Governmat that it would
be Impossible to ooastruet a eal from the las o to he P ifie.
even yesar later, la 1788, Manuel Mills was sent by the Spanish Govorn-
mat to suvrr the Caledtis Bay route. tUlik that of Galistoo his
report *esagerate the ease with whih the oesal could be aostruoted
1. Ibid.. U338.
a. 70masa, 8684.
8. rorbes-Lindsay 18-19.
alt thLat routel Bush uiolitift reports did little to detCemia
the odvanta 4dlealvaltages or relative eosts t a enal through the
uvrito reote gad at the end of the *eihtenth untury eagireers mnew
little nrse thea had OGersm sad Salvase nearly three heared yemrs b
Bewner, athe now entry ws but fourteea years old whie Alexande
va balmbt published the first solestifie study atd lavmetigatic of
the pasibility of ma isthaim neSalr "Politite.l Bssy a low palina."
This e*say rwas V attack c the superstitiem tht th differsseo in the
sea*loels of the Atlantio sad Poifio woald be ditsatrous to tie
Caribbea area.o Hbold arged that there was as real differema in
the sesalevels sad it say differsase exited at all it as so slight
that it would not attf t the waters of the Caribbean, mad m should
the suporstlten be ftenatdd truth the waters *ald easily be em-
trlled by the use ot loks. o Be am aal.s possible aual routes with-
out mataiming the one via Caledonian Bay*
The Spalish OoveuisMat oamtlvsed that the enastrueties of a **as
was noeessy to rtiv It prestige Isl Oentral Aowrlas4 had ordered
aliatebs sad Mills to swak surmys ft possible essal routes, sad upa
the publisaties of hmboldt's Oeay, passed a lmr providlag that a waot
vwr esapable et earin for the larget *hips, be out eross the istLmes
The orteb authorise the fortmtias of a empeay to earry out the work
1 Johnase 8 58.
I. Ibit 8S940.
5. 35O 44"-46
4. Is5 aus 4*"*
So FerbesLidsady, 21-22.
but before ay stelp oould be tabns 8pain's Central haeriosa ooleaies
had boom inadeeno- t, oad she had lost her oaompoly on the sostruotion
of a iethalna esoael
The waimia of the independent of the Spanish solnies opened the
way to the eoastrutien of ta *al by the govermnat or oitieas of other
countrieso, The olea realised the potential vaine of enal routes and
seon boeg aegotiatons with other ountries for the oonstruotie of a
oaale. ZI 18251 Aatonio Jos' OCaas, first nvey from the Central Anmrioua
Rlepblie to the Vail -States, invited Mr. Clay, Amriean 8Sretary of
State, to participate with the epublie of Central Ameris In the enter-
pris and to seure the perpetual posesosia of the sarnl to the two aa-
tilus* Olay would not oemit the Govwrum t to the project, but pro*
aLed al invostigatiom to deoterae vhether the Nlearaguan ws the best
route sal, if it proved to obe to presoat the nmtter to CoagroPes At
the sam tie a somissic froa Now Grenadsa w in Washingato to usk
tho Unitoe Stateo to prtioeipate ia tho first Pa-daoesm Ceogresos at
Pasm, la Juose 126 .4 he Congress of the United Statoe feared that
the Psaamrieosa congress would disese slasvry aad pass a rseolutie
agaast it, In whihh ouo it would be better wore w not represented
eamept la a dplematieo way. Our representatives were iastruatd
that we woro aet to be lnvlvd ia say alliances with the Coetral and
1. ArI, B., The Phsm Canal A 8tu in Internatioal Law and
P o 9-100 (h rM arra so as i
#. Perbee-ULnday, 2-256.
g. B theo OCstitution of 1SS, theo no of this eoutry was
changed to *Uiktod tState of Oeloabia.' Soo RBenmo J. M. ad Arrubla,
orando, Ritfor of Oolmb 485, (hereafter referred to as BUaoo and
Arrubla). .. --- -
4. Jotanar 44.
euth Amrle States. ouseor, OClay asntroetd the ruvey, Andorsn
ead Sargent, that the quefti of a enaal amght properly be disourod.
Olay's inestrsotic s expressd th polioy toward the oeastruetim of a
*anal whth was to i~a luooa Amerien negotiatit s for nearly halt a
century* the delegates wen ilfonMlsd that should a osaul be oute
o., the beefits ot it should ant be exmlusivrly appropriated
to any one natfio but should be extndod to all parts of t be
globe upea the paymat of just oompe~satle or rQsoamable toll
In their wsatla the OCetral Amerioa Republie had boma impatieat
ads dodin g et to u wit for Clay's deilems eonuraning their offer
of a eanal soaeosstoea entered lts a eantrae t with a private premotor
seniski, in 1t6. Bieaiki treasterrd his omoeeass to thM 'Central
Amartim and Untad $tktet Atlantieo d Plcitle Canal Company" in June
of the following years T Ameri ean ateests wnr to eotrol the eaal
util they had beeo rebursetd for epital inveted plus ten per ent
laterest mad they were to roeiv e mehtlf of the not proceeds for seven
years after they had bemn relau bred* Work wu to be begua by Jun
107It alt hMOgh the enpeay Ma oo*pesed of sueh prominest am u
DeWitt Olxtoea, hie prem etr of the Brioe aal, llroo Robtasse Pnrl-
deat of the Bank of the Utited State, uad Stpbhen Van Reasselaor ad A. H.
Palrls, oapitalsts, the o empny wau unable to raise by JMn, 18117 the
$5,000,000, the su at which it wase opitalisod, sad the oaonesaon mpirod.e
1. Whartbe, Frmt.i A oDlt ,f ath Ithwnatiasl Law of the
Waitt SBtes* III is (heafr rormr5 o W `WHarfX ""--
34 rIM 4,, ,ad, U-U
4. rarbe4i sasys 235S..
SO. ahaent III, tootte #a, 96.
so Joa-sa, 4U*40
In the sm year that the Cntral Amrioean Republie granted a ooam
oessim to DBnlaski 8lon Bolivar, then President of Now Greaada, gave a
frl ohise ftr o year to Baran Thierry, a Freanoma The franehiso
apsod before hierr was able to begin oeotruetienm Belivr then do-
sided to undertake the project himself. Two of his offioorso Lloyd, an
english enginaero mad Falosar a Swedish eaptaia surveyed the proposed
trot reporting that there was a different of three fet in the ma
level of the Paeotfio ad Atlantis oeusasu Although Lloyd mad Palemar
mdo ma error in their -rport# by giving credulity to theo t vulgr opialma,
as Emboldt called its that there was a different in the levels of the
two seems the route surveyed by them is essentially the oe adopted
la4r by the Panam Railroad Company4
Nor did the LloydoFloomar error disooura* nogotiatios for a omaal
by foreign aontrioes In 1829, Gemral Worwer Ziso spelled Vorvww7
representative of the lin of the Netherlands at the ogress at Paeuma
second a smeessie for the digging of oaanal through ioaraa sad
oa returning ham he sueeoood in foring a company, with the Duteb Ktin
at its head#6 Dr. Marine 0alveso Central Amerioan Minister of Finaoou
had submitted Jly 24 182, the detailed plus for a eanal oaoeessie
to the Netherlands containing articles of vital iaportanme to ie govern-
Past of the Unitd States. Article 2 of the First ootien of the om-
oessrir provided that the oanal should be "open for the passage of all
1. Rousseau 48.
O Iraae, 12.
6$ Maming, III, footnote Se, 100.
TVeaels enept thoes belonging to Natieos with whik the Republie Zet
OCetral Amsrie7 ay be at War" and Artiol*e of the sam seeoti pro-
vided that oe Vessel of War belonging to a Natio engaged is hostili-
ties with another, shall be suffered to roemn in or pass through the
UpIe harina of the grnating of this soOnession, p dard Livingston,
Amorieam 8In rety of states wrote full and ooaplete instruoties to
William No Jetfer American Chargo dAffairre to Central AMwrisoa.
Jefters was emissioned June 14, 1831, sad resigned November 19, 1831,
without goig to his post., Jeffeors instruotioua rwre trannmttod to
his suoeoesors, who wer either unable or neglootod, to earry them out*
The jnstruoties stated that news of the granting of a oanal aoorsesim
to a Dutoh Coempan had reashod the United Stato and that, if the term
of the eonesesre wore as reported, they were not objootinablej but
the Oharge dAffaires wa to iavstigate and make sure that it contained
anthing haraful to Amrioan intorestsf.4 O April 0O, 188 S 8oretary
of State Johb Forsyth roerimanded Charles G. Do Witt, who was appointed
Charg dlffairoe to Central Amriesa January 29, 18U3 for not carrying
1. Ibid, 104-6.
I* m e*g "o)9
so I'., 8.
3. liTW., a.
4. EIf gstem to Joffers July 20, 1831, in anmning, III,
ut the iastraettes issued to Jtffor.
YoT eittias to simply with that pr t of yor inatruotins
whbic relates t the ship eMasl between the Atlantis and Psifie
***eas Is equally iaexplisable. T Ye wne lnfeor that it was
a matter of great solicitude ttothis oerove uat to be ssurd
that its rights uan aterests had not beeo neglotted t? the
rent of a privilege whioh it was undatrsto had boen oeaforrel
upea a Dateh oamplan to sostruot the enaln and you we dirieted
to transmit informti rspeoting the grant and the proposed
enterprise. It is the wish of the President, therefer, that
it, upen the reeipt of this dispateoh, you should not have
trenmtted the tinfrmatie advrted to, yoa will forthwith
tse measures to oolleot and forward it.
Although the Department of 8tate requested information conerning
the Datfh conaessias tre the Amerilan Charge d'Afaires in Central
Ameries ua early as lJly 20, 11881 it rws not until JusO 26, 1835, that
it resolved the desired information and thn the information osa not
fre our representative i Central America but from Juan Galide,
Special Agent of Central Amria t the United StatOes The delay in
reering this information wa of little consequene for in 1880 a revo-
lutm had broken out in the Netherlands and the Dutch project had been
Meanwhile, on Maroh 8, 165, the Senate of the United States had
pasd the following resolutiens
otjt That the Prsidant of the United State be rspoP fully
reiiiiU to oeanider the expoedieny o opening negotiatties
with the goveramuen of other nations, aa particularly with the
govermMat of Central AmOria sad Now Granada for the purpose
of offsetually protecting, by suitable treaty stipulatios with
thm- sueh individuals or soapuaes as my undertake to open a
sminlatien betbe the Atlantie and Paoific Oosan, by the
Benstretile of a ship anal aeroe the istbms which oamneots
I.. rT*-. .91.
5. IlT, Traoti. W4.
North ind South Amerio, end of soouriag forTevr by suoh
stipulatios, the ftr and equal right of navigating sueh eanal
to all sueb atious oan the paymat of such reaemable tolls
as my be **blished, to oompeonate the eapitali|ts who Ma
ICage inL seek andI akiag and .omplet the wor k,
Puresat with this resolutiam, Andrew Jaokson appointed Charles
Biddlo as 8peMJl Agent of the tUitd Stateos Ia Central Ameris =ad in
New Orredas. Biddle was to "preowu the most oepiou sad aourate In.
tormatle in rlard to the pretioability of either project oeanal
thrwagh Niaragus or through Paaue end the tie nad oiraustanoo un-
ad vhtoh either will be oamenoed*e Blddle, instead of oboeryng ia
strsetie wvent to Panuuua ad seuret privately the oonmesscas of
Bareo thi Upn learning of Biddle*s actions, Mr. Forsyth, ea
Septgembr 8, 1884, instructed Mr. MoAfoo Charge dAffalres of the
aitkd Stats at Bopgt. *to disollai all eonnotion with the project"
a the part of the Ameriosa Government. Mr Forsyth also informe
Mr Steo sems Minister to Ingland, that the Aeroan Goverment had
*wo natrest or e~aowae in the grunt which Mr. Biddlo had reied
fr~e the OQlembina Severment. lNor did Presidant Jakson mention
Biddle*s wauthorised atiom i n his report to the Senate tf the Wittd
States oM Jamuary 9, 167.
1. Moores JI. I .,A DI m e of Internatiana L aw III, 8, (hereafter
roferrt d to as Moor*. DTT .
8. Feoryth to BIddl eMay 1l 186. in Manning, III 17T18.
8. I 185.I
4o iaoRa, 47.
6 ore, Diget, III 4.
T7 Nlardscm, J. D*. A Op11aticn of tbh Mess as sad Plpse
eof the Prmidts, zIII, s7s.wTs (honeRa r rerred to a ihardft).
President Jacelan stated la his report that#
... the probability of an early exooution of my of the project
vhie hare beea set m feet for the eonstrueoten of the oe a-
aeatitm l tween the two ooemas alluded to is not so great as
to reader it epedient to ope a negottiaieo at present with
ay foreign government upon the subjeeot*
Although the poUtieal tonmi oo aomenag the osaal project had subsided,
sad despite the Peaio of 1887, Horatio Allen, engineor of the Cretan
Aqueodtus ws able to arouse the interest of Mayor Aarn Clark of Now
YorkL, ad other leading oitiseona both of lNw York sad Philadelphia, in
presenting to ycgres in Jmenary, 1888 a muorial asking that the
United 8tato, the Central Aorieo States, sad the powers of urope
unite in opening a ship anal across the Isthms. The following year
congress passed a resolutim authorizing the negotiation of a treaty
to protect individuals or eorporatios who should attempt to open oome
mioatiee between the two ooeans and to insure the free and equal
navigation of the eunal by all natiomes.' John Le Stephens, who had
boee appointode August II 1859, Bpeeial Agent of the United States to
Central Amurieo, for the purpose of winding up the affairs of the
Aberiea Legation la that state reported to the Amlriean Seretary of
Sak an April 4, 1840t
16 Riohardfta, III, ,81.
It Johseasm 4T.
84 Lateam, J. IN,, .ia e A.ertoen foro Poliey 510,
(hereafter referre nto -0 Land t i ore.
4, Vail to Stepbeas August ia III. 22-24.
Yesterday Z m as article in a lew Tork paper refrring to
petitiem before Coagases for sending Speoial Agent and Sur
veyla party to exmine the eanal rout between the Atlantis
and Iftaie by the Lak of Nioaragan cad river St Jun fie7 .
I tae th liberty of mtioaein that I have visitle Xliragc u
priu tpally tfo the purpose of preouria nforatien em that
eubjet.I About two yeaes seian Mrr Baily ftormrly of the
British Nvy anad every wy aoomptnt was employed by this gov-
weman to make a survey. Mr. Baile is still at GOrsada" having
*empleted all ecpt an untaportant part of the river. ... I
hope when I return to the U. to be able present to the
Departmat a opy of his entire survey ....
OCetral Aorieo was at that timn in the midst of a Civil War, and
conditions were co disturb" that the British sad Frrnoh 0onsul* de-
elared that sno gwral govenment existed in the Central AmriLcan e-
publelo$ Iadood, 8tphonus while en his way to the City of Guatesala,
mw amrrst4 sad imprisonedl and those who arrested him went unpunished
bekasse the govermsatal suthoritis wre ientMot.5 Stphaen wrote
eretary of State ersyth that Morasmn" President of the Ropublie of
Oentral Ameries, had so more authority Is Quasteal than he had in New
Tork.4 Bono, Stephens advised against the osual proje3 at tthat tim
beeasse of the 'ottled state of the sountrye.
la 1837 OCetral iAmrica was visited by shelesr. Uns(rpulous
priests ade political capital out of the plague by telling th ig-
norant ed suporatitieus ativoe that foreipor and govrment agents
ware poisealag the water. The native ware aroused against the govrm-
mat aad rallied to the rans of Rafael Carrra, whom they believed to
I Ibd.. 1i.
a. fiap to Foresyth Doeamber 25, 1868, 0in Nanaing, III, 167.
I. "e0-LiaIsay, l5U46.
I. illiman, ta America, 423-34.
be the Sao of od sent to deliver them from destrution.1 In 1858,
Oatrreo suoeeoed in oapturing Guatemala City and in arousing a general
spirit of seession and looal indepandonoo* The oollapse of the Con*
trial Amoriean Republic and the establishment of fire independent states
!ustetmala Salvador, Eonduras, Nicaragua and Costa, RieJ in its stead
left the British almost unhampered in their aggression n Central Ameroa.
The revival of the British proteetorate over the Mosquito Indians and
the extesion of British olaims in Belise now British Hundura,7. prompted
somewhat by Britain's suspicion of aggressive tndenoies on the part of
the alited States in Central Ameriao, led to diplomatic duel between
the representatives of the United States and Britain in Central Ameria.
The final outcome of this dl t dul a he Clayton-Bulvr treaty of 1860.
In 188, a Frech speulative company received a oonoession for the
eoastruotiao of a higbwary railroad or anail to open omo nioatica beo
tuen the Atlantio and Paoifio ooeans through New Grenada.4 The pro-
meters of the flraeh sbheme-it was hardly more-mlalmd that they had
found by Morel's survey that there was a route between Porto Bello and
Panama with no elevation above ten and oe-half metres.6 Messrs. Solomon
and Company induoed Louis Philippe to send Napoleon and Oarells to find
out the trtth oonoering the elevation of the Porto Belle to Panama
route. Although the report of Napoleon and Garella showed that the
arie of Stat d Their Bipldas VI,9 42-46, hereafterr *rF orRTe
4. 4 e1sso, 6-.7.,
6S Jdohbase 48
west pass had sa elevation of am hundred sad fiftena atres, the
7rah Sor=uemat s unteupleted, in 1848, the oonstrustim of a oaM1l at
PMass. The propose sa ou was M ho av twety-fivw looks, to be sal.i
gable I r Teseo of six hundred toen only, and to oost I40,000000.
NBever, the project we abanosdj and the fellwag year, 1844, Louis
Philippe rejercte the proposal of ftnolsoo Oastelloa, envoy from Nie-
15rag to FPeam, that Frane establish a prottorato over Nioaragua
Msd oemtruet a esoal there. Louis Napeleon, while still in priseoa
obtaltod a oeoosesiem In 1846 fron the Nioarague Goveorant for the
*estrastimo of the Os>al. Napeleems 4 Ieajrae Napoleon premised
Letis Philippe that it he would set him free to pursue the esoal enter-
prisl he woulA never return to Fransl but the Freonh nag reft~ih d t
reloeos his political fee. Bever, Napolee *osaped ad went to Loam
deMe hbere he published a psaphlot adiveh tin the lioaraguan route by
ay of the San Jun River sad lakes inaugus. and Loam. Napoleem's
IAtrest ia the oei al project wu son overshadoned by the overthrow
of Leoui Philippe, fte whbih apeole beoom the head of the Frwsh
While lsteral politiee used a ls e of interest in the oeaal by
the rWeah, the territorial expasionI of the United States gave nir
4. w -o 1e
T 6lisy F. A.. Louis lapolea sa -d thBMey of Frme,
164.16W, II, -- -
impetus to the JArilea interest ian an isthian oanalo In 18486 B, A,
Bida41ekl Aeriesa Charge dtAffaires at Bsget ooa e luded a treaty of
peoaol amdtyg navigation, and oomereeo with New Grenada1 The treaty
seotaieod a elause by whioh New Granada guaranteed to the United States
the right e way aenrss the Isthma of Paauma, "upon any modes of cam-
munieatien that novw exist or that may be hereafter oonstruoted," and
(arate e the "tree and open" transit to the government and oitisens
of the Unit*d Statess and in return the United States guaranteed the
sovereignty of SOolenbs over the lsthmus Bidlask had no authority to
aer esueh a gusraatNee but Mallartae Minister of Foreign Affairs for
New Greaadad poleting out the advantages that the treaty would give to
the Vlted States# persuaded his to sig the treaty in order to sounter-
aet the aggresive tendeasies of Great Britair Had Mallarine been as-
sigmd the prophetie powers olalmd for the Greek God Apollo& he oer-
tally would not have been so anxious to emaolude the treaty, for the
very elause that guarsated the Colombian sovereignty over Panama ums
uad under the Adnaistraltie of Theodore Roosevelt to prevent Colombia
frm ainlta~laag her sovereigty ver the Isthums, a record for a uni-
lateral interpretatiem of a bilateral agreomnt.
Two years after the signing of the treaty of 1848 Aspinrall
Stephensa and other obtained fro New Grenada the right of way for a
l1 Malloys W.* e, Cmp 1latt o Treaties in F O4re1904, 194,
(hereafter referred to as alloy. .
So. ay to Keye, January 5. 1904, in Moore, Digest, III, 101.
S, Ariau, 1T.
4, latirn 91.
rtiltA asur PsmuR* The tsm of the om*ao s were very tadvea
tCagos to New ,Oremada The emoossim was to expire at the ad of
fobrtyr tae pyr at whish tim Niw Grenada wea to roelvo all the prop-
arty sd assets of the OmpayUr HNowsver# if she vished to tahe ove
the railroad l, bw the a of the *onaeossi she could doe & at the
endt of tWey pors by payita th Ons mpsny $5000,00 at te e ad of
thirty year by payiag $40000,000o or at the ond of forty pars for
The follaowag yer Tiosragu pr te a ooaoessiem for a oa l to
the Amrloei Atltatioe ad Ptifie Bhip Canal mpUoa hose orgCitser
Ieolude4 Joseph L WhIito sad Orneliul Venderbilt4 The Oomupm was
graMte l eelusive priviloes la the eotroetia of the osaasl, hioh
ws to be so~plitod wthit twlve ean sales preventeA 'ortutious
oewnrre~ a *e' tr the easideratiem of *10,000 whae the eabtret we
ratified by loaragiu, a amnity of $10.000 until tho *sepletia of th
soatrorts and 8200,000 in steek. After the easpletim of the semtrast,
liesrapma wa to reoive meafith of the aot profits of the empal y for
twb ty yes sad aftr that me-fourth of the not preofts. he si mp-e
s rnteA the oe aslusir right of Ialad otom savigatime *ad lelaragm
ws to be paid ten per eat ef the profits of may miaer line ef oem-
aioaties whioh the o*qpan my have opled between the oseans while the
aseal was mdor saetruotieo/ The *onressioe was first granted t
It Rills 548*
24 Porbe4, 5iA 0osy &Q4
0. Ifeer4.CB "CO
5s y.Ii WS to7iz*.w quoted I LitnfU' 4ti-m AjL. XXVILI 19.
fortyeight yards but it was later xtnded in perpetuityl
The empeany ade the first payumnt of $10000 and sent Colozel
Ohilds to make a, survey of the route Coeloel Child's survey ua use-
les* besse the construction of the eanal as bloekod by British inter-
itenren The British Cansul at New York gav notice to the oompany
that the grant of eselusive navigation of the Sa Juan River by Niearagua
ras not competent beesuse
Sw, the boundary line of the Mosquito kiagdon touheso the St.
John's (Ban Juam) river at the Maohbea rapid, about thirty
iles belew th Lae Ie- aragua fron w hene to the mouth of tho
St. John's the navigation belongs toe MO Mosquito ;;adian
The Westminstor Review believed that this ofliot oould be ended by a
grant from the Mosquitoes However, from the American point of view the
matter oould not be so easily settled, for E. G. Squier, Amerioan Charge
*dAffaires to Nioaraguas had *coured the enmraot for the company and
had negtiated a treaty with ioearagus pledging both oeuntries to pro-
test the eanal ead giving Amerioan rooognitis to Nioaragua's rights of
property In the route.
So W Tiams, Olaytoa,' 43-48.
THE MOSQUITO QUESTION
a the eastern uset of Central Amrioa, betwem Cape Honuras
s the north and the bo Juan River m the south extending possibly as
tf as Bose dtl TWoro lies a test lo mp, fhlh laow swd of
vatrytlaCg vidth rising ao its wester border into highlands sad
amntains this territory was inhabited by san fifteen tribes of
Indlars, speaking different leauages, sad waging almost tae ssant
war euag themmlves. Oan of those tribes living between Cape HBa-
duru ead Cape Gras es a Diao, is knao as the Mosquito Indians. The
Mosquito gradually subdued, sad almost oxtnwamast4l oertiat of their
south ighberj sad by degrees the Mosquito territory was extended
o the Bluefields# whieh, a*oordin to Abbott Lawroneo1 United States
Ministe to reait Britais, was fixd by *all the good maps of the six-
testh **Sevsateeths aad eighteentk oaturies, Prsoh, Spanish, Dutoh,
sad Bnglishk as the southern toaims of the Mosquito shore. However
th British Goverrnat, olaingag the right to exercise a protetorate
ver thne lndisus held that the souther boundary of the Mosquito
territory was th San ausa River from Maohuae rapid to the mouth of
Th- British aggresie ia Centrhl Amries began in the saeventeth
*atury whm7 British pirates had established themselves at various
1. Lnrenme t Claytci April 19, 1850, in Maeniag TII, 64.
2. Littell"s Living A&. IXVI, 10 l u44, eu 2I.
potato e th eastern osasts of Radurus and liearaga where they had
fiaully boes o*lentats engaging in trade in tiae lber and dyewoods.
The British had gradually extended their holdiago la Central Amrioa,
sad aeording to Sir aons Slomeo the Duke of Albearle, Governor of
Jaimeae had agrQed, a behalf of the Kina of England& to oxtead to the
liKag' of the Mosquito IndiAs the protootion of the British oerm.
Hoewnr, Abbott LareaU o in a letter to John M. Clayton, AmLorltoe Serse
tary of Stato. dated April 19, 1880, denied the xistenso of the alleged
British proteetorate. H8 quoted frm a pamphlm t first published in
1699 and reprintd in Ohuarhill's Voyagesr Velum VI. to substantiate
Neo e *--ia7 ~ays that his father Ol~a, King of the
Mosquito ae was carried over to daglaad see after theo *O-
quest of JmatoeS sad there resoived fr his brother Kig a
rm enid oomissies, whioh the proest Old Jow still keeps
safely by hia, whteh is but a soaked hat n aT ldioulems
Pie0 ot writi' t Teo u1se -rlim uh
SW O Mi giB Z e16 Gam thas Wo ri "Yo
pla~ajn sa rtle E
The British aggressoo a i OCentral AimriOa howvr, was ohoeked
vhoe, Ia 1779, loratio Nelsoe failed to istoe and hold the Soa Juan
River and laes Maauguma end Loen, By the treaty of 178S. England for-
mally abandmed her oella to sovereigty as the mainland and retained
oetBiag bat the tiabr rights in Belise granted to her by Spain ia the
treaty ef 1o This treaty was *to present as m as possible all
the oamuse of emplaiat ead misunderstanding heretofore oeasioend by
1. Laurean to Clayton, April 19 1860, in Mnaanag VII, 881-8S.
S. Ibid.. 888.
.,. *'. ; ,...: .. ..
: '. ", ',
*S St 5 5*
the outing ef we fto dyir or lopgwo in Central America.1 While
8paina admtta the right o England to out tiaber in certain definite area
e the ailand, Article iVII of the treaty provided that
ie BritUemia Majesty shall eause to be demolished all forti-
fioatiOas whioh his subjects shall have oreotod in the Bay of
Beahdure, and other plges of the Territory of Spain in that
part of the world o,,0.
Aseerliagly, the British destroyed their fortifioetions in the Mosquito
territory sad remove their troops However, although the treaty pro-
vido that the English should wholly retire fram the Spanish oontinent
and islands to toh plee allotd to them by the treaty, British settlers
remain in thM Mosuite territory and in Hoadura in disregard of the
Artele VI of the treaty of 1783 stipulated that
... all the English who my be dispersed in say other parts
eopept the are in whioh the British were granted peraissio
T out wee, whether am the Speaish continent, or ia nay of
the ielau riatseOvr dependent am the aforeaid Spanish ooa-
inaeat, aid tor whatever reasm it might be, without eseptiea
shall retire within the district above deosribed i~ere England
enJoera ttibe right i the spaeeo of eightee mths, to be
eampute frt the eohange of r9atiioatiu s.*4
Bowevr, Charles James Fox, a leading amber of the Coalitieo
Ministry i BEngland in 1783, held that it was still in the power of
His Majsty's Oowvrnmnt to put their own
.. interpretation upeo the words "eontinente espagnol, and
to detendnae, upe prudential oonsideratieas, whehr the
mesquite .shore cems ader that description or not.
Is it., IT9.
4. Wltement of Mr. Buoshaan for the Earl of Olareauda,1 January
* 18M, Ia MoOere, Digst III, 154-l41 also, uhartae, III, 24-0.
This eatflt of optaie noeessitated a new sonvontion to settle the
dispute ovor the inelusiom of the Moequito shoro in the oeatiannte
IBpagaO., T his Loventic wa oaomluded a July 14, 1786, aad its
first artiels removd every reasoable doubt an the subj3et.
Article I of the new treaty deelareds
Hi Britanis Majesty* subjOets, and other colonists who
have hitherto enjoyed the proteetioa of Englanad, hall vaeouate
the oestry of the Mooquiteo as woll as the oontinant in
geasral, ama the islelsds adjant without meOptin ....1
On Marh I, 178T, Lord Ramdos, nade a oti a s the House of Lords
'that the term of the oonwntion of July 14, 1786, do not met the
ftaorble opiniae of this House. The defeat of the notion by a vot
of 5S to 1T was due in part to the opposition of Lard Chaneollor Thurlow
ho ocatended "that the oosquitos were not our faglisi allies" they
won not a people w were bound by treaty to protooet.* Thue, the
British Gorvemamt gap its approval of the treaty msad a late as
181T and 1819 the British Parliament evined a design to uphold the
treaties of 17T ead 1T7 when it aoehowledged that the English settle
ment t Blise wu "not withia the territory and doninala of his Majes-
oreeor, British relations with the Mosquitos wor not abanadoend
~O the oeetrary the Kina* of the Mosquitoo beeom little more than a
Bnglish pappet, who a ono oooseasi was taken to Bolio* and orowaod by
the British. Ia e a middle of the ninetath eeotury, wha the t a
teatiam of the world was direooteto the possibility of oenstruetiag
a easul slos Contral Amrioe by way of the San Juan River, Englan
used these relatiolo as a pretext for the establisebh nt of a proetes-t
Orate eer the tilr eastern portion of Nioaragua.
In 188l the English were suooserful tl havi a legislative as-
sembly at Seluse 4dlare its indepondnre of Spala and declaor it-
sef I favor ot ohangug the nam of Belise to British Hoduras
The Bay Islands and the- mosquito *Nost also declared themselves Io
dependent of BHodurm sad liaraga, and England on January 1, 148,
seat a warship to fereo aknowledgmat by the Central Ameriesa States
the Indisa's independeoee and to raise the Mosquito flag oer that
territory. The British now claimed that the Mosquito sh extended
south to Sa Juan do Niearagu, whith had nevr beon in the domiati
laimad by the Iadians.4 The Niearaguens wr* girwe notiH to eveo
aute the territry *laied for the Mosquitoes and when they refused,
angltad seat tn Wvesels, I. M. Be. Alarm and Vixan, to San Jus
named by the British Groytua to onforoe the Mosquito claims.
Oa February i1, few days after the arrival of the British warships
to hundred and sixty British offlors sad ma vwr landed at
onaspaqui sad, after as hour sad forty minutes of fighting, took
1. Muare, Do 0., The Fli Republice of Central Amriea, 95,
(hereafter referred to as Munro, intrail Amrios).
8o Johnseoa, 6556*
o "Statemat of Mr. Bulhamsa for the Earl of Clarendoan,
January S, 1849. Ia Moore, Digt, III, 154-41.
4. MIurOs Central AeroiT 9M5.
B. Riohardion, Y. I| Taylor to the Se8ate of the United Statos,
March 1. 150.,
pesel f e-~m Foletal this eOlopiatf mih T 1j,0
au t ad s&ewas *spot a treatr wse pkwU that Is*w*wM
**kul -a aio*tb th taoabs:teats of sem J u sfsst -alst %hat ay
sLk s will be esiw tr tr at rits ai do l ersati t opf sp
bnulit"l698 It -W pro"rie bow 1re *A teur'i artistU f that
I"leatt I aUSt We rM hol et hsi V rsV tn fut lio al a
1P sam a oufni s ster to aem itasio nusoya s Xse satelmmBt
fts asse tF Orat ksetaa om to hov bee little osht or Ia
ryese .ggesI mr a s tinwaMo' **"v4eit* yr. Iht h the Neitee
se maet Pala# it Is slow that ee st the States otes
io SeituAl Itear by Iesr talA Spais eal hove tw e sherity orve
thft but it Is elS'rl evimt thet the tmosItie terW met ladepadm-t.
It IlS het dmstl Isr Nsg lls* a deliverai rt plates at thre Supsr
oet of the i at *R to $ s is the sease gM _a&ra of .
0 states tM plsip&s af Umtevmastietl low gomeai the staues
et tmal iIbete In rerl to their oveefgtsl
as ""myof a" boS d.sse o**tase, the geat matlsses
at vep wve *agerr to pp -- to themswol w ve a rme w
it o er veoU ep atspy vire. Ito Vst ntest eift
a mpGur fsl to he s itie "m wborw of a ll .... Met
eeesury, la ~isrr to avoid t. lletag settle L "sA asse*
aMSe w i t *#sh others Mo tabuishk a primll* whisk All
hkU esee so the low by whtsh the rigt at oquiitIem
i4b-W ll *ST ht be glo *"Ii. as WONa thm.
l- ad M-tge MI I2M a n ift 2
-over t i hose authority it was mde against all other
MFos o Love w which itT iijhIMe o4ansu-atr'hd 'poe-
eseon T1he solusio al er rpeans, aeesarly gave
to'" nation making the disoovery the sole right of acquiring 1
the soil frm the natives, and establishing settlements upon it.
Aooerding to Marshall, "No one of the powers of Europe gave its full
assent to this prinsiplo, more unequivocally than Sngland." He then
stated that England trloed her title to the lands in North Amerisa to
the disooory of the Cabots who were comissioned to diosover lands
the unlava and "to take possession of the in the nam of the king of
anglaade, However, England, like the eaml that stuok his nose under
the blasumitha atent violated this principle by her gradual expansion
of the piratical settlements alone the ooast of Central Ameriea* Al-
though the British pvornment extended protection to these illicit
settlemenats ad finally gained, by treaty, the right to out timber in
certain districts of Belise, she renounoed in the treaties of 1788 and
178 all eslai to dominion over any other portion of the Spanish oan-
Honoo, if the Mosquitoe were not independent of pain before the
session of the Spanish oolenios, they then became subject to the soy-
ereigaty of the eoded State within hose boundaries their territory wa
situated. HoRwer Lord Clarendon declared, May 2, 1864, that "the
treaty ef 1l86 was put an end to by a subsequent war between Great
Britain sad Spain."4 This contention cannot be upheld because England
1. Soott, J. B., Cases on International Law, 175-80, (hereafter
referred to as Seetts Oa~i-Tioe jheatml 5lTor 5 L. Id. 681.
4. ifteaMt of Lord Clarendao for Mr. Buhanan, May 22, 1854,
in Wharteao II, 192-981 also Moore Diglt III 138-8.9
roeeoaise tho eoatinmasno and building offoot of he treaty of 178
in a treaty with Nxeieo Deeeobor 26, 18S, after he central Amrioan
state had established their iadependene of Spaina.
Although the ANmrien Departmet of State was fully inform, as
early oa October 28, 1847, of the British intention to take 8an Juan
do Niearagua, no measures re taken to prent the aggression. On
omvobr 18, 1847, Sier Buotrgeo, Seoroetry of State and of the Af-
fairs of War and of Poreign Relatiars sad Domeetie Administratie of
Nisaraga, wrote to Buohenaa, Amerisan Seoretary of State, asking that
th friendly offices of the Amurina overament be used in order to
prevent an attack upon the port of San Jum do Nioaragua then contea
plated by Great Britain as an ally of the Mosquito "lin." Buetrago
The bjeet of the Britih in taking this key to the *cotinent
ti not to protect the mall tribe of the Mosquites, but to
e*ltabish their cm epi"r over the Atlantie extremity of the
line, by whish a eaaal eanneoting the two oeanr s most
pretioeable, insuring to the the preponderan on the Amerlea
enatfinmt, as wll as their diroot relation with Asia, the
ast Indes, and other important countries in the world.
Deo Joes. errro, President and supro Direetor of Niieragua, wrote
to President Polkl Deember 18, 1847, warning his of the British design
*.. to establish ooleones on the east of Nioaragua and to rear
doe itself master of the iterooeeo ie *anal, for whith so many
ftilities are presented by the isbtmus in that Sta.4
No reply wa made to these letters and the Amerieean Goermat
-- i i- iIi
1. tatemant of Mr. luehanaa for the jarl of Clarendoe,' January
, 18o, in lhartn, IXI, 3-27.
8 Riohardsoea V. $Sp Taylor to the Senate of the Unit4ed tates,
Mareh 19, 1450.
:* too' 3.
oiced no objections to the policy of the British Gooernamnt More-
over. President Polk on uMarh 3, 1848% appointed Christopher Haapsteadt
consul to Belies a stop which both President Taylor and the British
Government interpreted as tantamount to recognition. Although the
appointment of oonsuls to a ocanity oelaiing to be indopondent dooe
not nooossarily oeontitute reooonition# President Taylor lost no tim
after his Inauguration in reoslling Haapstoed without sending anyone to
While Hamptoead was still at his post he had written, on May 26,
18486 that the Indians had "applied to Bor Majesty*' superintendent
for protootion, sad desired him to take possession of the territory
whioh they oooupied and take them under his protection as British sub-
jotes. 4 Hpsetead warned that if this applioatio were accepted "the
British Government would then have possession of the entire coast from
cape Conte to San Juan do Nioaragua."8 Again, on July 29, 1848. he
I have not a doubt but the designs of Her Majesty's officers
here and al the Mosquito shore are to obtain territory on this
Eampetead as apparently issued no instruotions an those dispatches,
nor were diplomatio protests made b the Foreign Offioe in London or
1. Riohardseao V, 3) Tayler to the Senato of the United States,
March 19, 1680.
I. "Statement of Lord Clarendon for Mr, eobhsaanm, May ,. 18864
in Mooreo, DiCsto III, 198e
l8* foiarfler V 8651 Taylor to the Senate of the United States,
Marsh 19, o1880
4. Ibid.. S7.
to the British Minister at 1ashington.
8enor Fremisoo Casrtllont who was appointed Ooaissioner to
angland pursuant with the agreneat between Nioaragua and England,
Maroh 7T 18580 stopped at Washingto, while on his way to Lond~on in
hopes of arousing the AJrrioan Governlet to use its good offices in
behalf of Niaraguat Castellon addressed a letter to the Seoretary of
Btateo November 5, 1848# deolaring his hopes
*, that the Oovnramnt of the Unioan firmly adhering to its
principle of resisting all foreign intervention in Amrica, would
aot hesitate to order such steps to be takn. ra might be effective
before things reached a point in whieh1the intervontie of the
united Stateo would prove of no avails
This appeal, like the other correspondence oonoerning British aotioe
in Central America was not answered by the Polk Administration.
It is true that t the time Great Britain took San Juan de Nio
araguaw the United States was engaged in a war with Mexico and in ase
quiring Californial but this, together with the settlement of the
Oregon boundary dispute should have enhaned the reasons for a pro-
test by the Ameriosn Oovenrment against England*' acquisition of the
probable termnals of a ship scnal across Central America. Eowever
this aggressive ono at a tim when there was a great deal of seotional
opposition in Congress to Presideat Polk*' aggressive tendencies is the
expansion e Amnriea fraotiers. The Demooratie Party was at this tim
very neh in the peitioa ef a large aM who quarrels with a caller
mans it he yields to the smaller pereo he is called a rewards if he
aeOpts a tight he is calledd a bully and a brutn It would have added
1. Richardsee, V, al Taylor te the senate ot the United Stateso
March 1s, 1850*
fuel to the Whig* fire of opposition to Pelkc's agroesiv temndrios,
had the Prosident beoos entangled with hngland in Central Anerioaj yet,
he fiuod the soousatiol of yielding to British bullying for not taking
mor6 positive steps in preventing the British front establishing their
doaiioma over the eastern ooat of Nicaragua.
President Polk finally appointed Elija Hiso, Charge d*Affaires to
Nioaragua, Maroh 581 18486 instructing hin to investigate and collect
iaformatioe eoneernnag British activity n Central Asericaj yet these
Inatruotiees show the roluotaneo of the Polk Adinaistration to tatk sa
strange atieo in the matter, James Buehan, 8eoreretary of State wrote
to Hise, June S, 184 1
Bu wt ean the United States do to resist suoh European inteor
f wnee whilst the Spanish Ameriena Republies sentiae to wkeon
themselves by division and oivil war and deprive themiselj of
the ability of doing say thing for their om proteotiont
Riseo now booing sesvimoed that Englad intended to control both
terminals ef trhe ieraguan Canal rout* wrote to the State Department
asking ftr pwere to negotiate a treaty with Nioragua in order to d-
ftet the British designs. oewus o*f the slow oom ioattion between the
aited States ead Central Arioa, Rise rsooeivd so iediate reply to
his request. Under this delay, ho boeme impatient sad dooided not to
wait longer fot a replys and, althengh he wa instructed that t was not
deemed advisable to power his to ako we've a treaty of omeree with
either Nlearguaj Heonduras. or Costa Rioa he now drafted a treaty otr
1. Applete to HRie, April 18, 1848. in Mananin VII, 80.
8. BOeebman to Hise, June S, 1848. Ibid*, 55
the seastruetie of a esaal through ioaeragua The treaty concluded
en June 21, 169, prevideds
Niearagma death great to and confer upon the IAited Btates of
Awmrisa, or to a oeupan of the oltisens thereof, the exolueive
right and privilege to mahe, oonstruet and build within the
territories of the Said 8tate of Nioaragua through, or by the
ue sad msas of say of the 8trosOU, Rivrs, bays, harbour,
lakes or Lands under the juritde~tie or within the limits of
the Said State, a Canal or Canals, a road or roads, either rail-
ways, or turnpiker or any other kiad of rsadsi for the purpose
of openatg a soaeenatei passage ....sL lo0
In return for the above eoaoessia the Tited states was to guarantee
.. the poroeet independense of the State of lioaragua and her
sovereigby over her alleged limits frae the Caribbean eoa to
the PaoItto Ooesa, plodgig th naval and military power of the
United Statoe to support it.
When Hise roeoived the reply to his request for authority to
negotiate the treaty with Nioeragua, he was not given the powers asked
fort but instead, he was reealled. President Taylor, who had euooeeded
Pelk, appointed 1. G. Squier to replace Hise.
During the days of the mad rush to California after the discovery
of gold at butter's Mill, an American transportation eoepany opened a
provisional transit by boat and stage aross lioaragua,* This eoapany
had attempted to obtain a oeeessiaa for the onestructiom of an isthmian
eanal through Nliaragual but had been blooed by British interferono.e
The oeepean appealed to the United States for aid in obtaining the eon-
oessien. John N. Olaytono, Seretary of State under President Taylor,
1. Reid, B. D., Internatioeal Serritudes, l7-28.
t. Riohardsonv,V |; Tsaylir to t 8eateo of the United States,
March 19, 1860.
KeIaby, L. M., "The Natiuoal Caal Policy," Ia Annual Reort
of the Aariean mi storioal Assoolatien for the Tear 190 tI I.
.W mlTlam, _layton." 04 -- -
wrote in his iasturtimo to Squier, May 1, 1849*
It has bon represented to this Departmant that certain sit-
slau of the United State are doeirus ef entering into a cam-
traot with the Sovornmnt of Nioaragua for the purpose of ooa-
trutiag a oanal between the Atlatio and Psacifit by th way
of the River San Juan and Lake lNiaragua trminatting at Rolego
lJo*7 on the Paeific. They think that their object would be
oe rd& and facilitated if it were ia sco way to be oeuntm an"d
by this GoverO ment There ir a strong deiposition to bestow this
eountenene to any extent which ay be ooapatiblo with prudeno .
If therefore by your personal good offices with the Goverment
of lNcarageu you eon aid in scouring for the persons above re-
ferred to those ontroat for the onstruotion of a *anal you a
at liberty to take that course.
The eom Instructions ordered Squier to asknwledge the reoeipt of two
oerieartie s from the Minister of Foreign A ffirs of Niaragua upem
the subject of the Britith enoreoachmnts on the Mosquito shor. Squier
wu to assure th Foreign Minister that the United States entertained
... the liveliest sympathy for his government and will employ
any oral mans in our power for the purpose of frustrating
the apparent designs of Great Britain in oountonaneing the claims
to sovereignty er the Mosquit oeast, sad the Port of San g
Jua asserted by her ally the alleged monarch of that region.
Cl0ytoe, ia his instructions to 8quier, reviewed th history of British
aggression in Central Amric. R then *ua rised the American views
soneernng the Mosquito coast and stated the Amerian policy aooneraing
the sonstruotion of an isthrian anals
I desire you distinctly to understand how important it is doemd
by the President so o so aduot all our negotiatius as tho ubjet
of the Niiragua passage as not to involve this country in ny
entangling alliano on the one hand or ay unnaoessary controversy
on the other. We desire no monopoly of the right of wy for our
oomroo sad we samet sulbit to it, if olaied for that of cmy
other nation. If we hld and enjoyed such a monopoly it would
1. 1layton to Squier, May 1, 1848, in Maning, III, 38.
8. obido 8549.
entail upoa ue me bloody ad expeusive "r ma the struggle
for fibraltar has seaud to Iagland and Spain.
On April 80, 184, Clayton had sent a dispatch to Beanroftt American
Minister to Ingland, instructing his to assur Mr. Castulloa that th
President had determined to naseod to the request of the Goverment of
Nioaragua by intrposoia the good offieoe of the Uited Stats for the
purpose of soouri tho withdrawal of British pretensionr in that ter-
ritory., Benoreot was instruetod to ask the Nicaraguea Minister to ro-
aina firm in asserting th rights of his goverarmnts and to do nothing
whtih would owaken, or alienst, those rights. Clayton also promised
aid to the Amerioan transportation company which had appealed to the
government of the United States for protection in the eonstruotifo of a
Squier used his good offices with the lioaraguan Goverment in order
to secure for the transportation company, vhich had then merged with
the UAtlantis and Paeifio Ship Canal Companyur a favorable contract and
harder of incorporation.4 Be also negotiated a treaty by which both
countries wore bouwd to protect theo anal espany. The treaty con-
tatied a claus by which Nicaragua guarsanted the neutrality of the
oenal so long as it should bo under the control of Amerioea citisens
and in return the United States reognised the Nicaraguan rights of
property in the route.6 The chief difference between this treaty
1. Ibid., 80.
*. ~Tyen to Baneroftl April 380 1849, In Moore, Digot III, 146.
5. Williams, Clytone 42.45.
4. Demis, 8. p.. A Piplematioe Nistory of the United States, 249.
negotiated by Squirr and the earlier one negotiated by Hie is, that
ta ths e ie tmsty the United States was to m a the sOitreeitty oJ r
ir M in its otirtcy, while In the Squier treaty it as provided
that Amuries renga Wioragan soeriprty only over the proposM
8quier's motions aroused the suspicions of Frederiok Ohattielda
British consul in Central merio, sand a conflict of unauthoris4 mod
oeuvers ensud OChattield decided to use the debts of the Central
Amhfesa Republie to Britiih eitisons Ia order to **uteroat Squier's
suoaesefl anotiatitons with Nisarguag t the Republie of Central Amorilt,
in 1884, had borrowed large su of money from British citisena pledging
ustmebuse revenues for payment of the loans Although the Central
Amrican Republie hba broken up iato five independent states 18i 8,
Chatfield apportioaed its debt among the ended states and prooedod to
enforo imodiate payment Be save San Salvador twenty-four hours te
nae a settlement of the overdue sooount sad when its goweranmt r*e
jeeted his tors, he ordered a blockade of its ooast. Ohatfield lhlu-
wist demanded n imadiate settlement frmst Hnduras thrIeatenig to place
a lies oa tigre Island should Honduras tail to oemply with the demand
Squiter hoping to heek Ohatfield's aggression, negotisted, on
September 88, 1649, a treaty with Henduras, whereby Tigre Island
eode to the United states fo eighteea months.5 In the meantiL
It Claytea to Cramptean June 122e 1849, In Manning, VII, 57-8
8, WillUi- Last !rI*,* 485-24,
8t e=n4 The Ite States and Latin Aerin. 155, (hereafter
referred to a La"s WO~ !f iM T w 7n
Nendurs rejected Chatfielda' ultimatum and the British Consul ordered
Captain Paynter, of the British Navyr, to eise the Island and hoist
the British flag. On Ootober 16, 1849O a British squadre arrived at
Tigre Island to protect the British oooupation. Squier the notiied
Chatfield that the British wir oocupying Ameriosa soil and asked him
to evacuate the rlansd. Chatfield refused, and Squier gav him six days
in which to yield possession of the island to the United States, or the
Amriucn Goveraent would soesider the oceupation a violent aggression
upao the United States.8 Admiral Horaby. leramig that Chatfield had
Mted without instructions. yielded possession of the islead in Doember,
1849, and it remained uder the Ameriean flag until the eoonlusion of
the Clayton-Buler Treaty when it w returned to Hondura .
The autioa of Squier in his duel with Chatfield placed the Whig
administration a very moeh the same diler as that which the Demoe
eratic admiatstration, under Pelkl had been placed by the British
activity ia Central Amoriea, Clayton had been informed by member of
the Senate 0Cemittoo of Foreign Relations that Congress would not sup-
pert him if he invoked the Mearoe Dootrine to oust Bagland from Central
Amrit hboeno Clayton had aso hole but to seek an advantageous seoa
promise through diploeatic oh~aels.
aO May t1 1648, layton had instructed George Benerot, United
States inister.to Great Britain, to sound out Lord Palmorstona British
I. Willims, "Cloyton," 48.44.
s. Hll,. Treated. 851.
S. WfTi-as. "Clayton' 44-45.
Foreign Soertary, as whether aInland intended to take a portion of the
Mosquito territory fer herself, or whether, u protector, she intended
to control or to obstruot the oaimeroe of the 8an Jan River, or to
maiatai n forts, or tablishments of any kind oa its banks.l The in-
strumticns oaveyed President Taylor's vies on the British enereaoh-
mints In Cetral Ameriola
The Prosident of the United 8tates has for som tie vieweTd
with anxiety te apparent deternaation of the British Goern-
nman to take advantage of the oemptrativ inability of the au-
thorities of Central Amerioa to repel aggression from abroad,
for the purpoooses t only of extending asooirtag to their om
ploeure, the limits marked out by the treaties between Great
Britain and Spa tfor the settlements of British subjects on
the Atleatio ooast of that oomtry, but also fer the conversion
of those sottloeuts into oP ties o of a charatr by no means
xathorised by those teartioes
Baneroft was nstrustod to assure the British Minister of Foreign
S.. in questilolng the title of the Mosquito King to the territory
elated for him, this Ooeramsnt is not aetuatod by ebitious
motives, or by my fooling in the least unriendly toward Great
It, however, Her Majestyj' Goernment gave the impression of continuing
in the stops she seemed to be taking in Central America, Baneroft was
to addes a formal written protest to the British Gooernmet.4
Beneroft being a Domneratio appointee~, whe the Whig President
took offtti he oensiderod resigning. e wrote to a friends
1. 0layto to Banoroft, May 2, 1849, in Manaincg VII, 3.
S. Ibid., nU.
4 as to Dallas, April 7, 1659, Ibid., 204.
ad Case beon looted I should hav remained hero a oo*rta
number of months and then, froa love to letter, have roeignod
a port in whih I have been nearly long enough.
Benroft was influonsed in not resigning by two fetors t first his
wife did not want to gTie up her resident in Londona whee she was
vry happy and seoendly, Banereft hoped that the Whigs would permit
his to remai lasg em gh to negotiate a treaty by whioh Amnrie would
gain a shara in the British coloniall West Indian trad in return for the
epeing of Amlrioma coastwise shipping to England*. however it boosam
appjat, after tWebster' attack an the proposed convention that Ban-
oreft would not be ablO to acoamplish his seooad purpose should he re-
main In England. Moreover, instead of being permitted to negotiate
the trade treaty, to which he attached so moh niportanee, Baneroft was
instroted to enter into negotiaties for the withdrawal of the British
from the Mosquito shore.
After many solioitations Banoreft was finally granted a oonferoene
with Lord Palmerstoa whe seed as reluctant as did Baneroft to die-
oues the Mosquito question. During the brief oanftrenoe, whih was
brought to an abrupt end when Lord Palwerston mw ealbd to a cabinet
meeting, Bnereoft did not stress the Aneriean point of view. Ho had
been o~ovinr d as early as January It, 1849,1 that Palmersto would not
rooodo an the Niouragc m question, and ia his only interview with the
1s Willson, Bookloi America's jaNsadoer to 8257
(hoerfter referred to Wb11a1 __P~_or).
to Ibid., 526.
84 l'rOef to Bauhaman January It, 1849, ito anwing VII, 296.
British Poreign Minister he did little more than ask questions whioh
gsao Palmersto an opportunity to explain the BriUsh positias il Cen-
tral Amerisca1 aBnorofts first question was whether Ingland intended
to appropriate for itself the town of San Juan, or any part of tho so-
oalled Mosquito territory. Palmerston answered "lo-You know very
well we have already oolonies enough." Next the Amerioan Miniter
asked "In whose hands is San Jun do lioaragua at this time?" Palmer-
ston was fotrad to replys '"or the present in those of English Con-
missiteners* Thoe Banroft inquireds "Is not this the an ocoupaties
by England?" Palmerston admitted that is wass but that the oooupation
was temporary. Toward the and of the onversation# Palmerston asserted
that Ban Juan do Nlioaragua might be olaimed by Costa Rioa as well as by
Niaragosua. This, however, was proptly denied by the Costa Riean
Ministr to England, who assured Boneroft that his country had never
elaied Ban Juan and that the port had always belonged to Nisaragpa
S*ior Je do Maroeleta, Nioaragua Minister to Belgium was in Lnadan
at that tlie to ocemor with Franoisoo Castellon .who was attempting to
arrange a settlement of the Mosquito claims with England. Lord Palmer-
stons without any inclination to renew his interview with Banoroft,
held a long coanforece with the Noaragfun Ministers. After this on-
forenOe, Castellon seemed more despondent than oveor and a the ev of
his departure -rqf Lunda, July 12, 1849, he addressed a note to
1. Baneroft to Clayton, August fthe day of the mth was omitted
ia the dat line of this disptor) y 1-9" B Ibid, 04.
4. I roft to Clayton. August, 1849, in Maming, VII, 304-S06.
Bonrott telling him of the obstiasuy wt which Palmerst had dis
regarded the friendly proposals of lioaragua. In his doepeadense
Oast*11e wrote I
This situation which unfortunately is too anifest not to
oaftess frankly, has inaduod m to adopt the project of namex
atioa of the Stkate of Nioarags ,J7 San Salvador sad Boaduras
to the United States Coafederation nd we wish to work for
its realisatia .r o.
Basereft hose to dismiss the proposal by an elaborate exprssion of the
usmblitiue policy of the Talted states.
Ih Bmn anreft wea otitfid that he was to maks ready to return to
the Unitod Staotes he expledod
]ld he Lthe Prosident7 treated m as any ome of his predeoes-
sore woual haIe doae rfLould have resigned with honour sad
But now would it not be ridiculous for to resign when I an already
supersedtod The administration does not ast frankly."3 Ibued with
resesatntm Banoreft emitted the sam offense of which he had aeoused
Zshary Taylor, by refuting to reaisa at his post until the arrival of
President Taylor appointed Abbott LawroeneO a Bostao politician who
had refused a plae is the new Cabinet, to replace Bmnuroft. In the in-
tortal between the departure ot Banoreft and the arrival of Lawrenr s
layton instructed illian C0 Rives, the newly appointed Minister to
Froae, to stop by London and to oall upao Lord Palmsrstoe. It w
1. Ibid, 506.
WVRTMse, Ambasadores, S0.
8. Ide t, 1
4. UTSton to Rivos, August 1, 1849, in Maaning TVII, 36-39.
Imperative that PrOeident aylor's vlwe oneoorning the Mosquito pro-
tootorato end the sesure of San Juan do ioearagua be oounioate d to
tho British oveormont Ismodiately. News of the hise treaty had been re-
ooitod in Amerioa, sad Clayton knaw that when the substance of the treaty
reehod Landon it would eause difficulties in the negotiations soneorn-
nag the Mosquito ooatroversy* unless the Amerioan policy in Central Amr-
lao was thoroughly aderstood by the British Foreign Offio.1
Whkn Rives resehod Lendeo Lord Palmrston was out of town, not to
return until September 8, 1849. This Kgav RivT almost two woek for a
study ot the state in which Banoroft had left the negotiations onemrn-
lag the liara guas ad Mosquite question. Palmrstan, when he returned
to Loadean seemed more willing to disouse the Mosquito question with
Rlive tha he had with Baneroft. The aoovrsation between Palmerston
and Rives was very oordial and the negotiators agred an two major is-
sues first that no nation should oxeroiso e lusive pcotrol ver the
navigation of the Ban Juan Rivors sad second, that it was to the interest
of humanity and of the general oemere of the world that fouds and
disseasaio among tho nations i Central Amerioa. espooially that be
teen ioaragua mad Costa Rioa oonoering the dispuat over thoir bound-
aries, be settled posab le Hwever, it was apparent that eaeh geeran-
anet suspected the other of attempting to gala exolusive control oer
the probable interoeoanie routes despite the fact that both overmnats
had disavowed that intention.
1; Williams, Clayton," 47-48.
i. Rives to Clayton, Septoeber 25. 1849, in Manning, VII, 812-17.
lives ws inetruntod that it was of muoh Iportanoe that England
should give up all pretensions to the Mosquito oeast and to
Bring it fe oeetrovers7 to a spedy sloes, ea way or an-
other. We are ready for either alternative. If we met have a
oUesiten with Geat Britain upe~ this matter, the sooner we
understand it the better for us.
Fortunately, Rives did not press the demands for Englnad to renounce
her protetorste ever the Indiansa for, while Plmerston was willing to
*ompromise in ether matters, he was firm n upholding the Mosquito pro-
teetorate. oR admitted that the Mosquito 'King' was no more a king then
he or Rives but he oontndod that the British Goverament had rooognisod
the indepondoneo of the Indins and had for more than a century given
them *toksm of independence sad protoetiea as an independent stato
l.. Rives reviewed the history of Spanish. Freneh, Dutoh. and English
treatment of the Indianas pointing out that, although the Indians were
roeooiseod to have certain possessor rights in the property, they had
never heretofore bon treated as independent nations. Lord Palmersato
admitted the principle but stubbornly asserted that "the ease of the
Mosquitos vas sui gsenris and stood oe its own peculiar eircumstanoes.
If RklNorste had been convinced that England's position were untenable,
it would be too mnoh to oxpoot his to renounce it without a chanoo for
his government to *'sar its faoO**
Rives, although he was not instroutod to do so, informally
1, Williams, 'C01yteon." 0-61.
S. Miller, H., Treaties and Other International Ats of the Unitd
States of Americae V,"7YT1=f To ~ref rrU o -ias TlrTr.i"S-'
W eIn Btes.)
a ". mTIS.0 Tx1.
suggested that it would be oonduolve to better relations between the
tu" ountrioe it America for her part might use her good offices with
Nioaragua to remove any political impediment to the execution of the
groat work of oonstrueSing an isthbian sanal) while Great Britain should
use her influeone with the Mosquitos and Costs Rioa for the asm purpose.
Palmerston rfeived this suggestion in "the most favorable muaner," and
Rives lIft OCrltoa Gardeas feeling that Her Majesty's Governmnt we
willing to cooperate with the United States in regard to the e*aal
project*. However, the situation refined very moh the sam as it had
ben before Rives stepped at Londont the Amerioan government still in-
sisting that the British withdraw from the Mosquito shore the British
Goveomet still refusing to yield to the desuad.
Although Olayteo in none of his dispatohos or iastruotions to the
Amerioan Ministers gave any suggestion of willingness to negotiate a
onal settleenot without first settling the Mosquito question, Abbott
Lawrences the now Minister to Oreat Britain, wrote to Clayton, October
19, 1849, that he was of the impression that bngland was willing to mke
a joint guarantee of a canal whioh would be open to the nations of the
world on equal terms, and that suoh an agreement oould be made without
first settling th Mosquito question. Clayton, however, in his in-
structions to Lawronoo, October 10, 1849, emphasisd the importanoo of
first settling the.Mosquito disputes stating that th views of Lord
1. Ibi4** 7t3.84.
I. Ut-reeo to Clayton, Ootober 19, 1849, in Meaniny, VII, 318.
Palarston, as expressed in his interview with Rives, were in such eon-
flist with hose of President Taylor that it persisted in, they might
lead to a serious misunderstanding. As soon as Lawrence received this
dispatch, he sent assurances to Clayton that he would shook an imediatt
deisieo on the Mosquito question. Lawrenee than addressed a note to
Palmsrston, without mentioning the arguments provided him by Clayton
against the British protetorate over the Indians. The British Foreign
Minister mad two replies to Lawrenae's note. In one, he assorted that
it was not the intentiea of the British Government to oeoupy or oolanise
Nicaragua or Costt Ries and that his Goveroment was willing to enter ina
to a joint guaraat** of the neutrality of a canal to be open in oomon
to the nations of the world. In the other, he reasserted the British
elaimn on the Mosquito coast, and warned Lawrence that the 8quier treaty,
whish engaged the United States to endeavor to foreo the British to sur-
reader Greytom to Nicaragua, would if ratified, "involve the United
States i n a unprovoked aggression toward Great Britain."
Clayton interpreted Palmerstone' offer of cooperation with the
United States in opening a eanal to mean that
*.. the British Ministry persist in regarding the Mosquitoo as
a sovereign State, and that their consent alone is noeessar for
say arrangements involving the use of the port of Greytown.
1. Clayton to Lamrenee, October O0, 1849, in Miller, Treaties of
the United States, V, 7Y7.
LI7Errenoe to Clayton, November 8, 1849, in Manning, VII, 519*
8. Palmersto to Lawrene, November 18, 1849S the soeend of these
notes was marked "Private and Confidential,' Ibid., 8t2-24.
4. Clayton to Lawrones, Deeeuber 10, 18T7 Ibid., 65.
President Taylor had addressed Congress on the Amrioan oanal policy
in his Annual Messae of Doember 4, 1849* Le Journal de Debat
nade the following ommant on the President'ts nasage
Tader any other President we should hae probably seen em*
bittered the quarrel which has broken out between Mr. Chatfield,
the Consul General of great Britain in Central Amerioa, and
the United states agent Mr. Squier, about a little island,
whieh sees to be of same importance with regard to the proposed
Oenal fer uniting the two oomans through Niaragua. The dispAte
was, moreewor, eonnoted with another, of a muoh more serious
nture, as the oanal itself was the subject. Certain oitisnr
of the United State8 had obtained a conueesion for making this
esmal. The loal agents of Great Britain, and at their insti-
ptca the sovereig of the Mosquite Indians, who appears with
good reason to be merely a tool of British policy, opposed the
mexoutieo of that enterprisoo
At other ties the message on suo a subject would have boon
an explosion of warlike patriotism.
However, the London am inmore suspicious of the moderate words
of the mussu e It explained the peaoeful tone of the speoh by as-
sorting that Congress was oomposed of a majority of Demorrts and the
President was a Whig, sad that he was merely "feeling his way."
The English and French newspapers met hv anticipated a war mes-
sage for, although the Proident's words were moderate. Taylor did not
yield in .ay reepoot tfro his determination that Oreat Britain nst
relinquish her laims in Niaraguat
No such power should occupy a position that would enable it
hereafter to oeroiter so controlling an influna over the seo-
meroe of the world or to obstruct a highway whioh ought to be
dedicated to the e*meI uses of maokind.4
1. Taylor, 'First Jnnual MosagOeo Dooember 4o 1849, in Riohardon,
2. Litllte"a Li Ap. XXIV, 611-12.
4 yTers. "*First Anmnal Mensag4 Dee abo r 4 18849 in Riehardona,
Six days after President Taylor delivered his message to Congress,
Clayton wrote Lawrnote
This Ooeromnnt, however, oan never acknowledge the independence
of the MosquLtoes or admit that they have ay rights of eoreigafty
over the port of Oreytown or the country adjoaent thereto,
On Dooembor 14, 1649, Lawrenooe ddressed a note to Palmerstoen in-
forming him that the Squier treaty would probably be presented to Con*
ress and asking the British Minister whether England would transfer
the protectorate of the Mosquitos to Nioaragua. This note provided
Palmrston with an opportunity to relinquish the British claims i the
disputed territory and, at the same time allowed him to "sawv the tface
of Her Majesty*' Government. The aooeptanee of Lawrence's proposal
would not deny that England had a right in the territory! but would
merely transfer that right to Nioaragua. However, Palmerston ohose
to ignore Lawresnoe* request for an immediate reply and there was a
lull in the negotiations.
1. Claytoa to Loarenee Deeember 10, 1849, in Mennicng VII, 58.
2. Lawrence to Palmrertong Deoember 14, 1849, Ibid*, 333.
THE DIPLOMATIC COMPRCOISB OF 1880
During the lull in negotiations after Lawrenets note of Deon-
ber 14, 1849, new of Ohatfield's seizure of Tigre Island reached the
United States. After receiving a dispatch froa 8quier officially in-
forming his that Ohatfield had raised the British flag in Honduras,
Clayton wrote to Lawreneo, Deomnber 29, 1849, declaring that this aot
was irreooneilable with Palmorsteu's note disavowing say intention to
uelemis, settle, or fortify" any prt of Central Amertio1 Lawreneo
was instruetod to eater a written protest iinmdiatoly, should he find
that Chattfild had astod an orders from the Foreign Office* Clayton
further declared that "if the British aggression n Hpn Honduras be not
promptly disavowed,# he would speedily submit the Squier treaty to the
Senate withoutt awaiting further negotiation."
In the meantime, the Demoeratio newspapers hadoda sed Clayton of
permitting England to extend her control in Central Aneries. Public
sentiment was aroused to oush a pitch that Clayton feared, unlss an
immediate settlement were made with England Congress might take such
astioe as would mais poaoful adjustment of the dispute impossible.
Lawree was at that time too iI to oonduot the negotiations In Lmadonm
hoenoe Claytao turned to Sir Henry Buler, the new Minister from England.
1. Clayton to Lawrense, December 29, 1849, in Manning, VII, 66-58.
in hope of arranging noegtiatioms in Washington
Popular domer for oe settlement was daily beooeing more urgent.
mngress finally yielded to these demaaa to tho oxtont of calling for
all eorrespondenoso o the Cntral Amerioa oontroversy. The House of
Representatives adopted, January 24, 1850, a resolutin selling for oor-
reopmderoo an the subject sand on January 88, 1850, the Senaot adopted
Mr Doualasts resolutie requesting the President to otue to be laid
"before the Senate n open session i in his opinion consistent with
the public interest, otherwise in exooutivo session" all oommnioations
between the Departmnt of State and the late Chargl d'Affairee to
Guatemala. Because of the public eoitement and its apparent offeots
upe Congress, Bulmr was able o tforeO tho Mosquito question into the
baekgrounl by persuading Clayton that an imodiate setllemnt of the
omal issuo oould be ado without involving th Moququito question.
Bulwk r explained
Our great object therefore, as it has appeared to m, is to
displace the diseuresi froe the olais of Niaragua and Mosquito
ea which it is unlikely that the two gorements of Great Britain
and the United States should agres and bring it to tho oonsidoera
tim of the anal n whih it is almost certain that their views
will be identioal.'
Lawrenoo alo had hold this view when h had first arrived at his post
ti Lendon, but ho soon realized that the oaeal question oould not be
1. Clayton to Blver, January 81, 1880, in Manning, VII, 569
2. Travis, I. D., The Histo!r of the ClayndBulwr Troaty,
118-14, (hereafter refeorr-I t Travls)*
s. Riohardeen, V, 814.
4 a ialobe XI, Part I, 833.
68 Ibid, 11.,
adjusted without first settling the Mosquito quptimon1 Olayton had
insisted upon this latter view throughout tho negotiations in Londong
but new, in order to avoid the subemissie of the oorrespondenoe of Hise
uan Squior to Oongress, he oonsent4e to a temporary suppresion of the
BDlwor, without waiting for speoiil instructions, suggested that
he nd Olaytob take up the whole issue fresh, using the oanal question
as the sore of their disoussionso These oonvrsations wore to avoid
as far as possible the Mosquito protectorate, and Bulwor understood
that the Squir treaty would not be submitted to the Senate until after
the negottiatns had been oampleted or until they had ftildt The no-
gotiators agreed that, if the respective government did not approve
their draft of a treaty, the basls of whioh should be Lawrenoa s note
of November 8, 1849, and Palmsrstea's reply of November 18 1849,6 the
matter should stead as if no treaty had been dtraftad
Uader tho arrange ents, the negotiators engaged in what the
LOadis e allied a struggle 'for generalship in the use of term."
laytes searheod the dietienary fto words which he hoped would aman
the withdraml of the British from the Mosquito soast and which would,
at the same timoe not be objeotimable to tho British Foreign Offioog
while Bulwer hoped that by avoiding the disouesien of the Mosquito
1: uoa 4".47,
8 l Troaotis,, 85.
So Searse *L M Histe of Amerioan gbreiml Relations, 256,
(hereafter referred to ai oa....
4. Willsoe, r riodly Relationas 1C9.
,. Miller, Trahies of iTted Btateu, 1, 6S88
s8, Williams ams 'wTon SM .-
qu(etiea e night ette the emal issue without reliaquishhi the
DBriish Ulaims ia Oenral Asmrioa, llmr believed that Ameriea opo
positii t to e losquit protedtraWt had grown out of the *i al
question s that if it oeald be srttled, the eppositie to th Meo-
quito proteotorato would subside.1
The angotiates dolare that Iit as the purpose of the te govern
meats is foermltia this treaty to s t forth
*. their Tiw eal Iantentios vith retfrraw to say asUs of
oemilen tiem y ship *caal hioh my be oemstrueted between
the Atlsnti sad Paifi oeensa Irb wr eof the river San Ja
do Nieourse usa either bott tho lels of Ma~augu, to say
port er place as the Pacifl eoeom
Ia thi pruable ther was oiag t ge rse to div r to fiullties be
twon the two sgvmrnmsto but in te first, sad M et important, article
oa the treaty li tLhe soer of the later disputes evr the intorpr-
tateit o the Arety. That ar lel attempted to prevst the pro3eoeed
esmal tres falling uder the eoplete eestra l of either of the two ce-
trwttig parties. Is order to uhiee this guarsate, Olayte believed
that Oreat Britain mst give up her protetorate over the Mosquito
Isleads mad all her laim to dominim ever the eastern *oest ef Central
AMerie. X rralisced homevt that Seat ritals would not readily
agrp to suto a stipulatiCf in the treatyj terefore, he searehbd for
a word whiLc would require the reliaqushing of those elait without
l2 Traval 115.
I. itoa Latft Amoria, 1I4-5.
being otissfu t te reat Britain. I thogMS that he had ftoe that
wvd. Pa wrrte had ruee ia his note of november 18, 1849, net to
%slamisos settU3 ow fortify' y part of Omtral Amriae. By sub-
stitutilg o~eapy tfr s**tl," Claytoa hoped to deitet the British pri-
teusieu la Oeatral Ameri t. AlthouLh there was s me ting of the a4ind
am t um eagc f **oUw.'" hler agre3 t the Vordiag oa the treaty.
tn a dispakth giving am osest of his "otiSe, Bhlwr wrote Palmersteas
Tbhro sr tia44 t pultieOs whisk oxtmd ftrther kMa the
mn engagemet, m Our part to se eour best enseavo rs to
obtas the tree transit et this fa a liter, itamekh a
that we ale La tkhe sid evrmntis agrsr as de the Unitel
States, not to oeuW or e lenmis qittur liearagus _7 costa
Riet, the Mosquito Oest, or suq puart Central Amrosar l brt
la ouasettag t thes provisieus I hew that I eenly sarry
out the views ad opilaies of Bor ajeostyt's GovrAsMat which
bae boes atlt mipreos a this subjects th ouh Isa lese
formal mamsrs .
the treaty we rstAy for tresmissis to the two goveramts so
February 8, 1850j bet withia a wok tro that dat it as domed ar-
satisftoerTy by the administratts at ashiagta. The President sad
his Gabilst thought that th first article et the teaty mw teo loes-
ly wrdeA to te OGreat Britaia to withiravw troa eotral Amerisc, sad
they dmam od a spei ttle pledge fram naglad stating dettfnily that
he wmu l withdraw. Prhasuat with this domam the Awriama 8oretsry
of State reqpened 4disussiai of the disputed article with Balwr, wh
ussor that he did set understand the tom *ounlUy to blad the tU
maties not to tahle or eeop poeeessit."4 Iuer delarle turther
1. Williams, Olaytea 5644*
8. Miller, Treaties ot the ite States, TV. 48.
that his SevMnrm t eauld Me agre to ase seu a ple4go u that ab
by tho Preesidt and his Cabineto Clayta was ow ready to abalea the
treaty Nf e mt have felt th hanpnoa's noose around his noek, for an
April 18, 1849, he had written Oritte~nda
0eagrl s met Settle all questiel of. demoti polieyr I will
eMtle the questiNs ef fWi!__e poelly J tLvo you leaI
to heagM a to sa unria net bring out Uh il roiues o1
mat* adtminstratie a its fore& g relations withwt eause ftr
empltiSt eya fram his e*B mieos
Nmwver, ulvwr su nor ineliued t break off negotia.tens for he
realised that Ingland was thereaftr not likely to get so advantageou
a troety I February 14# 1850 he addr M t4 ami t,01 ayFbn re-
affirming hi belief that the treaty satisfied th hnour & interests
f both parties. enda offering to suggest to Palmrston anything that
Claytew might desire to guaranty the neutrality and proteatio of the
Although Bu r was easleou to omtime negetiatioes at least
mutil after he had reewioL Parlnrstean opinita of the treaty whioh
he aaA Olsyta had dram up n Fobnuary 8 1860, he was Tvry moh die-
pleuasd by the President's demdA fr a spotfloe pledge fr the with-
droawl ef ncglead from Central Amrie. HB stated that his omatry
eould not take lend fre the Mosquito@ sad give it to jieareguas and
asbd iwh the Uaitoe States should seek a quarrel with neglead over
the Mosquito title It somod to Clayto that Bulwr thegt that
1. Willing. "*Olsytnr," 5
Iglea lt #e Vr llod upea to mahe a sorifino by thS first article
of the t aty I fetate this id" la his reply to Baulwrs note of
Februasy 1U stattigo
Thee is not me at thesc five Ooatrl Amrian states that
wmld not @am themsel.. s to us torrow& if ther would, an
if it is my seerst wort haowla y e are vlsmer to itP-4e
of th hare often e d sod to e sonoezd to the Ult.tt Titose
I .Si"aW"TOTFT" '"anM eotW Er" aT TE a"With i
I -oesat, Ind, i to o t t o se tests fu wo offtr to agpo
wita ye that we vill net occupy (or interpose to oxeroie my
dolmisa a on) nq sor o then, itf yo will aly o onset te ginv
up yeor llisaos with youI Mnpquite tkig .... If yo refuse
to oxtlnguish that Indiaa title or to bbndon the proetetorat
we shall kt ourselves at liberty to aUsoni a part of the
Oatml Amerim state or to,- ma my other *antraet with then
whie ou"r tkrests my diotate. The Pr ident thin that we
mak, by far, the greatest omoessiomns.
The above not wam read to Sulver, who a ll oal1d to ea Olaytom be-
for1 it dispatoho
Durlg the sam resatim whiehk tellowd the readfig of this note.
Claytoa offrted to bas mother compromise. is suggested that the word
'ooupy" be iaterpretd as providing tor the withdrawal of British pro-
toetis from he territory *Ulml by the Indiana to a distebee o*
sbout me bhndred miles r fra the 8m Jun river. Bal'er reJeted
this pfrposalf, tating that usk an arrangemo t would m an that area
a seeo of strft betweIm a amb et of slamnte ad that no torml
change l the treaty seuld be mad s til hO b d heard frm the British
'hile i uti g tfor a reply trea Palmsrste giving his views a the
1. Iillaum, .Olayt.ea, ST.
:: r iM. "O isyt." 7-4.
trole dram up br Olaytem ad Blulwor Plmeretem*e diea ml of Chat*
ftoldA1t m our t Trig Island reaihad Washbigta.t ulonr had iaw
struoted LmseaW that sales a dis 4tea l et the British aggresei
Vre perutly made' the Squier tresty wou be seat to thoe Oeate withi
mot tuLrth Aaglo-amertom negotititimo The disavowl had bm late In
resohinl Washlngtaa, so Presidnt Taylor, on aroh 19s 1880, had ubsa
tor the advrio at th SenaIto a the ratiolstei ot the hSquie treaty.
Ia his message o the 8nate, duittiag this treaty, Taylor had re-
Viewed the British aggressi tea mn Setral Amrie sad, ameuat with die-
ain. bad poinLtd oat the apparmst disregard by th Peol AdJinistratie
of that aggressiaO Taylor had informed the Soente that his policy to-
ward the Central Amrioa attfir had obem e of "proteting the work rot
euastrutitr an istheita sng enad bli Sa the Govermat of Iloaragan,
through w2se territory it would passe *lo to protest t." eN hbad
eaplaiand that he did ast approve the si treaty, ad that he had net
sutmitted t to the Saute beeaue it was uatherised and
*.. bmmese n the *lit day of Asmber last 1S4 lfdard
CawUoah n bolta saredited to his goormnt o eharu
d'affa&iroe t the State oft Nierguam in a seo to the
oersetary Of State **, delard he was ely empowered to a*
*hsau ratifiestiena f the treaty seMoluded with Mr. Bquler,
aud thtst the special ooea tima eaeluMd, at uatmsu "by
Mr*. ise the ehagi d4aftalre of the Uitd Stateif, and
SIa~r Selrv the eoanemissior of NioaragnP had bem, as u I
publitol mdA tliversally hwam ditapprovd by his Oofmenmmt.
1. Ibid., 58.
I. inCTard o T, 1 5s-40 Taylor to the Senato of the lulted
tastest Marnh i*s 180.
The Prsident polated out that the ie treaty gauanted th entire
Hrriterr of NiearaguaMM ile the Squier treaty merely reCogdid t
rigtS of sveriggty and propg n h w isk ragan had In and ove the
lime of the sema prodded for in the treaty. In reomW endtig ratifl-
etiae of the latter Taylor had said a
S.. ftr the best sensidratioa whioh I have been able to give
to tls subject g ow judgmst is oeavineed that the claims of
iearag are just, sad that as our oomeree aad intercourse
with the PItleio require the a epni g f this oemuaioati frem
cocO to *esa it is our duty to ourselves t assert their
fLiearaguat'. justice .
I shall rtify this treaty in ease the Soate shall adrise
It was oaly a few days ather Taylor had subitted the Squier treaty
to the Seaate that Bulwvr received Palmerston's approval of the Clayton-
hlwar tratybl The British Minister i Washint was also instructed
that he might give Olytra a note stating that Englaad had no intention
fe doing any of those things whih Palaersoan had disavowd, of Noveabr
1,1 1849, $a his note to Lawrne4 Palmerton hopd that the note
wheh he asthorised b2elr te hand to Olayton would quiet American
suspiioa of BEngland*s intentions a Central America, a public seati-
most agaisut angland which was at that time growing rapidly in the
United Staties Although Palmrston had disavowd the seizure of Tigre
Island, he had at the sae tim mads an equally repugaat declaration,
1. Riehardson, V, 8489.
2. IbidD, 9.40.
o Trvl, 11T.
4. Williams. OClayto," 68-b9.
s. Travrls 11s8
o assorted that Bar Majety's Government proposed to satisfy its
olai1 s against Central Amerioa by any means allowed by the Law of Na-
tions. This asMertion served to strengthen and onfirm the already
prevalent suspioln that England ras determined to gpla possession of
the proposed oanal route through Nioaragua.
It mast be remembered, however, that Palmrston had the task of
quieting public opinion at home as wll as abroad. Should he have mado
an unqualified disavoal of the Tigre Island affair, he would undoubted-
ly have ben saousod in England. of yielding to Anerioan bullying.
One English newspaper had already, February 9, 1850, mado the following
United States.-Tho Model Rlpublie is manifestly at a loss
for sme national missions it has nothing for it@ oitismns to
do but to aseulato wealth aad bully the world whibh is an
The Zaur mrade a vehemenB t attack on the American sense of justice,
and asserted that Mr* Lrarnee had throwm out not my wroks ago" mhat
that paper considered an "*asy and honorable soaproaois of no exolusiv
privileges to either country" in the construotico of the proposed oenal
to the Pitfioe.
As public opinion grow more tease ia both countries negotiations
again seenmd near the breaking point. Bulwur had learned with veiled
indignation t.t the Squier treaty had beeo submitted to Congress. He
had believed that the troity tpild not be sulmited until the
1. 8ers, S8.
So Itetoll*s Livilg A, XXAIXT, 1o8.
4. T'di ihC~r""-
ngotlatiLts h *theM tarile or h bo t ompleoto4k MA b proft*oe
to rogr the suomissian of the treaty to tko amst*o a broeah of
goe4 faith e the pa t Hof thait States a Ola mt m e w r. asurt
him that the qlter trety was till i the hnas oft te OClittoo m
Foroeigp latims sa4 that it orAld still be o*hmnA *t harmaoiso with
the treaty mior negotMtim with BglnaI. rr agait 01aytft seems to
havw ba playtmg a we oft te-ptiiou ter he ocnuteplatcd a ob ang only
Is he *lumse regardin Hie use of the ouil I1WO Bilwav apparently
thMugM he oei4rod a change l the clause relating to Ameriaest
repOCptimR oft isucragu right ot property L the osaal. IWverthoelos,
the way to a prsotl settlement of the dispute loolNs tor the oenmat.
elars tor it 01aytes woro willing to havr the SIqer treaty o reaified
tha it Imvo be e esistent with Dritaiaut Central Amriea policy,
Inglaud onrtaily oould sot objet to Amalric's ratifiotim of the
treaty It its thus mo4itio tfomk Bklwr ses to havo bom so *m-
vtrise by G1lytms statement that he wrote t Plmaerntea ashkig fi
poers to egotiate a treaty wit the N isaragua aget em the btsi of
thoe mdified Squier traSty.
Buluv w a noet howvor pumitted to labor lo1 under that os-
riotlteL for Priest t Taylor had beomo suspicious of the wording ot
Palmsrstes* note ot Novemer 1Ip A hat determined that. Bler mat
1. travis. 119.
I. Willisms, Olaytrmeo ***
be infered that the Unite States did not reopnise the Mosquito
title. Beneoa o April S, 1850, an a Cabinet meting a letter ws
prepared stating that nothing in the treaty should be
*s, o olruaste to e en a6disian oa the part of this govern*
aeat, of say right or title, whatever Ia the Mosaquto SKlag to
ay part of Oaetral AmerJos or of what is oalle the Mosquito
**asrt the British govermeat ha lUng b on lly awar* that
this goveTr ent has denied the title ollaimed for the Mosquito
Inaiasu, atd of the ftat that the 0 Bated State has negotiate
a treaty (now before the Segnt) reopgnisin the title of Nioaragua
ever the line of the Oanal.
This letter stated clearly what Clayton had tried t id in mbigoly-
worded tatmenmts. In asmneotia with the Cabinet letter of April ,.
01ayte addressed a private note to Bulwer stating that the intorpre
tatia of th treaty as set forth in the above letter was vital to the
ratifitation of the OlytonoBlwvr treaty by th Senate.
ulr A did not hoeitat to empress his resen~w t of the Cabinet's
official not** In a private letter to Cnlyto he states that the soa
maisatoen of April 6 us un unprovehd and needless "set of hostilityi
and that the United States had *In no kindly manner brom an agre ment
to svoid discussion of the Mosquito question an arrangement which had
until then boee lived up to in a friendly spirit by both.
Clayton replied rather impatiently
If you mUst disagree with us aC that point osn you not
&re & to differ without making a national quarrel about
to W!Tiams. "Clayton,' so*
4, VMTS$& rid lo tim!# 170.
fe wro t that the Presidlet soul. not understand hew the statmmt
sould be looed upym au offensive to nor lajesty*e 0ovorot sime
bthat avnewrm had bee pevioauly intfornd officially of the Amriesa
piat of vier. It is evidt that h Clyto s a Baur did not erneur
ia the marina et n the Baquier treaty sad it was President
Taylers duty to otaf ilelarly the Amsrloa point of view lest he be
aesueAd f suppressing something about lhiftk th British OSevermeat
ehauld be iaformad.
AltheuM& lwer's reply was doefiat, his objoetie was apparently
net so moeh to th eontt of the letter of April I as to the fat that
it was 'offitlt as d awld, therefore, have to be filed with the State
papers. Ne wrote 0aytra that "people 4d not lihe to agre to be pub-
lieoy *lle4 litrs sad robbere and that, it the movement of the
Uated State felt it t nessary to state *oivly amd quietly that
the treaty uade negotiated did not reooegis the Mosquito title, he
wuld not refuse ea that seont to sip the treaty. Taylor finally
agred to withdraw the Gabinat letter of April G sad to leave out all
otffiial diseuasiL s of the Squier treaty r ad the Mosquito title wThile
ulvr agreed that the treaty should oatan the guaranty that neither
eumtry should ooupy, or fortify, or *olmisr, or assum or ozereie
a7y demiazm Over I ioearog, os0t Xiea, the Mosquito Qeat, or any.
paut ft oeatral Amrioes." Thus, after the addition t the above
1. W1liuo*, Olarytw," X1,
1. Witlhv1sea, tPra tl~tems, 1 1.
u. 8tlser 8'jW Slri 8, 1860, oli harts I. 189.
stiplattia es aftrt the isertit i t t e words *or ot uassL or
e ististag tales over T e same" lbetwos the words 'noatral Asrites"
sad "us will rteat rtala or the Viitod States' la Artiole XI at
Aft laeor aiditifat to Artieols Vi VI VII, the treaty dram up
by 01ayt sal Baier, a h February I, 1860, ws signed by the aegotiatesr
* April 1, f that year*.
Is MUbittlng tho trnay to the SIasto, April 3t, 1850, for advises
sad sensoa to its .ratifloetis Ppresidet Taylto said
Ihul4 this trstr be rtifi.ed it will ser in thoe lture
th liberatiam of all Oeatral Amsria from ny haa oft foreign
At the taL anretiatioms wre oprend with Xiearu u e fr the
oamstrVtii ef a ossal through her ttbe itty I fnd Oe oat
Britaia la peosessim of nearly halt otf Sotrol moriaes as the
ally sad prett of the Mosquite Kiag* It has bee my object
l naegtiugla th is treiay set ly Mt s eour the passage
seros the Irth to thOe aGw meant an estitas eof th
United Statei by tthe ostretifa of a preat highat y ddiiated
t the se, of a ll natives am equl terma, bt to malntat the
iaop da sad sovereignty of all the central Ahmrirus
In ths Mesag the Prosident implied tbt onest Brita had bee
*oted' frae QOwat AnMrlen inearv luewr's letter to Palweratoa
laint tg tht eangs made I t ie rigtal tresa y, shio that sbIwsr
dl usot plaee tat intesrstim as the treaty. On April 8, 1800,
he wrote to Plestems
I sad set Say tht shol yeo Lordship wish to msk aay
further staemrat as to the viw of ot I~ jety Goverment
with resi et to the prMotorato of Movquiteo that statement
aes still b nothing i the present *omustima is affirmed
3. Ifrscm, V, 481 taylor to the Sename o te itd4 states,
April I3, 16B0.
thr*npeno but aothiag is abad"M4 d.1
This 4iare~st had 4owlpedp4 lts m isose before President Tayer,
hadA lulitte4 VS tute to the ISt * IIw had officially ottified
OatW that Pnm rite kad renoled vor. that me Amersas wre
about to establish themelver s l Ruateo, ame of the Bay Islamd, hs woh
wur at that a tiOp i bh possessia of the Rlepblie of almdurtau but
dhis had bbm ee grpitL 4 t variou times by rMeat Britala., Palorste
had docsapo that the Isleads wor oaly British e, J. Lut had
aetuYfa ) bma settled by British Iubjeets and govened by a offioor
appoiMted by the saperinatemn t of llie l Balver, oaemnyOla this
prnteit 01t ytl sated that he hoped that the ite States GOo.
erameMt oVU tako all possible stops to prnver Amorti m aggreassClm
that quart r.4 Realilt the diffloultio whih the Amiaistlrtie
faed by aot having a msuftioert majority is the SImoat Olaytea had
pstpeMod h o rpjly to Bhir'sl amo t Umtil ante the treaty had bee
let to the Snlafo*. E the at4d Dlwer to vlthdra the offslial
prtet to the alleged agpUessim of Amoris as m the Iresad o tf lua
Mi to ai ititio thearer a private note. Wore the offtiial protest
permitted to sta ra it wml have to be seat to Cogress, whoe it
ight wste the ltpessteias, khe r true or talsr that Bngllad wa
laying clas to s territeoriee s AmIeriea.
1. bsalh r to hPalmert April 28, 180o, is IWhartbm, 18e.
3. W slllla *lyton',* 4*1.
4. t .
hlwi, realisiag that suoh oa impress i aght be fatal to th
ratifitttim of th tro ty. withdrew th ottfiial protest.1 Although
01~oya ndsa Sluer had made great efforts to asortain t rt he opinion, ad
to via te support of soantors during the period of nrgotiatima n their
ws *sill mwh oppesities to the treaty in the b8nat. Baneroft~ ap
pareuty sti11 nalevlmnt beeuse of his reel frm his post Ia England,
had used his satOues lo a attemu to defeat ratifoatioi of the
treaty. On April 185O, ho had written to the notable John A.
It Sir Nunr7 Butwr *o *eoood ina having the te first pro-
visius of this treaty ratitfed by the lSeat, he will deeorv
a British porageo The o sidotti n for our oonmesims is the
reiltauirbsat ef he lai to he protentorate of tho Mosuito
shore- abwtnurd ad afoulded that it kas boee ridioulod v.n
by te dm daes T_ Trul Sir beay has brought his elain to
a good market he foa a purohMse in Mr ,0layton. The
treaty altogter revrss th Moareo Dootrias. and establishes
it agat ourselves rather than European goverimets.
Hover, Mr. NI nerofets efforts w e u~ssauessfal ts h trewty ws ro-
ported, Na 1y 1850. fta the omCitt '"without amendments' end
aeptelO with prasti#llly no diseursian, ma *oy 2 by a rvte of 88 yeas
and 11 aI.I
OClyt s had given Daulr a private noe stating that the Unitl
1. Williamsu "Olayto s." *6 6.
"'Letter of Daeroft and Buanas" ta Am ries Historieal
R wir To 99-101.
thoe is disagremsmt smuag sra historians as to uherat the
teo was It to 10 or to lli In th tL de Ap 4 to Othe C soail
#lobe, RII, ISY, Seoator Dougla explLaS t sE 'M r irIii U ini
r werre mtbut ton vos agac st the treaty roor4d. This, he asserts,
was d to m- err the part *f the elerk who tailed to rewor Mr.
Deglaf* voto. e states that he called this to the attentim of the
*olok sad the list was reisod, making the oorreot tally show *elv
votes aaias the treaty.
Stage had desire ts, oeupy sUtthl or fortify ay of the Day
Islaads. ad- asseur~ g ret Britata that Amuriconm etisens wishing to
establish theoselve there would re v no oounteman frro the United
ItSta goverment lNverthoelss Pa2leraten bIsaU supicious of Clay*
teams attitude toward Dulwr's official not*. .o instruoted tulnwr to
had to the Ambriemon lrewtary of State, before the exhanuge of ratifl-
oations, the following deelaratioas
In prootedig to the. eubheng of the Ratifioations of the
eonvemtion signed at Wasinhtoa em the 1tlh of April ,
1860 7 between kNr Britaamilk Majesty gad the Wa tat
of A-rTlea relative t the stablismtet of a eemmittia
by ship eamal boetme the AtlSatie ad FPafiCe Osceuas
uAdorwigcelo lN Briltamik lMajety's Plenipotemntary, ha
reswooln r ajesty'rs intruotioas to dlares that HN
Majesty does not udersoand the engaenats of that oanventin
to apply to Bar Majesty's settlement at Honduras or to its
elr Majosty*s Itatifisation of the said oonventio is exchanged
mder tkh explicit Doleratim above mntia toned
Done at Washingbat the 29th day of Ju4me 1880.
The British Minister was instructed by his govenmsnt that, should the
Unite States rfuse two senset to this decoration, he wa to await
further lstruxtims before erabhagl g ratificationas
WmhM Buwm presnsate thi dlatratiota 01ayton was again ready
to abandon the treaty, e. thought Palferste intended that the stipa
latim I t he doelaratia should be embodied in the treaty. This would
mea that the treaty would have t be re-submitted to the BSenate
1. Clybtoa in hi momorsadu of July 5, 1850, states that
this datk wa not tlled when it was 4dliverd to hi*. See Manulag
VTi 89sY 1so, Miller, Itrties of tbo United Stat,, T, 88t.
f. Willss Frieondly elati!M, 173.
Mte trety had ms somer been approved ,b the enate thn there d-*
eloped a strong restiam against it, and Senator Kiag Chainrm of
the oenat Oenittb e On oreig Relations. had warned Clayton that,
should it be necessary to resulbait the treaty y it would not get a sin*
gle vote. Clayton also interpreted the wording "Her Majesty~ s settle-
anmt at endures and it* dopendoneasie" giving England a loophole
through ,htiek abe eight cxten her olata over the wheol or any part of
HBoadura, r at least ovr the Bay Islands. Clayton wA oconvia.
that neither the Presideat ad his Cabinst, nor the Seate would eo-
seat to reoopie sueh ma extension of British elaIs.
Bulwoer fearit that Clayton would abandoa the treaty at that late
somuat told Clayton that it would not be neossary to insert the dool-
ratio in the treaty. Thereupon Mr. Clayte said that
.., if the treaty requires.no nehage n it your doelaratiea i,
s I believe it ls wholly unameesaryj it an the contrary the
Treaty does require a shsage, then the delaratiLt eome too
latest The Seate has given its easatimon tehe msure as it
irs and to brig it before that body agaay at this season in
order to seure ease additional avatage vry vaguely defined
in favor of one of the Parties will be to loe its and to oreate
an eppositios ea that ve7r pent, which yoe wish to be and which
I oemnider to be now settled.
DBulWr realized that if there wer to be an eO&oSage of ratifieotioas
it mlat be ime1diat for ao August 6, 1860, he wrote Palarsteon
Bulwer to Palmerston, August 6, 1860, in Miller, Treaties of
the tited State", V, 86.
S.T"TiL 0 layton," 6T.
I. ulwer to PalaBersto, Angust 6, 1880, in Miller, Treaties of
the mat*& Vatee. VS 66.
0- to *OlaytWn.' 6T.
B5 luSler to Paleorstes, August 6, 1880, in Miller, Treaties of
the atited states VS. e M.
The newspapers had in~ded already begua stating that diffit
sultioe of sme klnd as to the emeluslea of th Treaty bad
arisea and it beem manifest that if the exchange of Ratii
fiostis ws postponed, with the kanwledg that this was be
*sauo the British Govownmnt had made orn doelaatim whioh
he Visited itats wouldd not agree to, such exhaang would never
He, therefore, without oronulting Palmeraton about not having the
dlularaties bodied in the treaty, suggested to Clayton that they
draw up a joiat doolaratio stating to what territories the treaty
Clayton. in frraing his roply to the declaration of the British
Minister, again tuAned 0t his diplomati e seme of attempting to hide
omefliotin views in a oloak of ambiguous language. Be had failed in
his former attempt at mbiguityj so this time he sought the aid of
Roverdy Johnlam, than Attorney General of the United States, in finding
a wordin that would exolude the Bay Islands from the applioatioe of
PImerstet's rservartien, On July 4, 1850, after he had found a word*
iag whioh eemed to hi to aooomplish his object, Clayton as the day
was a national holiday, invited Bulw r to his heom for the exohane of
Charles Kent ha written the following description of Mr. Bulwr
*Whener nl his more doliae negotiations he was la reality the aest
autious, hi wu seemingly the most negligent,' It was probably this
apparent neglifgeoe whih w ased Olaytea to think that his policy of
1: room, *al nl BI
,, t*n Or Nato ntal n| III I nn.
Ambiuaty wtld *snood. wmeve, wh the negotiators m t a July 4o
htler objbet4 to he wordin of Olytea's nooe. Mot of the night
nws spnat dtee aso the easing of the tm "Central Amoriea.l Final-
ly, about daybrak of Juy So the wording of the note was =ae aesptable
to the British iaisrtre It stated that th agents of the two Govra-
ants uandrstoo t t the treaty was not
0. to ijalulo te British settlement ia Kaduras, (OOmenly
called British BeIras, as distint trm the State of Honaura,)
netr t small iasands i tah neighberhood of that settlement
whidh my be laOm as its Aependeaoies. To this settlement, mad
thome isleads, te treaty we negotiate ws not intended by
either of us to apply. The title to their it aor wad has
bUe my ~IrtetiIe. thrughet the Whole negotiatia, to leave
a the treaty loaves it& without denying afirminag, or Ia any
way meddlit with tho soe, just as it strod previously. The
chairnu of elmittee as Foreign Relatimus of the 8enateo the
Krn. Wllisa IR 1A K iaforms a that "the Seato porttly
understkd that the treaty did net Intlude British EBedulras.
It was undesto to apply to*, rsa does include all the Central
Amerir n Sta0tes f guatemala, Readvas, San Salvafor, liaragua
at Costs l, wvit their just limit and proper dpemdamoies.
Clayts meaut to onude the Bay Islands frm the depeadenles of
British Neadrmas (a ame ~oiae by Olytoa to distinguish it ra the
Aepablit of Hwduras) by the words *mall islands is the neighborheed
of that e*ttlemm p at o me art t iolaud tl h Ia Central Aneries
by the words "with tier just limits ed proper dependmoieses.
iulvr, however, attomptle to thwar Clayton's purpose by a *outer
note station that he undo1erstd Claytel' reply as making that the
treaty did not include the emeptime stated i PalrsteI's nost.
1. Willow#t. I lTS
t. Miller, TelUsi ie r ited State, V.* V 4.S
Olaytom Wt lrm7'd Aiy rTa go MIimning, VnI, es..
4, wliume, a .Olatmr "..4.
s. kiwhr to 0laytn, Jduly 4, 1880, in Manlang VII, l98.
This Soto as first published Ia the BueD 1e6, end dat July 4,
1880.1 Tere s**or to be a dispute men hirter$ans as to whether
IalWr's aste was aoepte by Claytem. Bigloew, ai his book published
ia 1917, all$ the nsoe 'bogpes and "spurious, ol lainti that it was
ngglre late the aeh4ves of our Department of State."1 Ward thinks
it "Itpossible to avoid the ooaeluies that Buwvr'ts doolaraties of
July 4 wa insert*e in the Ameriean archives." Willla state that
it its hard to aveid those oselusim that Clayton did eoept the oounter-
statenat, but kpt it sa rt tf a ta rby not filing it with the
other papre eoaneeted with the ngtiaties."1 Miller Is as artain
au an be that at the tim of the oxehange the Sulwr not was not do-
lirore sad alaest a oprtaia that it was not eves writtoies Miller's
arC"Mts sad evidnoee seeM to warrant his sonelusie that Clayton and
Bulwr diseouseod eouatoerstatemat| but that no uh statemut was
ma&d before thse ehaog of ratifieotions. Travis avoids a deoisim
Ia the *estroversy butt thinks that, whether the note wvas or was not,
6cepted bV Olaytos, is uralportant bootuse the treaty wouldd not be
medifid without the aonseat of the Bsnto.7
Thus the 01ayteDaBlwer treaty left two disputes still to be
settled a one, whether the treaty demsandd the nmediato withdrmwl of
Miller, Treties ef the Ited States V, 691.
3. dM.. '- ""a'
.S Nistieal Jeuml. in, 304-1S.
iu 3 "IIGA, in.&.
Mlle, Treties of the aited Sta. V. *91.
6. itoi.. W '
7. eis 114.
8, Latni, Latita Aerti, 1O0.
Enlaa trm *. Meoquide oeatf the other, ioher the Bay rIslaa
wr teludrM ia t the treaty Olaytea*s oopromuse with Englland, lik
Clay's great pelitiesl oepromse, of the sam year, settled little
fllys but Hr alit ClOpy' oepromis, that ~eotiated by Olaytu laid
the foumatlOm tf peaeiftl settlements inl future years.
A DECADE OF DIPLOMACY
On the ay ~fr exlum ge of ratifioatioena Pesident Taylor wa
taka ill mad five days later, on July 9, 1850, ded.1 Clayt handed
his reigaattioa tae e ffset July 3t2 to Fillmore, Taylor's sur esor.
Oa July 15, 1860, Fl2re appointed Daniel Webster Sret ry of Stt~,
kwo an asstian office inherited the ambigaities of the Clsyton-Dulwer
treaty, whioh he at on" determied t oelarify it possible. This,
however, VWebster ms destined to fla no easy task, for despit the ro-
oBet eaIal treaty, Unglend and tho Mtited States wro still suspistous
of each other's designs in the Caribbean are and the tw govermonmn
had mafd opposite er ooaflleting, interpretation of the treaty.
Mulwer now proepe the draft fer a setlement of the Mosquito
question a the basis tht Or t SWt Britha should return Groytoa t
Niarageas sd that learagua should respot sad protest the rfmaind
Uf the Msoquite tteritTyry Rowever the m iegtiatons were InterruptM
by Burer's taking a leav of abiseae and returning to angland* Bd
health preweal his "trnu to the tntWe 84atwe, but Bualw usd his
latlmi o* t have wrpte appoeated as his suoeesswr, Durian this
S. Vl rl,,M'I" 7to
S. .__, 8. A... __.,, .,6.
4. !--!-roeco Webser.' in Dels, 8.* F. Anirleen
St ir VI. (hsreaf re rred
6IkC*~S m< eM-9T. ~l1~41 ~r 1 hU1'~5133~~
brWek i the negotistime, n teinedet osourrAd Io Gi ytmn whh *omed
to ake ts mmdiate sottlenat yet nore difficult* the eemnder of a
British brig-ofumrs aetia upon the tadri of the British Consul lt
OGrytoeen forced the Premothbous an Amerrien Tvosel, to return to ito
aohorage and pay ertai disputed port oharle to the looal officials
Hnever, this sonOe for oeoplaint was sIe adjusted, for ea Jiunry 10,
186U, ord ranvrille mad the following disavewal of the action
Thder these eirmmustaee Her Najestys' Govtrmen have no
hositaitei ta offering an apology Por that whiok theygooeider
to have ea ea Io nfrtio of treaty eagementok ...
This apology, whleh seemed to be a ftrnk odmissis of the Amrian
aterpretttim, nmeuly, that the treaty ealloe for an imIdiato abendos-
mnet of the British pretenstios uooerinag the Mosquito protetorakt,
together with alwer's letter to Webster asking whether he would pro-
pose s plea "for Greytom and th general Mosquito question, whieh
would be at agll honorable for us to adopt and which would yet satisfy
yo'53 soime to guarantee aM miosable settlement of the Mesquite ques-
itae Upon his arrival in the baited Sttes, Crampton had resumed nego-
tiaticme a the questions, san e April 30, 1865, the WebstrtCromptem
agnrmt We eoaeludod.4 This smn enti proidd that a reservation
should be created for the Mosquit Indians in osetplatioa of their
*omig murder the oemploto Juriseditio ef NiLaragus end that the
1. Moores, Di VT, 1034-.
o. wa, "ebeor, we.
4. Webster to Lmrrsw May 14, 1895, in enmamina VII, "6.
Eoquitoes hodU reelve the revnms from Greytom for three yers
in retua t its eslat to Nioaragua1 the eeaveati was to hav
bem rttitiJe by the United States$ Great Britains Costa Rias and
Nlosraus a Costa Riea iadolted her approvals but Nloaragu defeated
the *hole project Ib refusal to ratify Webster thought Nioaragua'
oeadua t ia the sttr so unrassable that he determined to aet, i the
future, withbit consulting her.3
The failure of th b Wb ereCrmptca agreement was, indeed un-
ertamtes, for mother dispute had arisn in the Caribbean which oauset
Inglsad ad the United States agaia to beomm suspitious of one another'
intentions In that aroa On April t6 and May 2, 1850, military ox-
peditis totaling three hundred mm left New Orleans under the oenmnd
of General Lepes for the purpose of invading Cuba. Although the e*-
pedtibe failed sad although General Leps was punished for his viola-
tiac of the Ameri eeN eutrality Ae of 1818, Palmeawsrt was apparently
auspiioeus of Aeriee intentions in regard to Cuba. Heens, tn 18561
ie ilstruoted the British Minister at Mdrid to propose to the Spanish
Government a esure for- trtiag the ubMS slaves. The sawmd purpose
of this proposal wa to streagthia the osmietion betwn Sptai aad
Cuba s n t o reatto a most powerful element of reistanue to say
s*he for the amoeatit of Cibs to the United Stateo." Orders wee
1. Duniay, "Webater," 9689T.
s. Review* 0XT S85.
:l l"Urie TW. Is 1 Tto
8.ir Oecoh The gnabrt Bftory f Biritishr oreig
P019 II I29 (hereatl reI rWarmIs ooW h).
seat t he British aa Pnrash ruisers a the Oaribbesa to prvant by
for"n the leadi of .filbustorers hostile o Spain the east of
0uba1 TUhis lanasiflod public ftwlitn i th United *tet*. e9spoially
ia the Soth against Britaitate Slam of the light of Soare, sad
aroused susLi that L ngland herself night instead to anmer Oubao
Dartin tb presidatial smpatig ef 1852, athe Amrioar party ta
lisaragan publicly appealed to the tkitd States for ad in opposing
British k rfarter Mee terejp sad unotfileal reports of British oseupa-
tiem of t b Bay Ileands with the inteatim of asking the a oren oelony
reached he United States. AAnti-Brltish soetimat rea still higher ia
this *utry sad h e Olsyton-Bualwvr tret was strongly attsaold an the
nited States Soate. 0Clyteo also did ant escape attack sand although
a bad health, be returned to the Semate te defn htinlf sa his
treaty. Is sa eotraortdinry sesa s of Congressr, ea Nalh 9, 18,. he
thus latredused his defense
I aa called upon to vindaS ate ngmelf against share of the
grosset ehaurastr preferre against as hero during my abseee.
It is t first tSi tn he course f a leag life that I a h
fond it neesery to demt myself against degrading iapatatios
before su public tritmabl.
Sector Doglas had eharbg that the Olsytesalulwr treaty was pre-
d~i lte upem a egapttiin ad re eth MoWa Do ttrln. To
this Olytea plited
1. Olark, J4. ro I rmnrdm oae the Monroe Dootrine, 110.
2. Ward anad ooso, I .7
4. IXTis. 'Olaytoa, T,.
so .ix to there o Lgr osi .mal obe U1II. 24T.
If that were tr iSt Ough to be tbe greatest raomenudatiea
of the tCwt to m who ssumer to belong to the Dmooratie
srty, md se be a fllonr of the priaoiples of Jasmem.
0loyte thm quoted aortia Ta Duran Lt oppotiti to the nMero Dotrire
enA statd that bo oeuld *fill lroue froa thb speo*hes of Mr. Eayr,.
Mr. lives Mr. LLm0, Mr. Olhemo, ud all b Ie amsint lodan of the
Deoeratlo perty" agaSa that doutrinais Be sal that he perfootly
rpAed with the Soator frae Miolhiga# Mr. Oase, that *this delarsttes
of Mr. lear. had lasi, ver *ino its origia, a dost letter en our
oreseds." IBt ntwithestenig his argments agist the Meulr Doe.
trim, Olrt yteo d th Me Iaao tt the treaty of April 1$, 1660, pro-
ts te Bo "*sly nastame la whikh a Buroposa Pwer, whioh had attempted
to e"Li a portia of this hemluphore ae to eated the luropeao
system here, had bem Idaue by the astie of this Goverment to aban-
dam the attempt.
DeAoia, uho advoo+ato the peltr tat the Uited Stafte should
oroise thoe sol-e Se eslut pritvleo oft *otrolllag to proposed
e"Ua, egrtna StteblM e rtS S for wthlwldo s S iU treat, whtol
wmUl hm givm tbe slated Statke sah enotrel, ua ter substittlin
tor it the 01aytlulwfwr treat, wLioe ho tome a "Britit pet lrship
teacty. Olaytrm se s u this oars by iwlarl that the Hiso traty
we uwmmttutiau ls mai althou h this as m rely 01ytoe's opiaimr,
to it" :, a
soOxt the Q M ieal Qlob 57.
$I m odssma W, .r ZSM.
ao oe is tMh Beao attempted to roefut his statement. the sooe
part of Douglasus atteek was directed against reat Brital for hbr
satiea In the establishetb of the ooela of the Bay Islands, whikh h
oeatidero a vioiUtis oat the Olaytoa-Bulwr ntrety:
aglaau will fight us when her hoaor *ompols her to do it, atd
she will do it for so other sause We o ea require east Britaia
to diseestins the Day Island oolo sa d I *all upon the friad
of the Cl~ ytol -Bwr treaty, whose previsits wor outraged
by that sot, to Joia il te deman th at that seolar be disoon-
tinned. Upe that poiet we ar in the right Enfgland is in
the wremgs sad sh e nnot, she dare not fight upaa it. And, sir#
whem ngluad baeks out o one o lsay os our renmetroneo it will
be a -lea time before sh will establish another upea this oea-
tiaelt without easultiang us. And, sir* whe anglaad shall
hav ntrftalmd tram iLterferiang i tth affairs of the Ameriesa
satlmaat without oeesulting te wishes of this Goveament
what other Power os earth will be willing to stand forward ad
do t whioh England soea des it too prudent not to attempt?
Although Mr. Douglas's speok seems to have besm of greater
politLoo value to himself than of prmtisal aid a the adJuatment of
the dispute with England, it marks tbh begiantai of a poloy of lose
adhorre e to the Moaree Dotrima by the government of the tUited States.
The Settas debate i the special session of Oongrss, 1865, over
the Oentral tonert quostrlem grew out of the tItreductie of two re-
oeltites by Beaster Olaytte the first oalliag for the oorrespondron
e the 'obeter-Oraptc agrmeoat of April 80, 188) sad the seoood *all-
ina for ll the orrespondenoo em the Bay Island question the first
eslutitel wa adopted a Mar h 17, 8ll5 but the seeo d eallod forth
more debato ad wa finally deesatd.4 ia eppositis to this latter
l Ibd., aSO.
I. TrO., ro.
4. '.M. 184.
resolution Sentor vertt, o n Marh 21, 1U, eseribed the turbulent
oiditims la 0etrzal Ameria sad soandad a note of eoaniliatiCa tom rd
the British aetos.1 Io states
While I sa pensagk the Bato of huatemala with a population
of eigtk ahdro, thousand is marehBin un aq of six thesand
m agr Last hor sister State of NaeIurm with three hudr4e thousands
a Ieaduras, in her tun, is sending a military tort to dislodge
the alish wood letters upm her 4dispaute f tler.
Altheug Senatr erett did not believe the estblisbmant of the Dy
**lr a viToltio oef the Olasyton-.BDlwr trMaty he thought it st "aunwiso
aetie frtl hih Raglan would withrao8 Se explained that here had
beem a bobitag ft TuAmlle as the newspapers reported@ and that Sir Goorge
SeIymr hA merely sert a British waurhip to tll the eioaraguasa to
diMdad the armed tforo whioh had been seot agaCist the wodutttrs.
veorrtt in soademing the British actions, attempt to show that Belis
and its dopenadmsis did not oome under the term of the Claytosn lwrr
treaty, that the Bay Islands had "boe for a entry end more a part
et the dopendstaso of Bllse*ts nd that the astie taken by Grot
Brittain was e more than that which would be taken by the Vaitd States
had Maxoeo olaired territory salog the AiNriam border aeemopanied by a
MHxiae attempt t to fo the owustio of Amriman sitisms there. Mr.
verett' spp*o*h apparently aohiTed result ftr after a short spyeoo
by Mr. Doulas in opposition o the adoption of the resolutime Mr. Maso's
notion that the resoluti be tabld was oearrid.
1. Ibid 846.88.
8. lI S.
Webster had oonataned the policy of 'On exclusive privileges" to
Wy natis is thw uS of ma iasthim eoal nad he, like Clsyton, mwa
ueenose by Sunhamas of'"someantin to the asbadement of the Moaroc Doe-
trine.1 Webster had upheld Clayton'e oenal pollty in 1865t In a fruit-
less attempt to penrae the Meoxiaan goveromant to reeoasider its re-
Jo4tioa of thetreaty of Jamary 256 1861o, whlh would hawe pemittdi
the laitd States to guarma e the riShts of the Arioe ooampsay hold-
iag em ooseHa io riially granted to a Motexis eitismo Don Jose do
OGerU Webste had informed tho Nexian govenment that
*.. the Governat of the aited States. in a king to open the
soemioetioml ors th Isthens of tehantpos*, b g sot Vished
to obtal ary oxelusive advantage for itself. Its desire has
boe to have the oomio tion fro to all nations ...*
Webter ras takes ill soes after the Woebter-Mrampn t agronesnt and
l Jaun thought of resigning his offioo. HNoweor hbe did not roeipn
but it daly mw so seriously ll that he as prevented from attending
to the dutie of his Department. On Ostober 24, 1865 he died.5 Hi
office wa meant until Novembe 6 1868, when his fri ena d former
pupilt sward Iverett, oeepted appointMnt as eoretary of State.
Bwvoett entered the offioo ender the most advnre oeaditions. ebotoer
had beeo absHet wre the Department for sae time and, sita there was
1. Duniuay, fWebster." 97*lO1.
4. T1rao, roster, Edward Sverett." Is BeDi, 8. F Aeoriewa
Ieoretaries of stat md ti iplear y, I, 121, (hereafter referred
ho. Stees, "7it'
5. Ibid.* 117.
then a masltatnt Sbnotary of State, BIer feomd departmental athire
sa o *oiderable dopgr of eoafutsio Parthrmoreb sinea Pier had
already bree *1**e to use**A Presideat Fil2mere 0 it would be wmise
t att ept a sttlment of the atire mntra Amerioau question in the
short tim remaiinu g ft illmore's aduministratis, BUerett did, however
omplee negotiations with IDnland ad IFrneo *oneorning th propose
jLeot gIarsat of Spatia possessri of QOub\ Qa November 19 1586t
he wrote a detated letter statiag that the United Stat*k had so Aesire
t Sana ube Ou s a giving fivo remse ih 7 the Pro tidet ... tefli him-
*olf uanbloe beaos a party t the proposed oempat, whish provided
for joiat guarUte, of 8paints pessessio of Cuba by the United States,
?ran# aBnd Engl"aA.
Phaident Piomee n his naugural address, Maroh 41h l .53 g8 p
evideaso that opposltir to anglaad both it Cuba a n Ontral Americsa
wuld be stitfftwed.a I appointed William Le Marey 8*Ortary of State$
aed s M iastr to Oreat Bitaina ho namdl Jam Buoshnas, ho had at&
Itoas the plleies oj f bot Olayte ad IWebter as 'eosentinag t tb
tb.a ame- t of the Mear"o Dieetrbta' Marey's iastruotiote to Buahbnal
wore to strive to itndue England
*., to withari frm ll I U eatrl o ver the Tetriteries ad Islanad
otf central Ameris and it possible, ever the Belis alr*, and
to abstain from antrmedling with the political tfairsn of the
gernmamnts "ad people ina that region of thi world
Iil4hartser. 1. 1I405.*
4, I to suchsaas July aI 1851, in ManngR, VII, ST.
BDuhame wa giveM ftll peer to aoetiato a treaty m the subjet with
orast Brita&a" 1
uheama t tok up this agetiatim with Lord Olareadm, British
Freigp Seeretryu d after several weks of prllaiury and uasueeos*
tl shmage of viewm the negotiators doide4 to se dm t a writing
the viw etf their respotive osoatries Their statements filed to
provide a bais fer to agr( nt sad, although negotiations were ootinue4
until the sutm of 1855, Mr. ushamaum was able to scure a satis-
utory settlemest of the omtrersy
he disputes arising from the Claytm.ft-lwr treaty, sad fram
IagUia's oolmaisatim of the Bay Islands, wore *elipsed In the United
Stats by the political reporousssie of tbl X sas-Iobrasrk ooastroersy
but both President sad SeBa wer looking forward to a reomiag with
fglead a serse that dmestie affair *ould be settlods while Ingland,
m her part, was looking forwarr to a (reatr dogrec f froedm m tc e
eubjeot atter te Criml ar. Hower, that cofhliCt produ4 a m
reae ftr Amriam **os lapit against Great Britain, aed ousred the
lakted States to d4teme to stead its ero n as the Central Amrisan
qesOties4 Baglead eded moe trorp for her onpaig is t he Crimea
Wars A a sine she onud aorit serpt Balibhma, she ha n ba o
1. LearMse, I. BI.0 'illims Leretd Many," ia Lis, 8. 1.,
Amerise Sooretaries f tat k *ad their Diplry V, 1V, (hereafter
8. IWhrta, Destr II. 191-M.
8. kell, Bsrli V. F., Lord Pilmrsaten II, 141, (hereafti r re-
ferred to M Bell).
4. Id t.,
'* roFtorg Boi~nr, CIV, IT1.
serpulesm t melUting voluterate the iMitedi Stat s the Amries
Oerlmat registered a protest again.a thi u a vielatole of the United
States utroaity AMt f 1818, ead Oramptea, the British Mlisteor in
Wahata offered essurmeea s that enlistmnt would stop. This sooen
to satisfy the haerlesa evonrmont but ubk it was fouRd out that
Orsmptes ha bee personally reopensibl for the vieoatitn of ma et of
0ogress sad t hat aftt givTig aesurenes to this Govermat, he had
semsataed to Itadt Amnrloaus to go to IWva Seotie to enlist, vrlal
assureoass mwee a longer satiufomtor the Presideat demaded Orampta's
recall A d a publLe disavemo oft his asetias. This Palerst refused
sad preopratis u were msde Ia th OUltd State* for a possible war.
Ga Jeasary7 89 18b a ter he reserved the Proideate demAnd.
PalmerstoR empldedt *... we will not allow these blaeguards to bully
u0."4 He hoped that Amrliea grlev rs la this matter eould be satis-
fled by a imedalte settlement of the OCstral AmurlSe dispute. oH had
boeme srptlsal oft he praetleabtiliy of the estruetiae of a eaal
ree s t fhe Isthms d e vwillaig to rellaquaeh the Mosqu4te cae to
*ea et the nighboriag reptabiles or to rsenst to a joist Angler
Ameriam protoeter After se reftlette. he wrote Lerd Claroeado
Jaauary 6j. 18MI
If we wmasto to recee with dipJity, a referease t arbitra-
ties the ver t of whieh vuld probably be gives against us
whatever the r mrte ouf oureae, ght be the easiest way out.
1. ell 11. 141.45.
s. 1Tr. II 143.
l "e d.as later Jmatmry 814 18e, Lord Clareasds tolu Be oser
Lors that oerrespade. witih h Amrstmle a sn re t ever the Ostral
Aewrliea quet~ i had poevd uless 1 H e asserted tst the British
GsrSrmat had made tw proposals to the Amriaem Seoerams to arbitrate
the qustiws a d that the first offer had boen rve ted, but he hoped
that h e reo offer Le arned state that
"At what tiem if t atll, Lord Ola01re a ade a first offer of arbitra.
tiea to akehema remains unhawmea* Palmrstme hWA ae several oaseiems
diseused the "proyriety to settling these tqestims zrwin out of th
0laytej alr tet 7by I arbtratlsm4 but Muhbama had not *oetrwuI
uar of tume 4iermousse a a doflaLt *oftef to arbitrate. The sn-
md ofttfr Is sootalt4 a dispatch from Ola01sra to csrpte, Mover
ber 10, 18W, *hiL stated that Bubses had *howa that he ea not ti-
oliae to om sitde arbitratloa as a mno litoly t be f avail la set-
tliag th dieputeo although h would tsnamit the propositlt to his
mversasat Oramptes was also iastruted to onwoy the offer to
Seeretaar Marvy. ham "a d4 iaem thae S.etar of State of "th
aneral eomlersatis"' e the smbjoto but he 1di aot esoider that
sqr deflito offer of arbitratiem had beeo mde noar did Orepts eot
a his Iatrumties util Fobruary 7T 1806. Baoo, Marey was piaed
i as sa dUastiag poitiSm the axt days February IG8, who th Se ate
1I Lemedm llreyy, Bto3
4U m5S to Mfarey, Jauary Is 185, lla Nalingl VII, 284.
6 Olarseada to Orm"ptse levo mer 10, 1$8", al Meaming, Vl,
fotasteo 86 68.
6* Orapte to Maroy February T, 1M, Ibid.. SM.
alo fo all olerrspeaom* don B e ubjootthe s The oSnate homers,
adopWb the attitdo that aa soeptauna of he offer to arbitrae would
be a mmise proooeduo, and there was oa talk of abrogatiag the treaty.
ThewDomewatie onveetii of 186 sat Oainimati aoniuaste Mr.
Buohmaa as its eautdite to suseed Piore as Presidenmt so George Mo
Dallas us seat to Bngland et roplaol Busheas as Minister. Dallas ar-
ritd in Lcmdoe vhom the oriss uw at its height. The dismissal of
Ornampb sad three British Consuls ftrm the nitdl Statoe fo their
part in the vrilties of the Neutrality Ast of 1818 sees brought th
issue dangerusly near the point of war There was a period of *ss-
pease I angled while the British Ministry was deciding hther to
hand Mr. Dallas his passport or to sentlaui friaIly relations with
the nlitdl Statwes Although the f Tiomes an February 4, bad
stated that the bhadin of passports to the British offoieals in the
aitod States would "oaspol a similar proceeding aO our part with ron
gard the Amriea Miaistor,* the Hrose of Lords ohoored vwh Lord
PalUrrter sad Lrd Jobe Russell anamsoe the dooisioa of the Ministry
to sontianu frienly rlatloas with the aitod Statoes. Lord DorNly
who had torod the Miaistryss intrprotatim of tko Cleytam-Blwsr
1. Loarneda n"aroy." IT
2 .ibid', no.
a 7 rE!5 CIV. 3o,
5. IW n a letter froa Behansa to MYrey February 5, 1686
in Manlain, Vl8, *C.
6C. p2!ta or Ja 2 1 6 50 quoted in Littell's LL iag Ago L.
I relief& fw this eaosm beaee, although I deeply regret
t *ouarse peSiSti S ted SItates Go' vneramt, yet I be-
li thait i it possible for as to vindite the stkp taken
and the eoaduet purued by our Mlainter, sd those uader whose
artberity he astl ....
The poettorw JUan 1, 1iwo, iL *somating oa r. Disraelis spoeoh,
la whiko he ha attempted t fasten the blame ea the British Goveramat
*fer having a Inur d somw hmniliatile in the dismissal of Mr. OraUpton,"
There i ao doubt that thiC foeliag does exist 1n aglish So-
oiLtymehiefly prhaops, ameos theoe elanse who are mot elevTat
in rlak ndt whe stead soollly searoost to the verament.
he Ngliih newspaper seemed quit friendly toward the Unite
Stats the controversy over tbhe alilstent question but the Central
Amerioe questie argued almost universal hostility, ospeoially in the
nw"papoe supporting the Minizlry. Th komoi to June 55, 128,
trailed to eOplU the amda ohange In attitude, 7y aeousinm Mr. Dalla
of giving th timprosfet that th Ulitod States wa willing to arbi-
trato the dispui it i4rest aeiotitatio ftild.4 That newspaper o-
pr1esseod *optae that it was, probably, s oasideratien of the po-
siblity of getting the trobleem disrpte settled by arbitratln that
the British Mliistry sequiesei JI th dismissal of Mr. Crpte and
the British Omsnuls. his e aertanly a also tapression, as Mr.
Dallua ha read his instreties to Lord Claredoe ea Jue 11, 1IM56
several days better th Ministry wau alle4 upoe to anonma a d oliste
1.d* d. 17.
S. *. 815.
s. ., 51140 and 42-44.
4e w 440*
Upam fhe attlamse of relatirs with uh Vated Stat".1 Mor.eer,
tew Ip be pu blioMed s artil we hio saemnsemod lely, sad
with Appervu t approval, he seaostes Of Seretary Muarc iautruetioa
to Mr. DIllas a theo ea day the aewpapere had ourred the deeislem
of Mte Miratry against his dileaisal.a
lrad Pftirae **eemiag to be soafideat of mintaialug pease witM
the titod St*ae, tried to "bluff his way through the atte by tell-
Ltg Mr. Dalls that it was for the VAited Stat" to he se betwe pea
ed wMr Thre was a great ada of talk ia the Loadne amepaper abwut
he poesibitry o the dispue ediag Ia a wa r,. sad Mr. Dallls we at
tint very poesiaistie ovr the situafttL n. ever, he soee realised
that although lwerstm's pwR was I uass, *thert. a rook upon
whlch, it he tesehed e met flounder. That rook was war with the
flually after ah agetiaiison, n e bor 17, 185b, the tw
gover mats reue n d agreemt# wh iih 1Dalla believed adjusted all
'te titffteMee "heeteore existing smneeted with Contral Aumrie."
This agremat, hMem as Hb 9llaeO1uClarcaim emvUtiea, previt4
that he te oevermeate sheaud jelatly propose to he Republies et
Cesta RLea sad eiarage the Mee ptea oe the arrangmnts mde la the
eeavenrtng that a eeutla territory should be ot apart fr the Mosquite
1. Danll t e Maro, JMne 18 1 e5. a Msanlagn VII. 85s.
4, -aI.ll* lLiM A^ Ls, s*s .. u .. e aen ,viw
s, b11IX, U 15.
T7. 4Yto Mar*ey Ostber 17, 1856, Ia Mana-a. VII, 686.
IndianOl that the Indians were to retain their property rights and the
right of slf-gt enrment, but they were prohibited froa oding their
territory to ay other State without the consent of both the United
States sad Oreat Britains that the territory south of the river Van
or Segovia, not inoludod in the Mosquito reservation, should be rosog-
naisd as within the limits and under the sovreigaty of ioaragua, but
with o*rtain inaor reosrvationsa and that the port of Greytor should
be a *frre port and the City a fre City' under the soveroign authority
On December 10, 1856, the oonventies was submitted to the United
States Senate, which, after making several menduents, oonsentod to
ratification. The convention in its amended forn then returned to
Inland for ratification by that Governamnt* Great Britain agrood to
all of the amendments except the oOn relating to Ruatan and the Bay
Islands. The mnnduent to whioh the British objected wam an amondmnt
of Artiole II of the *Separate Artioles, whish Nioaragua and Costa Rio
were not to ratify, vTil
Artiole II. Strike out the stood clause of dofinitiv ar-
rangement, as follows '2. That the islands, and their inhabi-
tants, of Rlutae Boaseo, Utila, Barbaretta, Isleoa, sad Morat,
situated il tho Bay of Honduras, and know as the Bay Islands,
having boee, by a Convention bearing date the twntyoeventh
day of August, 1886, between or Britaanio Majosty r ad the Re-
publie of Handuras, the tw ootracting parties do hereby m-
tually oegage to roeognias ad rospoet, in all future tme,
the independence and rights of the said free territory as a
part of the Republio of Honduras.
1. Ibid., 688-92.
2t IHfisrdos, V, 418.
S. Dallas to Cass, April 16, 18657, in Maning, VII, 697.
and insert the fllowing in lieo thereoft vist
Sthe th o oo triaeta ptioe do herey nmtually oan
fi o to rosN d res t a islanldaof am onaeoe
omi oTr"i5 'Oa orf a d ofT
Although Lord Clarendon objected to the above ameadant, he lna
dicated that the objeotin oould be overeomo, should bhe President of
the Uited States ooseat to tho addition of the following stipulation
uheneeor and so seen as the Republio of oanduras shall haT sem-
oluded sad ratified a treaty with Great Britain, by whioh Great
Britain shall hae oodd, sad the Republie of Honduras shall
have aosoptod the said islands, subooe t tthe Provisions nad
oondities *outainad in snoh treaty.
President Buhekana, in his First Annual Message to Congres, 1857,5
explained why the Senate had amended Artisle II of the "*Sparate Artioles
of the DIallaslareando treaty. bo stated that upoa examination of the
trmty between Iagland and uHnduras, August 27, 1886, it ws found that
"it deprived that Republio of rights without whioh its sovreignty oer
that /eh Bay IlsndJ could sruely be said to exist." As for the
roeootite of the proposal for a naw oonention, the President said he
had no other course
After the Sate had refused to reognise the British sooa n-
tion with Bonduras of the 27th August, 1866, with full akowledge
of its sontetoe, it wes impossible for n, necessarily ignorsat
of "the provisions aud conditions" whioh might be oentainod in a
future Oegan ntlen between the sa parties to saaotion them in
In this amssage, Bushanaa drew the onelusion that whea two nations
1. Manning VII. footnote 2, 698.
2. Dalli to Cass, April 16, 1867, Ib 698.
Rilchardsoa Y, 436-84.
.** have uafortuaatly omnluded a treaty whieh they understand
in senses directly opposite, the wisest course is to abrogate suoh
a treaty by natural oonsent, and to omeomeao anewr
After the failure of the Dalla-Olarndaon ose enations Bngland sent
Sir William Gor Ouseloy to Central Ameriea to oerry into oeuotion the
Olayteo-Bulvwr treaty 'aoeording to the general tenor of the interpre-
tatioa put upon it by the United States .... When this boom known
in the United States the Anerican Governmet agreed not to oew toward
the abrogation of t treaty until it had been dtermined what inter-
pretatios of the treaty would result from Ouseley's mission. Howewr,
the situation developed into a triple deadlock. Oueley was instruotod
not to attempt to earry out his mission until the United States had do-
eided whether to abrogate the treaty, and Lord Napiet, the British Min-
ister sla lahington, was instruoted not to move until the United Stato
should irak a tormal anser to the Britih proposal to arbitrate the
questioal while the United Statoe was intent upon making no formal state-
ent onoorning abrogation or arbitration until the result of Ouseley's
Mislioa beom kamloa
On April t, 1888, Soortary of tate Lewis Cass wrote to Lord
Iapier that should Ouseloy be suooesesfl in securing the exeoution of
the Claytae-Bulver treaty isa aoerdanoe with the Amerioan interpretation,
the President oould see no oauso for abrogating the treaty.
8, U7 to lapier, April S, 1854, in Wharton, II, 197.
S. Blatae to Lowell, loenber 19, 1881, Ibid., t16.
5. 1 i to lapier, April 8, 1868, ia Manning, VII. 177-88.
After the receipt of this note by the British Poreign Offios, England
decided to instruct Ouseley to open direct negotiations with the Central
Amnrieoa States, and an August 18, 1868, Napier was instructed to inform
the United States of this dooision. Pursuant with this deoisios, Great
Britain negotiated en November t8, 1859, a treaty with Honduras pro.
Tiding for the surrender of Ruatan and the other Bay Islands to that
Republic by Groat Britainj and am January 28, 1860, a treaty was can-
eluded between Great Britain and Nioaragua, by whih England with some
qualifiestions rensuneed her proteatorate over the Mosquito coast and
aegre to recognise that portion of the Indian territory lying within
the Nioaraguan frontiers as under the sovrei aty of that Republio.5
Thus for the tins the disputes arising from the Clayton Bulvr treaty,
whioh was aeisunderstandingly entered into, imperfectly comprehended,
oentradiotorily interpreted, and mutually veatious,* was settled, not
between the United States and England, but between England and the Cen-
tral Ameriean Republies. England had yielded not to the strong, but to
the weak, under pressure tfr the strong. Thus, President Buhanan was
able to say in his Fourth Annual Message to Congress Deoember 8, 18601
Sine* the semnaemena t of my administration the two dangeresu
questions arising froi the Clayton and Bulver treaty, and from
the right of search olaiaed by fl British Ooveramht, have bee
aoieably sad honorably adjusted.
1. Blaine te Loell, November t9, 1881, in Wharton, II, 217-18.
2. Ibid., 187.
go T n RKelatjic of the United States. 1888, Part I, 761-62.
(hereaterd a Forem elation
4. Blaine to Loell, oreii r 110 in Wharton. I1, 219.
s. Riohardsem TV 689.
8HIFTINGS IN AMERICAN CANAL POLICY
The twenty years frame 1860 to 1870 mark the transforuatioa of rail-
way transportation from a period of experimentation to an era of rapid
growth and development During these two dooadoe the naber of miles
of railroad trek in the United States was increased froa 9,021 to
562,92 miles, a growth more than ftiv time that of the previous throo
doeeados During this period, in the year 1855, the railroad oroes
the Isthms of Panama was oempletod HBenoe, the possibility of an
isthnian oenal was for sea time overshadowed by this newer means of
However, the development of roadbeds and rolling stook did not
keep pase with the early 'boor" in the expansion of railroad lines. In
frequent aoeidents, aoording to Keir, "Death or injury was inflicted
upea passengers, trainmen, trespassers along the right of way, and at
grade crossings terminals, yards, or stations."4 Freight rates were
so high that distance shipping by rail was small nor oould the rail-
roads replace ship-transportation of heavy or bulky oargo. Indeed, the
oonstruoties of the transcontinental railroad, oompleted May 10, 1869,
oephaetsed the taportanoe of a shorter water route to the Peaific ooastj
for all of the material, "except wood and water," for the oonstruotion
of the western end of that railroad had to be "shipped by sea around
1. Daggett, Start, Prineipl of Inland Transportation, 58 and 68.
.t Forbes-Liandsay, .
8. Keir, Malaol, "The Marsh of Comeroe," in The Pageant of
Ameriea, IV, 121, (hereafter referred to as Keir).
Consequently, after the Civil War there ws to be a dual interest
in the oanal project and in improving the roadbeds and rolling took of
the railroads. Although interest in the oanal was to grow steadily,
especially after 1876. when England would acquire controlling interest
in the oanal, sad after 1879, when La Univeralle Compagnie du Canal
Introeeanigue do Panaa would be organized, it was not until after the
voyage of the Oregon around Cape Horn during the Spanish-Amerioan War
that interest in the oanal would overshadow railway transportation.
In 1866, the Senate of the United States called on the $Seretary of
Navy for all information on rail or water transportation via Tehuantepee
and the Atrato River. Pursuant with this request, Admiral Davis made
a report enumrating nineteen oanal and seven road projects, pronounoing
eight of the possible oanal routes impraotioable, and stating that
**. it is to the isthms of Darien that we are first to look for the
solution of the great problem of an interooeanio oanal.3 Howevr,
Beeretary of State Seward thought that there was no likelihood of any
such project being undertaken at that time. Nevertheless, Seward did
realize the Ltrategio importance of the isthms t tthe American Navy,
and it was to the end of scouring naval stations In that areas rather
than the construction of a oanal, that he first bent his energies. On
April 26, 1884, he instructed Mr. Adams, American Minister to Great
1. Keir, 149.
2. ForboesLiadsay, 8.
4. To"wa to Adams, April 25, 1856. in Wharten, II, 206.
*..* sona Lord Olareada as to the disposition of his Goverao
ment to favor us in acquiring ooaling stations in Central Amer-
ise, notwithstanding the stipulations oontained in the Olayton
Lord Clarendon answered this inquiry in a very vague manner, aad
Seward 4eidae to attempt the aooompliashmnt of his object by negotia-
tion with the Central Ameriesa states Diokenson oondueted the nego-
tiationsr and in 1868 he eonoluded a treaty with Bearagua providing
for a *anal open to all nations and controlled by none. This treaty,
known as the DicksnsonwAyeo treaty, failed to obtain the advantages
sought by Sevardl and the Seoretary of State turned to Colombia, with
when a treaty was signed at Bogota on January 14, 1869. This treaty
granted to the United States the poaoful enjoyment and control over
any eaal which the United States may oonstruot through Colombia, and
agreed that ao other concession for the construction of an istamian
eawl would be granted without the onsent of the United States.5 It
further provides the said oeal shall be closed against the flag of
all nation which nay be at war with either of the contracting parties.4
However, this treaty wae rejected by Colombia.
After Grant became President of the United States Stephen A.
Burlbut was sent to Oolembia to conclude a new treaty for the eon-
struotioa of a canal by the American Govornment. The proposed treaty
wa signed a January 26, 1670, providing for a eanal epen, on equal
1. Ibid.e, z0.
2. rias, 37-106.
term to all nations at peace with e two contracting parties, and
pledging the United States to the protection of the eaal against foreign
attack or invasion Although Hurlbut at first believed that Colombia
would ratify the treaty, there soon arose a strong opposition to it on
the grounds that it would make Colombia a party to every war in whih
the United States should beooam involved. In order to overoom this
objeotions the Colmbian Senate amended the treaty in such manner that
it was no longer satisfactory to the United States# and Hurlbut blamed
British interference for the failure of the treaty.
Despite the failure of the treaties of 1868 and 1869, Congress on-
tinued investigation of the feasibility of the various istbmian routes.
In 1891 naval exploring parties had been organized by the Amerioan Gov-
erMntt and these parties spent the following six winters on the isthnusr
while, beeaue o o olimatio conditions an the isthmis, the summrs were
spent in working up their observations for publication.5 The whole body
of data was placed before a emission appointed by President Grant in
18T7 and in February, 1876, the oemission made the following unanimous
1l Senate Dooumnt No. 857 66th Congrss, 1st Session Coerre-
pondenee in Relation to an Interoeanio Canal, 51-566 (hereafo re
26 Ariask i -jU
46, Arisa o 338M.
Sb 'The Proposed Amsriaan Interooeanio Canal," ian Th nation,
That the reoue o own as the Nisaragua route o* possesses,
both for the oonetrustion and maintenanoe o oa enal, greater
advantages, ad fewer difficulties from engineering, ooe roial1
and eooorieL points of view, than any one of the other routes
shows to be praitieable by surveys euftioiont ia Letil to enable
a Judgment to be formed of their relative merits
However, public interest in the oanl was not greatly aroused until
after the organisation of the French Panama Canal Company in 1879.
A group of finanoiors had formed a syndioato to obtain a eonal oon-
oossies in Central Amorios for the purpose of selling the oonoossio to
a oompany vhioh would undertake the oonstruotionm The syndioate seat
Wyse and Reelue to make surveys, and, if a praetioable route were
found to obtain a semoession for the oonstruotion of an isthmian oanal.
This oaeoolssion obtained by Wyse on May 18, 1878, from Colombia, prob-
ably would have failed had it not boon for the prestige given to the
eohem by M, Do Lesseps, who had onvened on May 18, 1879, an "Inter-
national eontifie Ooagress" for the purpose of fostering the oen-
struetion of an isthutan anal*. The congress was oompoed of 114
menberr, of whom seventy-four were Frenohan, tifty-four appointed by
Do Lessepse The congress eliminated all of the proposed eanal routes
except twos one, a look oanal ia Nioaragua, at an estimated cost of
$164,00000001 the other, a sea-level eanal via Panama, at an estimated
oost of $14,0000000. The "Teohnioal and International Comaission of
2* 19Nm arilla Panama, 24-25.
4.* Fee-*Lindsay, T7.
8. Bumau-Varilla, Panama 24-239.
*t hameno rn u ed the *timL td. aot of the latter to *l$l0000.Oj
enA D .I sseps vho hl ne u his ainnfut to have thUe Pre rorte
adIopd4 teamed r.epunsiblity ter till further redueIag it t
0oI400,000o& ia rder it mks the proposition ae ora ttraetive to he
Ia 180, 600,000 share of took is Ia Wwrolle ciar ti
kt atOLae im ku dP &Mas snmanly *alled the huamu Canal 0mpuay,
wre sIold t eaOi aird dollars per sharUe
IrrM the begi tag t the PresWM project Amriama lterest iS the
seatrustie ao in aisthali enal we aroseod to the point of aetloa.
the Rese of Representative tI Doeember, 1879e appelt k a eamitt*
to *eMiae the whOle seml prepositiem this osmittoe questioned suemh
a as Rear Admiral Ama& ao theo Iatlted ltate Bs rl Ir i, ads w
plrstliag sMe r a s hiprailroe arsoes tho e Isthm of T.hmnatope!
FruamnId D LeeNmps the Irswkh eatrpren e i a ta gr ep of Amrious
eapiUtsltts who farvoed he bW I Uaga rreteo 4 te Sate, aleo. die-
eased the sIal questfmloae t a ebruar 11 1880s adoepbd a resolutien
wteit the President to slmnit copies et all sorrespmade sie* Fabru)ry,
169 between the atted states and say foreign germat emsernla a
In response to his reeltia Preoident ayes addresed te
to TrXr, Seajia, Othelw seesAsis f P anm I"' isa LtS Agi.
OCXL, SetS sil Mau se Den, *N* s* 4mt
sgaTiay"sm samevere Via ittee an
Matreesais Ship assal (bereafttr nrewrrle to as t ).
S. NiFWr TVII 680 U*6I ayes t* the seaU of the United
tat&** *#h S.* 1soO.