Florida scrub lizard status survey

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Material Information

Title:
Florida scrub lizard status survey
Series Title:
Technical report
Physical Description:
72, 27 p. : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Enge, Kevin M
Bentzien, Michael M
Percival, H. Franklin ( Henry Franklin )
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Fisheries and Wildlife Research Unit, Dept. of Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Florida
Jacksonville Endangered Species Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Jacksonville Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sceloporus   ( lcsh )
Lizards -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Kevin M. Enge, Michael M. Bentzien, and H. Franklin Percival.
General Note:
"Supported by: Jacksonville Endangered Species Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2747 Art Museum Drive, Jacksonville, FL 32207."
General Note:
"January 1986."
Funding:
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001135501
oclc - 24201250
notis - AFN4692
System ID:
UF00067421:00001

Table of Contents
    Title page
        Title Page
    Table of contents
        Table of Contents
    List of tables
        List of Tables
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Procedures
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Results and discussion
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
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    Essential habitat
        Page 63
    Management and recovery
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Taxonomy
        Page 66
    Impact and federal activity
        Page 67
    Research needs
        Page 68
    Bibliography
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Acknowledgement
        Page 72
    Table 1: Numbers of Florida scrub lizards seen in known localities with suitable habitat and known localities in North-Central Florida
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Table 2: Numbers of Florida scrub lizards seen in known localities with suitable habitats and known localitities in South-Central Florida
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Table 3: Numbers of Florida scrub lizards seen in known localities with suitable habitats and known localitities along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
Full Text











TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 26


FLORIDA SCRUB LIZARD STATUS SURVEY

by

Kevin M. Enge, Michael M. Bentzien*, and H. Franklin Percival


Florida Cooperative Fisheries and Wildlife Research Unit
Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

and

*Jacksonville Endangered Species Office
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
2747 Art Museum Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32207


Supported by:

Jacksonville Endangered Species Office
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
2747 Art Museum Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32207


January 1986


_ _1_1


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF TABLES ii

INTRODUCTION 1

PROCEDURES 9

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 14

1. Distribution survey of north-central Florida 14

2. Distribution survey of south-central Florida 19

3. Distribution survey of the Atlantic Coast 40

4. Distribution survey of the Gulf Coast 55

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 57

1. Status of species 57

2. Essential habitat 63

3. Management and recovery 64

4. Taxonomy 66

5. Impact of Federal activity 67

6. Research needs 68

LITERATURE CITED 69

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 72


~

























LIST OF TABLES


Table


1 Numbers of Florida scrub lizards seen in
with suitable habitat and new localities
Florida.

2 Numbers of Florida scrub lizards seen in
with suitable habitat and new localities
Florida.

3 Numbers of Florida scrub lizards seen in
with suitable habitat and new localities
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.


known localities
in north-central


known localities
in south-central


known localities
along the


Page

73


80



91






1


A. INTRODUCTION

The Florida scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi) was the species of

primary concern of this status survey. Known localities of the sand

skink (Neoseps reynoldsi) and blue-tailed mole skink (Eumeces egregious

lividus) also were examined to document continued existence of suitable

habitat and to identify present and potential threats to the

localities. These 3 lizard taxa are restricted to scrub and some

sandhill habitats in central and southern Florida. The Florida scrub

lizard is a conspicuous inhabitant on warm and sunny days. The 2

sand-swimming skink species can be found in scrub by raking in sand up

to 8 cm deep beneath ground debris, especially during winter and spring

months (Telford 1959, Mount 1963). The skinks were not sampled due to

the 6-month time constraint and time of year of the study. The Florida

scrub lizard is considered "rare" by the Florida Committee on Rare and

Endangered Plants and Animals, but a status change to "threatened" has

been proposed recently. The 2 skinks are State-listed as threatened and

are category 2 candidates on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's

vertebrate review notice.

Scrub habitat occurs intermittently on the central Florida ridge in

areas with sufficient elevation (30 to 60 m above sea level) to have

been above water during the high sea levels of Pleistocene interglacial

periods. These islands served as biological refugia for scrub species

that presumably evolved there during the Pliocene or early Pleistocene

and for other species tolerant of the prevailing xeric conditions. Some

species were able to colonize emergent land areas when sea levels

dropped, while others remained restricted to the scrub habitat.

Florida scrub habitats occur along present shorelines or ancient


_~s_1~1_1~






2


marine features, such as dunes, beaches, bars, and submerged hilltops

(Laessle 1958). Scrub vegetation occurs on well-washed, deep, white,

sterile sand with rapid internal drainage. Typically, the scrub

community has an overstory of scattered sand pine (Pinus clausa), which

may be absent or replaced by slash pine (Pinus elliottii), particularly

near the Gulf coast. By definition, all scrubs have a shrub stratum

(usually 1 to 3 m high) consisting of a combination of small oaks

(Quercus geminata, Q. myrtifolia, Q. chapmanii, Q. inopina), rosemary

(Ceratiola ericoides), staggerbush (Lyonia ferruginea), saw palmetto

(Serenoa repens), scrub palmetto (Sabal etonia), scrub hickory (Carya

floridana), silkbay (Persea humulis), and/or Garberia fruticosa. The

maximum density and height attainable by the shrubs are determined by

soil fertility. Ground cover is scanty but includes Florida bluestem

grass (Andropogon floridanus), lichens (Cladonia spp.), spikemoss

(Selaginella arenicola), prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), and a variety of

forbs interspersed with patches of bare sand. Scrub vegetation is

believed to be dependent on fire, which usually occurs at intervals of

20 to 50 years. Fires in scrub are infrequent because of the sparse

herbaceous layer and evergreen quality of the shrub layer. As sand

pines mature, however, an accumulation of dead wood, oak leaves, and

needles provides fuel for a hot, fast burn that often reaches the pine

crowns. Cones of most populations of sand pine are serotinous; fire

opens the cones and seeds even-aged stands of pine. Hurricanes and

blowouts are more important than fires in coastal scrubs, which often

contain uneven-aged stands of sand pine due to a trend towards

nonserotinous (open) cones. Most shrubs coppice from their roots after

a fire, restoring the community without intervening seral stages. Scrub






3


oaks may attain heights of 2 m 5 years after a fire. If fire is too

frequent, sandhill vegetation composed of longleaf (Pinus palustris) or

slash pine and turkey oak (Quercus laevis) may prevail. Scrub species

will invade a sandhill community if fire is too infrequent and there is

a seed source. Many scrub species, e.g. sand pine and rosemary,

disappear when fires occur at intervals of 2 to 3 years. Fire tends to

be an uncommon occurrence in rosemary scrub due to the scarcity of fuel.

Scrub species will invade a sandhill community if fire is too infrequent

and there is a nearby seed source. In the continued absence of fire, a

scrub with sufficiently fertile soil will eventually succeed to a xeric

hammock with much denser vegetation (Veno 1976).

Stejneger (1918) described the Florida scrub lizard based on

specimens from Polk and Brevard Counties, and he believed the species

was confined to central and east central Florida. Barbour (1919)

extended its range down the Atlantic Coast as far south as 1 mile (mi.)

north of Hallandale, Broward County. Jones (1927) reported the species

from the southwestern Gulf Coast on Marco Island, Collier County. The

Florida scrub lizard is now known to occur in 4 regions of the state:

the Ocala National Forest and certain localities immediately to the

south; the Lake Wales Ridge and, to the west, the northern portion of

the Bartow Ridge; the southwestern Gulf Coast in Collier and Lee

Counties; and the Atlantic Coast from near Titusville south to Miami

(Jackson 1973a).

Although restricted in its distribution, the Florida scrub lizard

historically has been recorded from 16 counties. A list of 130

localities were compiled. A total of 101 sites came from "element

occurrence records" (EOR's) provided by Florida Natural Areas Inventory


_IL






4


(FNAI). This is a State Heritage program operated by The Nature

Conservancy that is developing a computerized data base on exemplary and

rare components (elements) of the natural environment. An additional 25

sites came from Jackson (1972, 1973b) and 4 more sites came from D.

Cronwell (pers. comm.). Two-thirds of these sites are found in Marion,

Polk, and Highlands Counties. Of the FNAI sites, Florida scrub lizards

have been recorded within the past 5 years from 38 sites but not for 20

or more years from 35 sites. Of the FNAI sites listed for the sand

skink (29 sites in 5 counties) and blue-tailed mole skink (19 sites in 2

counties), no specimens have been recorded for 20 or more years from 13

sites for each species.

Biologists are concerned over the loss of scrub habitat and the

reduction or fragmentation of plant and animal populations in recent

decades. The elevated, well-drained scrub habitats are highly desirable

for residential, commercial, agricultural, and recreational

developments. Intense citrus conversion began in the mid-1920's,

because the high, rolling terrain "sheds" cold air, thus minimizing

frost damage to citrus planted on its slopes. Housing pressure

increased rapidly during the 1950's and continues through the present,

as evidenced by extensive construction of subdivisions, apartment

complexes, condominiums, trailer courts, and golf courses. Population

pressure along the coasts has resulted in the loss of coastal scrub

habitat, especially in southern counties. From 1960 to 1980, the

population of Florida nearly doubled from 4.95 to 9.75 million (Terhune

1982). There will be much greater loss of coastal scrub in the future,

since most of the remaining scrub habitat is owned by developers

according to plat maps at the offices of County Property Appraisers.






5


Protection of scrub is not addressed by any state or county regulations.

On the central Florida ridge, scrub is protected at the northern end

within the Ocala National Forest (ONF) and at the southern end within

Archbold Biological Station (ABS), but these areas preserve only a

portion of the scrub's endemic species.

Florida scrub lizard populations usually reach their highest

densities in young sand pine scrub, oak scrub, and rosemary scrub.

Occasionally, they are found in turkey oak sandhills and scrubby

flatwoods; usually these habitats must be adjacent to scrub and contain

areas of bare sand. Florida scrub lizards may occur in young citrus

groves on former scrub, provided that herbaceous growth and debris are

sparse due to frequent fires or disking (Lee 1974). The full pine

canopy, dense shrub layer, and surface mat of tangled roots and humus

characteristic of mature sand pine scrub are unfavorable for high

densities of Florida scrub lizards. In mature sand pine stands, lizards

usually occur on the periphery or where disturbances have created areas

of bare sand and surface insolation. Clearcutting of sand pine mimics

the natural situation of infrequent crown fires, producing young,

even-aged stands favorable for Florida scrub lizards (Campbell and

Christman 1982).

The Florida scrub lizard is rough-scaled like the southern fence

lizard (Sceloporus u. undulatus) but differs most obviously in having a

conspicuous dark brown stripe extending from its neck to the base of its

tail. The dorsal color generally is pale brown or gray-brown, but

specimens from the southern Lake Wales Ridge tend to be grayer and lack

the reddish cast of specimens to the north and east (Jackson 1973a).

Lizards on Marco Island are notably pallid, and males tend to retain the


~ _






6


7 to 10 wavy, dark dorsal bands that are usually limited to juveniles

and females (Jackson 1973a). These markings occasionally fuse to form

dark longitudinal lines. Males have a long blue patch on each side of

the belly, bordered by black on the inner side. Their throats are black

except for a pair of blue spots at the base and a median white stripe.

Females have white venters with dark spots on the chest and undersurface

of the head and traces of blue on the throat and sides of the belly.

Mating occurs from the end of March through late June; 2 to 7 eggs

are laid 3 to 4 weeks later and hatch in about 75 days (Iverson 1974,

Fogarty 1978, Ashton and Ashton 1985). Funderburg and Lee (1968) found

scrub lizard eggs in a southeastern pocket gopher (Geomys pinetis)

mound. During this survey, hatchling scrub lizards were first observed

on 18 June in southern Polk Co., indicating a shorter incubation period

and possibly an earlier mating date than reported. Hatchlings measure

19.5 to 24 mm SVL (snout-vent length) and become sexually mature in 1

year (Iverson 1974, Lee et al. 1974). Sexually mature females range

from 39 to 58 mm SVL and males from 40 to 55 mm SVL (Lee et al. 1974).

The Florida scrub lizard is a sit-and-wait predator (Schoener 1971)

that opportunistically feeds mainly on ground-dwelling arthropods. Ants

compose about 70% of the food items, followed by adult beetles,

orthopterans, caterpillars, and spiders (Jackson 1973b, Lee et al.

1974). Florida scrub lizards occasionally prey upon small skinks, and

there is an instance of cannibalism (Bowie 1973). Individuals spend

most of their time foraging on the ground or from low perches on tree

trunks, logs, or pine cones (Jackson 1973b). When startled, they

usually dash away over the ground and take cover in clumps of chaparral,

though they may ascend trees if closely pursued. On windy days,






7


movements between lookout sites usually are made during gusts of wind

(Jackson 1974). This probably is an anti-predation adaptation, since

visual and auditory stimuli are more confusing during wind gusts when

leaves are blowing (Jackson 1974). Scrub lizards may completely bury

themselves in sand or leaf litter using a "shimmie" action (Iverson

1974). This behavior sometimes is used to escape detection when pursued

(pers. obs.) or for refuge during the nighttime (Iverson 1974). Scrub

lizards quite often are uncovered by raking through sand in scrub and

sandhills (Funderburg and Lee 1968, Iverson 1974). Major predators

probably include various species of snakes, the Florida scrub jay

(Aphelocoma c. coerulescens), and possibly birds of prey.

Based on phenetic and paleogeographical considerations, Jackson

(1973a) suggested that the Florida scrub lizard originated in the

Pliocene on the Lake Wales Ridge from a form that invaded Florida from

the southwestern U.S. or Mexico. By an unknown route, it reached

several small scrubs in Lake County near Lakes Eustis, Harris, and Dora,

and from there it may have colonized the extensive scrubs in the ONF

using a route that is now State Road (SR) 19. The Atlantic Coast scrub

probably was colonized by lizards rafting southward from the eastern

edge of the ONF when the Late Yarmouthian Pamlico Sea stood at its full

height and only a lagoon (now the St. Johns River valley) separated the

Forest from a chain of scrub-covered barrier islands beginning 80 km to

the southeast and extending 200 km to the south. Dispersal along the

Atlantic Coast north of Titusville into Volusia County scrubs apparently

has been prevented by low flatwoods. Scrubs on the southwestern Gulf

Coast conceivably were colonized by lizards dispersing overland from the

south tip of the Lake Wales Ridge during more xeric times when the


a 1411~-----






8


intervening flatwoods permitted their survival. This colonization must

have been post-Silver Bluff, because the scrubs are only 3 m above sea

level. Since Marco Island is a Wisconsin dune, its population is very

recently derived from populations near Naples.

The absence of southern fence lizards in islands of sandhill

vegetation surrounded by scrub in the ONF suggests that the southern

fence lizard is a late arrival in Florida (Jackson 1973a). However,

southern fence lizards and Florida scrub lizards have been hybridizing

for at least 100,000 years in a very narrow zone along ecotones between

sandhill and scrub communities (Jackson 1973b). The hybrids probably

are fertile; the apparent lack of any ethological reproductive isolating

mechanisms probably is due to the minimal overlap of the species'

distributions (Jackson 1973b). Morphological differences between the 2

species are a result of evolutionary adaptations to structural

differences between the 2 plant communities that require different

foraging tactics to exploit the same food resource (Jackson 1973b). The

lighter body form and longer legs and hind toes of the Florida scrub

lizard are cursorial adaptations appropriate to a ground-dwelling

species living in a habitat that allows easy visibility and movement at

ground level due to sparse ground cover. The dense shrub layer in scrub

obstructs visibility of the ground for lizards using elevated perches on

tree trunks. In contrast, the southern fence lizard spends much of its

time on tree trunks, since its sandhill habitat has relatively few

shrubs to obstruct visibility but a well-developed ground cover of

wiregrass (Aristida spp., Sporobolus spp.), forbs, and leaf litter. The

mottled gray coloration of southern fence lizards matches tree trunks,


I__I__L__l__r__l__l___-I^IY-C~---I__ -------






9


whereas the light brown coloration of Florida scrub lizards is cryptic

against the forest floor of scrub. Florida scrub lizards are found in

typical sandhill vegetation only in places where disturbances, such as

logging or road-building have created areas of bare sand (Jackson

1973b). In sandhill habitat, the Florida scrub lizard may exhibit

greater arboreal activity (Lee et al. 1974).



PROCEDURES

Known Florida scrub lizard localities from FNAI information and

Jackson (1972, 1973b) first were plotted on county highway maps and

later on U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle maps. Sites were

approximated on maps and subsequently surveyed in the field in those

cases where locality data were imprecise. All sand skink and

blue-tailed mole skink localities were mapped and later searched for

Florida scrub lizards if the habitat appeared suitable. Within the

range of the Florida scrub lizard, scrubs surveyed by Cox (1984) for

Florida scrub jays and by Johnson (1981) for sensitive endemic plant

species were mapped as potential new localities and searched for Florida

scrub lizards if suitable-looking habitat was present. Many of the

known Florida scrub lizard localities were discovered in 1983 by Schultz

(FNAI).

Florida scrub lizard surveys were conducted from 15 April through 8

August 1986, with the exception of a brief survey in Brevard County on

11 November. A total of 529 sites in 15 counties were surveyed for the

presence of Florida scrub lizards. The survey technique consisted of

walking natural open areas and beneficial disturbances in xeric

communities, particularly near shrub thickets, and either observing


1__1__1__~_~____~_~~_I(- .






10


144izards on the ground or trees or visually verifying the identity of

lizards heard running. Common habitat disturbances included sand roads,

off-road vehicle (ORV) trails, firebreaks, and powerline corridors.

The number of Florida scrub lizards seen at a site and the time

interval searched provide a crude index of relative abundance that

allows comparisons among sites. Actual population densities could not

be determined within the limited scale of this survey. Comparisons of

relative lizard abundance among sites are complicated by differences in

lizard activity due to variation in weather conditions, time of day and

year, lizard behavior, and shrub density. In addition,

young-of-the-year started appearing in mid-June and increased the

population size. Another complicating factor was the amount and

distribution of bare sand, which sometimes resulted in a clumped spatial

distribution of lizards and a high relative abundance figure at a site

that had an overall low population density. An example is a dense oak

scrub with bare sand limited to a small area, such as a firelane, that

tends to concentrate Florida scrub lizards and allow good observability.

Conversely, a low relative abundance sometimes would be recorded for a

site with a high population density, if the lizards were dispersed

evenly through a large area of habitat consisting of a mosaic of bare

sand and shrub clumps. An example of this is a rosemary scrub, which

was harder to hunt than an oak scrub with similar physiognomy because

scrub rosemary is more effective at obstructing vision and its fallen

foliage does not rustle when disturbed by lizards.

The habits and habitat use of this species were conducive to brief

surveys aimed at determining presence or absence at a site. Reasonably

high success rates were achieved with relatively low expenditures of






11


time and energy. Some of the sites visited early in the survey were

searched for comparatively long periods of time, often with diminishing

returns as progressively less suitable scrub lizard habitat was

searched. Florida scrub lizards undoubtedly could have been recorded at

additional sites through the expenditure of additional time, but if

searches in the best-looking habitat at a site failed to produce them,

the usual decision was to move on to the next site. If lizards

suspected of being Florida scrub lizards were briefly seen or heard,

additional search time was spent in an attempt to confirm the identity

of the lizards at the site.

The search time allotted for a locality depended on the extent of

suitable Florida scrub lizard habitat. Given similar habitats, a known

Florida scrub lizard locality usually was searched for a longer period

of time than a potential new locality. At potential new localities,

more time generally was spent unsuccessfully searching those with good

habitat than those with marginal or poor habitat. In some cases,

searches were terminated once a Florida scrub lizard was positively

identified, but more time often was spent if additional beneficial

disturbances were present. At potential new localities, only 2 minutes

(min.) sometimes were spent searching due to unsuitable habitat or

limited suitable habitat, which often consisted only of a strip of sand

along the roadcut.

In a large, homogeneous scrub, the most favorable-looking site was

searched. If the habitat appeared suitable but no Florida scrub lizards

were found, at least 1 additional site in the scrub usually was

searched. In large, heterogeneous scrubs, several sites often were

searched to determine the extent of the Florida scrub lizard


1~ ___111_






12


distribution and differences in relative abundance within the scrub.

Occasionally, sites at which no Florida scrub lizards were observed were

revisited, but only if they were known localities with good or fair

habitat or new localities with good habitat.

Since ONF contains an extensive area of scrub, search sites were

selected by looking on a map of the Forest for road intersections at ca.

2-mi. intervals. This method gave an idea of the extent of scrub lizard

distribution in the Forest.

Sites were characterized by noting dominant plant species in the

overstory, understory, and ground cover and by recording the relative

density of the different vegetative strata and the extent of bare sand.

If a site contained Florida scrub lizards or was a historic locality for

either of the 3 lizard taxa, the size of the suitable habitat was

estimated where road systems permitted, disturbances were noted, and the

future of the property was determined by looking at surrounding land-use

patterns, reading posted signs, and questioning owners or nearby

landowners. Names and addresses of owners were obtained from the

offices of County Property Appraisers for all sites containing Florida

scrub lizards and for known localities of the 3 lizard taxa that still

supported suitable-looking habitat. Additional information obtained

from plat maps and aerial photographs at these offices often included

assessed property value, acreage, land use, and total area of scrub

habitat.

Florida scrub lizard localities within a county are consecutively

numbered based on township, range, and section number, respectively.

Sites within a locality are given a letter after the locality number.

Sites usually are considered in the same locality if they are in close






13


proximity and if fieldwork or quadrangle maps indicate the sites are

connected by continuous habitat suitable for Florida scrub lizards and

are not effectively isolated by major highways or land use patterns.

On quadrangle maps, continuous habitat is determined by the shading and

topographic contours; aerial photographs sometimes were used to verify

continued existence of habitat. Localities in the text are not

necessarily discussed based on their numbering but instead are discussed

generally from N to S until natural or manmade features provide suitable

endpoints. Natural features include rivers, marshes, and lakes.

Manmade features include major highways, cities, subdivisions, and

property boundaries. A number in parentheses in the text refers to a

specific locality or site number assigned in the tables for the

county in question.

Historic localities that could not be located or no longer

contain suitable habitat are not listed in the tables. Known localities

with suitable habitat at which the species was not observed are denoted

by a zero in the column for number of lizards, whereas known localities

that were not searched have dashes in the last 3 columns of the table.

The legal description (township, range, and section) given for each

location denotes the area searched for lizards and not necessarily the

extent of the locality (total area of suitable habitat).

Directions to sites or localities are given in miles instead of

kilometers. The use of miles will facilitate relocation of sites, since

virtually all road maps show distances in miles, most vehicle odometers

read in miles, and the township, range, and section system of land

mapping is based on miles.


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14


C. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1. Distribution Survey of North-central Florida

All known Florida scrub lizard localities with suitable habitat and

all new localities in Putnam, Marion, and Lake Counties are listed in

Table 1. The species was observed during this survey at 58 sites (55

localities) in north-central Florida.

a. Putnam County

According to FNAI, Smith collected 2 scrub lizards 0.9 mi. W of

Deep Creek along SR-310 on the N side of Lake Oklawaha (Rodman

Reservoir), which represents the northernmost locality for the species

in the state. Since this locality consists of slash pine flatwoods, the

directions undoubtedly should have read 0.9 mi. E of Deep Creek, where

sand pine scrub occurs on the N and S sides of SR-310. A search 0.8-0.9

mi. E of Deep Creek and 0.3-0.5 mi. N of SR-31 did not produce any scrub

lizards, despite the presence of suitable habitat. The area of scrub on

the N side of the road probably once totalled ca. 120 hectares (ha), but

about 50% of it has been cleared or is in the process of being cleared

for housing, primarily mobile homes.

Two new scrub lizard localites were found during this survey in the

NE corner of ONF in Putnam Co. Lizards were observed along a small sand

road on the E side of SR-19, 0.25 mi. S of Forest Road (FR) 75 (#2).

They also were observed further S along a sand road opposite FR-47 on

the W side of SR-19 (#3). Jackson (1972) was unable to find the species

at 6 sites in Putnam Co.

b. Marion County

Marion Co. has an extremely large area of sand pine scrub, most of

which is contained in the ONF. During this survey, scrub lizards were


~I~ I~ ~I_






15


observed at 51 of 101 sites searched, including 13 of 19 known

localities. Fifteen other known localities were not searched because

they either were near other localities, were not easily accessible, or

had imprecise directions. Favored search sites included road shoulders,

logging roads, firebreaks, powerlines, and edge between clearcuts and

older sand pine stands. Only sites on the periphery of scrub lizard

range are discussed in this report; scrub lizards probably occur in all

suitable habitat within the area encompassed by these sites.

Starting at the NW corner ONF, a scrub lizard was seen along a sand

road E of SR-301, 0.4 mi. N of FR-31 (#3). To the NE, a scrub lizard

was observed 0.6 mi. S of FR-77 on the E side of FR-97 (#1). A known

locality occurs to the ESE at the N end of Riverside Island, 0.3-0.5 mi.

S of FR-77 and 0-0.3 mi. W of FR-88 (#7a). Scrub lizards were seen here

primarily around logging disturbances in a longleaf pine-turkey oak

sandhill community; this locality has scattered, small patches of scrub

vegetation. A new locality was found to the SE along FR-46, 0.15-0.2

mi. S of FR-77 (#8).

Two new scrub lizard localities at the NE corner of ONF were in

Putnam Co. Further S, scrub lizards were observed at a known locality

SE of Salt Springs on the SW side of SR-19, 0.2 mi. SE of FR-65, along a

small sand road into Salt Springs Wildlife Management Area (WMA) (#28).

Scrub lizards also were seen in the WMA on the NE side of SR-19, 2.9 mi.

SE of FR-65 (#43). The next scrub lizard locality is to the SE on the W

side of SR-19, 0-0.05 mi. N of FR-86 (#39). Further S is another new

locality 0-0.15 mi. W of SR-19 along FR-76 (#49), which is 1.35 mi. S of

FR-10 and is closed to motorized vehicles. A scrub lizard was seen

further S along a dirt trail on the N side of SR-40 just E of SR-19






16


(#55). All scrub lizard localities S and SSE of here in ONF are in Lake

Co.

The scrub lizard locality closest to the SE corner of Marion Co. is

NE of Nicotoon Lake on the N side of FR-587 along Forest Trail (FT) 510,

which extends N of FR-580 (#66). The next locality is ca. 4.8 mi. to

the NW at 1 of Jackson's (FNAI) collection sites, Big Scrub Campground,

at the NW corner of the junction of FR-573 and FR-588. During this

survey, scrub lizards were not seen in the campground, but 1 individual

was observed nearby along a powerline on the S side of FR-573, 0.15-0.3

mi. E of FR-588 (#60). To the W are 2 scrub lizard localities on the S

side of FR-573 opposite FR-569 (#57) and FR-73-B (along Prairie Trail)

(#65); the latter locality is the furthest SW in ONF that scrub lizards

were found during this survey.

Along the W boundary of the scrub lizard range in ONF, NNW of the

previous locality, Jackson (1973b) found a locality ca. 1.5 mi. SW of

Fort Bears Hole where scrub and fence lizards hybridized (#53). This

locality is along FR-595-1 in the vicinity of its junction with

FR-595-A. To the NE, a scrub lizard was seen on the E side of FR-579 at

the junction of FR-579-F, 3.05 mi. S of SR-40 (#49), and on the W side

of FR-579, 0.1 mi. S of SR-40 (#46). The next locality (#44) is ca. 1.9

mi. to the N at Deer Lake Girl Scout Campground (Iverson 1974). To the

NNW, Jackson (1973b) found another zone of hybridization along a sand

pine scrub/turkey oak sandhill ecotone near the junction of FR-96 and

FR-96-A, S of Lake Eaton (#30). To the NE, Jackson (FNAI) collected 9

specimens in 1972 at the junction of SR-314 and FR-67 (#29). West of

these localities and E of the Oklawaha River, the major vegetative

community is slash pine flatwoods dotted by numerous ponds and lakes.






17


Christman et al. (FNAI) collected a specimen in 1975 2 mi. S of Eureka

Dam (#20); if the locality was directly S of the dam, then it is the

only known locality W of the Oklawaha River. According to FNAI, there

are several localities just E of the river in scrub along the edge of

the river swamp (#19,18). In 1968, Jackson (FNAI) collected 10

specimens at the junction of SR-301 and SR-316 (#13), but no scrub

lizards were seen here during this survey despite suitable habitat.

Further N, scrub lizards were observed along a small sand road on the N

side of FR-75, 0.4 mi. E of SR-301 (#4a).

c. Lake County

Scrub lizards apparently occur only in 2 areas of Lake Co. The

first area is in northern Lake Co. at the SE end of ONF. Scrub lizards

were found at 3 of 8 sites searched here. In 1953, Auffenberg (FNAI)

collected a scrub lizard from Astor Park. The nearest scrub to this

locality begins 0.8 miles SW of Astor Park along CR-445A and contains

some good habitat for scrub lizards, but none were found in only 8 min.

of searching. New localities were found further SW along the NW side of

CR-455A 0.3-0.4 mi. NE of its junction with SR-19 (#1) and ca. 2 mi. SSW

of the junction on the W side of SR-19 (#2). Jackson (1973b) found a

zone of hybridization between Florida scrub lizards and southern fence

lizards ca. 2.0-3.4 mi. NE of SR-19 along the W side of SR-445 (#3),

which represents the E edge of the scrub lizard range at the S end of

ONF. A scrub lizard was seen during this survey NNW of Lake Dorr,

0.1-0.25 mi. S of CR-445, on the W side of SR-19 (#4); this is the

southernmost scrub along SR-19 before Umatilla.

The second area with scrub lizards in Lake Co. is in the vicinity

of Lakes Eustis, Harris, and Dora. Scrub lizards were observed during






18


this survey at 2 of 10 sites searched here. Localities listed by FNAI

as 5 mi. N of Eustis and as Tavares could not be found. In 1971,

Jackson (FNAI) collected 8 scrub lizards NW of Eustis along SR-44, 2 mi.

W of Grand Island. Suitable sand pine scrub habitat for scrub lizards

still exists on the S side of SR-44 on a few vacant lots in Haines Creek

Heights subdivision (#5b), and less suitable habitat occurs on the N

side of SR-44 (#5a). However, scrub lizards were not observed at these

sites.

According to FNAI, 3 scrub lizard localities once occurred within a

2-mi. stretch SW of Lake Dora. The only locality with remaining habitat

is on the NE side of CR-561, 1 mi. S of its junction with SR-19.

Telford (FNAI) collected a specimen here in 1960, and scrub lizards were

observed during this survey in a strip of habitat ca. 0.075-mi. wide at

the ecotone between a sand pine scrub to the NW and a turkey oak

sandhill community to the SE (#6). One of the remaining localities, ca.

0.3 mi. SSE of the previous one at the NE corner of the junction of

CR-561 and CR-448, is now citrus; the other, on the N side of CR-448 1.3

mi. E of its junction with CR-561, is now improved pasture. Scrub

lizards were last observed at the latter 2 localities in 1959 (FNAI).

A new scrub lizard locality was discovered NE of the last locality

on the S side of Lake Dora. This locality consists of sand pine, oak,

and rosemary scrub 1.3 mi. N of CR-448 at the NW corner of the junction

of the N-S Shirley Shores Dr. and E-W Lenze Dr. (#7). The W half of

this ca. 56-acre scrub is a new subdivision called Old Mill Run.

Jackson (1972) unsuccessfully searched 5 other scrubs in this part of

Lake Co.; during this survey, 2 of these sites were rechecked and


~~~11_ 1__11






19


another 5 sites with suitable scrub lizard habitat were searched without

success.



2. Distribution Survey of South-central Florida

All known Florida scrub lizard localities with suitable habitat and

all new localities in Osceola, Polk, and Highlands Counties are listed

in Table 2. Florida scrub lizards were observed during this survey at

120 sites (77 localities) out of 252 sites searched in south-central

Florida.

a. Orange County

According to FNAI, Jackson collected 10 scrub lizards in 1970 from

Dr. Phillips scrub on Kilgore Rd., which is on the W side of

Vineland-Apopka Rd. 3.4 mi. S of Turkey Lake Rd. Searches in sand pine

scrub at 3 adjacent sites along Kilgore Rd. on the NE side of Lake Sheen

produced only southern fence lizards. Since the closest known locality

for scrub lizards is ca. 12 mi. to the SW in Osceola Co. and the site is

not listed as a scrub lizard locality by Jackson (1972), the FNAI

information may be in error. Seven sites in Orange Co. were

unsuccessfully searched by Jackson (1972), and 6 sites in addition to 3

of Jackson's sites were unsuccessfully searched during this survey,

despite suitable-looking scrub lizard habitat.

b. Osceola County

The only scrub lizard site in Osceola Co. is in the NW part of the

county, S and W of Davenport Creek, 1.1-1.4 mi. N of SR-532 on the E

side of CR-545 (#1). Jackson (FNAI) collected 5 specimens here in 1969,

and 8 lizards were observed in 15 min. during this survey. They were

seen along the sand swath separating a relatively small citrus grove by


I~






20


the road from mesic streamside vegetation at the N end of the site and

good-looking sand pine scrub further S along the E side of the site.

Scrub lizards were not found by Jackson (1972) unsuccessfully searched 3

other sites and we unsuccessfully searched 1 other site in Osceola Co.

c. Polk County

In the northern two-thirds of Polk Co., in the vicinity of and

to the W of US-27, most historic scrub lizard localities (FNAI, Jackson

1972) have been lost to housing and citrus groves, with the exception of

2 localities W of Winter Haven. Extensive scrub lizard habitat still

exists along the E edge of the Lake Wales Ridge from the NE side of Lake

Marion S along the W sides of Lake Rosalie, Lake Weohyakapka, and Lake

Arbuckle. The only apparent gap in this N-S strip of scrub lizard

habitat is E of Lake Pierce; however, topographic maps indicate the

existence of what appears to be a large scrub here. The presence of

scrub lizards in this apparent scrub could not be determined due to lack

of vehicular access. Part of the scrub habitat W of Lake Weohyakapka is

protected in Tiger Creek Preserve, and scrub habitat W of Lake Arbuckle

is contained in Arbuckle WMA and the future Lake Arbuckle State Park.

Scrub lizards also occur at numerous localities in scrub near US-27 in

the southern one-third of Polk Co. from the N end of Crooked Lake S to

the county Line. Many of these localities are slated for housing

developments.

During this survey, a total of 95 sites were searched and scrub

lizards were observed at 46 of them (31 localities). Five known

localities could not be located or no longer contained suitable scrub

lizard habitat, and 2 localities contained suitable habitat but searches

were unsuccessful. Four localities were not searched due to problems






21


with access; however, scrub lizards were observed at all 4 localities

within the past 3 years.

The 4 following scrub lizard sites with imprecise locality data

could not be found. From N to S, the localities are: 22.8 mi. S of

Minneola, Davenport, Haines City, and Lake Hamilton. Limited sandhill

habitat in the vicinity of Davenport and Haines City appears unsuitable

for scrub lizards. The last locality was mapped by FNAI on the W shore

of Lake Hamilton; this area lacks scrub and mostly consists of improved

pasture, houses, and citrus. However, scrub lizards have been recorded

in sandhill vegetation 2.5 mi. E of Lake Hamilton (Lee et al. 1974),

which may be the locality in question.

The northernmost extant locality for scrub lizards in Polk Co. is a

grazed, open slash pine scrub on the SE side of CR-580, N of Lake Marion

and W of Snell Creek (#1). A sand pine and oak scrub exceeding 800 ha

in size lies E of Lake Marion, S of Lake Marion Creek. This scrub is

part of the Poinciana Neighborhood, a large subdivision presently being

developed. Jackson (FNAI) collected 26 scrub lizards in 1969 from the N

end of this locality, and scrub lizards were common during this survey

along a sandy ditch in open sand pine scrub on the WSW side of McMan

Rd., 0.5 mi SSE of Eastway Rd (#2).

Between the SW shore of Lake Marion and Cowpen Bay is an

oak/hickory scrub containing scrub lizards (#6). This site probably is

in the vicinity of a 1948 locality (FNAI) listed as Sheldon's Ranch, 4

mi. NE of Dundee. Much of the area is now a golf course and citrus

groves; the scrub is owned by several development corporations.

The westernmost scrub lizard locality in Polk Co. lies at the N end

of the Bartow Ridge and is represented by 2 remnant scrubs (ca. 12 ha






22


each) SW of Lake Blue in an industrial park SE of Auburndale (#3a,b).

Scrub lizards frequently have been recorded here from 1950 through the

present (FNAI). Scrub lizards were collected from 1953 to 1964 (FNAI)

ca. 2 mi. S of the above locality in the vicinity of Thomas Lake, Sears

Lake, and Jan Phyll Village. Most of this area is now subdivisions;

remnant scrub habitat N of Thomas Lake was searched for scrub lizards

without success (#4). A new locality, which is undergoing housing

development, was discovered ca. 0.6 mi. E of Sears Lake (#5).

Southwest of Winter Haven, scrub lizards were collected in the

early 1950's near Lake Shipp (mapped on the W side by FNAI) and Eagle

Lake (E side), but all scrub habitat apparently has been converted to

houses and citrus.

Northwest of Crooked Lake is a large sand pine scrub with sand

roads for a future subdivision. Jackson (FNAI) collected a specimen in

1969 at the E end of the scrub along the W side of US-27, 5 mi. S of

SR-60 (#7a). Cooper and Hartman (FNAI) reported in 1983 that scrub

lizards were common in the locality's interior (#7b). Although searches

at 4 sites here during this survey yielded no lizards, the species

probably occurs here at relatively low densities. About 4 mi. S of the

above locality, a new locality was discovered SW of Crooked Lake along

the Seaboard Coast Line (SCL) Railroad (#19). At least 120 ha of sand

pine scrub exist at this locality; on the W side of the railroad there

are sand roads of an undeveloped subdivision. These last 2 localities

apparently represent the W extent of scrub lizard range on the Lake

Wales Ridge, as evidenced by the absence of scrub lizards in sand pine

scrub E of Lake Buffum.






23


East of Saddlebag Lake is extensive scrub habitat primarily owned

by Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Suitable scrub lizard habitat also

occurs on the E side of Boy Scout Camp Rd.; the only scrub lizard seen

on the E side was in sand pine scrub opposite Roy Keen Rd., NE of

Saddlebag Lake (#11). Scrub lizards also occur N of the NE end of the

lake on a hill at the S end of a citrus grove (#13). The 1 specimen

seen here was along the ecotone between a turkey oak sandhill to the E

and sand pine scrub to the W. The 1.05-mi. stretch between Roy Keen Rd.

and Boy Scout Rd. (the entrance road to Flaming Arrow Scout Reservation)

on the W side of Boy Scout Camp Road consists of oak scrub (most of the

sand pines Have been logged) and scrubby flatwoods. Jackson (FNAI)

collected 27 specimens in 1969 at the camp, which probably contains over

120 ha of sand pine and oak scrub E of Saddlebag Lake. During this

survey, a scrub lizard was seen in sand pine scrub 0.2-0.3 mi. S of Boy

Scout Rd., which is 1.2 mi. N of SR-60 (#12). The area S of the BSA

property consists of citrus, except for ca. 4 ha of sand pine scrub,

with scrub lizards, SE of Saddlebag Lake at the NW corner of the

junction of Boy Scout Camp Rd. and SR-60 (#14).

South of SR-60, Boy Scout Camp Rd. becomes Walk-in-Water Rd. On

the E side of this road, a scrub lizard was observed in sand pine scrub

E of Lake Aurora (#15) and in sand live oak/turkey oak scrub SE of Lake

Aurora (#16a). A scrub lizard also was seen in sand live oak/turkey oak

scrub on the E side of Walk-in-Water Rd. on vacant lots in Lake and

Hills Country Estates, W of Lake Weohyakapka (#17).

Almost the entire watershed of Tiger Creek, a blackwater stream W

of Lake Weohyakapka, is contained in the 1760-ha Tiger Creek Preserve,

managed cooperatively by The Nature Conservancy and the American


11_____1_11_11_111I_-






24


Foundation. There are numerous scrub lizard sites within the preserve,

including atypical ones on the edge of mesic hammock vegetation near the

creek. On the W side of Walk-in-Water Rd., sand pine scrub extends

0.1-0.4 mi. N of Tiger Creek. Oak scrub with scattered sand or slash

pines, interrupted occasionally by flatwoods, extends up to 1.2 mi. N of

the creek. In 1983, Cooper and Hartman (FNAI) observed occasional scrub

lizards 0.6 mi. N of the creek; a 5-min. search did not produce any

lizards during this survey (#18a). However, 2 scrub lizards were seen

along an ORV trail 0.15 mi. N of Tiger Creek (#18b). On the W side of

Walk-in-Water Rd., scrub lizards were common in disturbed areas 0.1-0.2

(#23a) and 0.45-0.5 mi. S of Tiger Creek (#23b). The first site is in

sand pine scrub where Cooper and Hartman (FNAI) recorded scrub lizards

as common in 1983, and the second site is turkey oak scrub with a few

longleaf pines near where Godley (FNAI) collected a specimen in 1977.

In the preserve, further W of Walk-in-Water Rd., are hills and

ridges of sandhill, scrub, xeric hammock, and scrubby flatwoods habitats

interspersed with more hydric habitats, including bottomland hardwoods

and prairies. Scrub lizards were found at 2 nearby sites in oak

scrub/hammock habitat along Phunstein Rd (#21a,b). D. Cronwell (pers.

comm.) reported scrub lizards in 1986 from sites ca. 1.4 (#10), 3.5

(#9), and 4.9 mi. (#8) further N in the preserve in close proximity to

bottomland hardwoods along Tiger Creek, indicating an extensive

distribution of the species at this locality. The Phunstein Rd. sites

are ca. 1.5 mi. E of Babson Park, where scrub lizards were reported

(FNAI) at the Audubon Center, which could not be located. Most of the

land around Babson Park is citrus groves; a search of sandhill habitat N

of Babson Park produced no scrub lizards.


~I __ __


1~1~1~






25


Scrub lizards were observed at a new locality on the W side of

Walk-in-Water Rd. near the SW corner of Lake Weohyakapka, 1.125-1.175

mi. S of Tiger Creek, in a sand clearing in scrubby flatwoods (#24).

Southwest of Lake Weohykapka and W of Blue Jordan Swamp there is a ridge

of sand live oak/turkey oak scrub, with a scattered longleaf-pine

overstory, running through scrubby flatwoods. Scrub lizards were

present on both sides of Walk-in-Water Rd. where it intersected the

ridge ca. 1.7 mi. N of SR-630 (#25a,b). Scrub lizards also occurred

further S along the ridge where it again crossed Walk-in-Water Rd. ca.

0.25 mi. NE of SR-630 (#25c) and where it crossed SR-630 (#25d). Most

of these sites are owned by Alico Inc., a major citrus grower and

landowner based in La Belle.

Northeast of Reedy Lake, scrub lizards were seen in sand live

oak/turkey oak scrub on the S side of SR-630 0.7 mi. W of Walk-in-Water

Rd. (#22b) and on both sides of SR-630 1.25-1.3 mi. W of Walk-in-Water

Rd (#22a). Another site in sand live oak-turkey oak scrub is 0.85-0.9

mi. SW of SR-630 on the SE side of Blue Jordan Rd. (#22c), a S extension

of Walk-in-Water Rd. The first 2 sites primarily are owned by Alico

Inc., and the latter site is slated for a housing development. The area

consists of ridges and hills (relict dunes) of scrub alternating with

scrubby flatwoods and small, seasonally-wet prairies.

Scrub lizards were discovered W of Lake Clinch in open sand and

slash pine scrub at the S end of a stretch of grazed scrubby flatwoods

0.35-0.65 mi. N of SR-630A on the W side of SR-630 (#20). Oak and sand

pine scrub occurs SSW of Lake Clinch on the W side of US-27, 0-0.25 and

0.4-0.75 mi. N of the SCL Railroad underpass, N and S of the Sun Ray

Motel. In 1983, Schultz (FNAI) observed scrub lizards both N and W of






26


the motel. Despite good-looking habitat, no scrub lizards were seen N

of the motel during this survey (#26b). However, scrub lizards were

seen SW of the motel along both sides of the railroad cut (#26a).

Scrub lizards were observed at another one of Schultz's (FNAI)

localities, which was in open sand pine scrub on the E side of US-27

0.9-1.0 mi. S of the railroad underpass (#27). Searches were

unsuccessful in sand pine scrub 1.15-1.35 mi. S of the railroad

underpass on the E side of US-27 and 1.175-1.3 mi. S of the underpass on

the W side of US-27. Scrub lizards were not found at 4 sites W of the

above sites.

East of US-27 along the S shore of Hickory Lake is a known locality

where scrub lizards were observed during this survey at 3 sites in a

0.325-mi. long strip of sand pine scrub habitat (#29a,b,c). Southwest

of Hickory Lake is Lake Streety, which has a large scrub S of it. Scrub

lizards were not found at the N end of this area in suitable-looking

sand pine scrub habitat between Lake Streety and Saddle Blanket Lakes,

but they were found at 2 sites at the S end of the scrub ca. 1.3 mi. S

of Saddle Blanket Lakes. Schultz (FNAI) observed scrub lizards at 1 of

these sites in 1983 (#28a); the other site is only 0.1 mi. N of the NE

corner of Hardee Co. (#28b). The sites are in sand pine scrub or

chopped oak scrub on Cowart Groves and Ranch. In the vicinity is The

Nature Conservancy's Saddle Blanket Lakes Preserve, which presently

contains 22 ha of scrub; the State of Florida proposes to acquire about

300 additional ha under its Conservation and Recreation Land (CARL)

program. The nature preserve was not searched, but scrub lizards

probably occur there. Further E, 2 new scrub lizard localities were

found in sand live oak/turkey oak scrub SW of Lake Livingston. Scrub






27


lizards were seen 0.375-0.45 mi. NW of US-27 on the N side of a road

leading to Avon Park Cutoff Rd. (#31). The other locality is 1.25-1.35

mi. S of US-27A on the E side of US-27 (#32). The habitat at both of

these localities is poor for scrub lizards due to extensive groundcover

of wiregrass and forbs; 3 baby lizards were seen at the first locality

on a narrow strip of sand along the road, and 1 adult was seen at the

second locality along a 5-m wide swath of bulldozed earth inside of a

new barbed wire fence.

Scrub lizards were found at 1 of 4 sites searched along Old Avon

Park Rd. on the E side of Lake Livingston. This locality, which is 1 of

Schultz's (FNAI) 1983 sites, is 0.05-0.2 mi. S of Livingston Creek on

the E side of Old Avon Park Rd. along an ecotone between mesic hammock

and open slash pine scrub (#30). Midway between Reedy Lake and Lake

Arbuckle is another 1 of Schultz's (FNAI) sites. Scrub lizards were

observed in the vicinity of this locality in oak scrub with scattered

longleaf pines on the N side of Lake Arbuckle Rd. 0.2-0.3 mi. W of

Rucks Dairy Rd (#33). Scrubby flatwoods is the dominant vegetative

community along Lake Arbuckle Rd. up to 1.2 mi. W and 0.25 mi. E of

Rucks Dairy Rd. Scrubby flatwoods becomes sand pine scrub 0.3 mi. S of

Lake Arbuckle Rd. Scrub lizards were seen on the E side of Rucks Dairy

Road 0.6-0.7 mi. S of Lake Arbuckle Rd., just N of Livingston Creek

(#34). Scrub lizards also were seen in sand pine scrub just S of

Livingston Creek on the E side of Rucks Dairy Rd (#35). South and SE of

this locality is a very large area of scrub and scrubby flatwoods

vegetation SW of Lake Arbuckle. In 1983, Schultz (FNAI) observed scrub

lizards within this area in oak scrub SE of Lake Godwin (#37). This

site could not be checked because of a locked gate, but scrub lizards






28


probably occur in suitable habitat throughout this large tract. This

area and all of the above localities, except the locality on the N side

of Lake Arbuckle Rd., are contained within the 5400 ha of Arbuckle WMA

and the future Lake Arbuckle State Park.

The SE boundary of the park is SR-64; along the W side of SR-64,

sand pine scrub extends 0.15-0.7 and 1.0-1.25 mi. N of the Highlands Co.

line, with scrubby flatwoods occupying the gap. Land on the E side of

SR-64 is part of Avon Park WMA; sand pine scrub occurs 0.05-0.7 and

0.9-1.2 mi. N of the county line. On both sides of SR 64, oak scrub

with variable amounts of slash pine in the overstory extends 1.35-1.5

mi. N of the county line. On the W side of SR-64, scrub lizards were

seen along a firelane inside the fence 0.5-0.6 (#36d), 1.05-1.1 (#36c),

and 1.35-1.5 mi. N of the county line (#36a). On the E side of SR-64,

scrub lizards were seen along a firelane 0.15-0.4 (#36b) and 1.05-1.1

mi. N of the county line (#36c). Jackson (FNAI) collected 24 scrub

lizards from 1968-1970 at the southernmost site. Scrub lizards were not

observed in scrub habitat at 6 sites to the N and E in Avon Park Air

Force Base.

d. Highlands County

Most of the former sandhill and scrub communities in Highlands Co.

have been converted to housing developments and citrus groves. In

northern Highlands Co., scrub lizards occur intermittently S of Avon

Park in scrub extending due S of Lake Lelia to SR-66. Some of these

localities are in the subdivisions Sun 'n Lakes Sebring and Orange

Blossom Estates. A new scrub lizard locality is NE of Sebring in

sandhill habitat along SR-700A. The entire area between SR-66 and SR-70

and W of Lake Josephine, Lake June in Winter, and Lake Placid was once






29


scrub (Harper 1927). Scrub lizards occur in this area, much of which is

now cut up by roads in the large subdivisions of Leisure Lakes on the N

end and Placid Lakes on the S end. A relatively undisturbed area occurs

on Consolidated-Tomoka Land Co. property W of Lake June in Winter. East

of these lakes, scrub lizards are found in remnant scrub along US-27. A

large area of scrub, with scrub lizards, runs along the E edge of the

Lake Wales Ridge from the W shore of Lake Istokoga S to SR-70. Road

systems in the large subdivisions of Highlands Park and Sun 'n Lakes

Estates Acres cut up the N and S ends, respectively, of this scrub, the

relatively undisturbed central portion of this scrub, E of Lake Huntley,

is a future subdivision called Sun 'n Lakes. Along the E edge of the

Ridge, S of SR-70, scrub lizards are found in remnant scrub habitat

among citrus groves (some of these localities are slated for industrial

and housing developments) and reach the southern extent of their range

ca. 8 mi. S of SR-70 on Hendrie Ranch property, E of US-27. Prior to

development, there may have been as much as 4000 ha of scrub S of SR-70,

but only about 1400 ha of scrub remain (Cox 1984). These figures do not

include ABS property, where scrub lizards are common and their habitat

is protected.

During this survey of Highlands Co., a total of 154 sites were

searched and scrub lizards were observed at 73 of them (45 localities).

Scrub lizards were not seen at 3 known localities with scrub habitat; 2

localities were not searched due to problems with access.

The northernmost known locality for scrub lizards in Highlands Co.

is S of Avon Park at South Florida Community College, S of Lake Lelia.

During this status survey, lizards only were seen in ca. 3 ha of sand

pine scrub S of College Dr. and E of East Entrance Rd. (#1). A new


I






30


lizard locality was discovered SE of Lake Lelia in a xeric hammock of

sand live oak, turkey oak, and scrub hickory that is slated for

subdivision development (#2). Similar nearby habitat is owned by the

State of Florida.

Both a new and a known lizard locality occur S of Avon Park in Sun

'n Lakes Sebring subdivision. The new locality is at the N end of the

subdivision ca. 1.15 mi. N of Hog Lake (#3). Scrub lizards also were

seen in sand pine scrub 0.75-0.95 mi. S of Hog Lake, which is the SW

corner of the locality where Schultz's (FNAI) locality (#4).

Another new locality begins 1.0 mi. S of the previous locality in

sand pine scrub S of Thunderbird Rd (#5). One of Schultz's (FNAI)

localities occurs ca. 2 mi. S of the above locality, ca. 0.35 mi. E of

Highlands Hammock State Park, in less than 2 ha of slash pine scrub on

the S side of Golf Hammock Country Club (#6). The species apparently

does not occur in the state park.

To the E is 1 of Schultz's (FNAI) localities at the W end of

Lakewood Dr., SW of Lake Jackson. Scrub lizards were observed here

during this survey in ca. 52 ha of scrubby flatwoods and oak scrub (#8).

Another of Schultz's localities found to contain scrub lizards is ca.

1.8 mi. further S in ca. 16 ha of sand pine scrub in the mostly vacant

Orange Blossom Estates, NW of Wolf Lake (#9). One of 2 sites at a new

locality is ca. 1.2 mi. W of the previous locality in sand pine scrub on

the W side of SR-635, SW of Blue Lake (#10a). The second site at this

locality is 1.0 mi. further S on the W side of SR-635 (#10b). This

locality has sand pine scrub extending 0.35-1.5 mi. N of SR-66 on the W

side of SR-635 and 0.45-1.5 mi. N on the E side; however, the southern

0.4 mi. on the E side contains houses.


1____11______~~~~____






31


Northeast of Sebring is a sandhill/scrub community dominated by

turkey oak and sand live oak on the N and S sides of SR-700A (Arbuckle

Creek Rd.), 1.0-2.1 mi. E of its junction with CR-17A (Highlands Ave.).

Scrub lizards were seen at 3 sites at this new locality, which probably

extends N to Carter Cr. The species was seen only on the N side of

SR-700A, despite similar habitat on the S side and areas of oak scrub to

the SE along Hartt Rd. Scrub lizards were seen on the W boundary of the

scrub (Maxcy Rd.) 0.025-0.175 (#7c) and 0.55-0.65 mi. N of SR-700A (#7a)

and also on the N side of SR-700A, 1.4-1.5 mi. E of its junction with

CR-17A (#7b). The northernmost site at this locality is destined to

become a subdivision development, whereas the other 2 sites are on

agricultural land.

A historic locality (FNAI) listed as 1 mi. SW of De Soto City may

refer to the area of scrub/sandhill vegetation that now occurs

intermittently along both sides of US-27 0-1.15 mi. N of US-98, W and NW

of Red Beach Lake. A site 0.85-0.95 mi. N of US-98 on the E side of

US-27 was searched without success, which was not surprising considering

the poor quality of the habitat for scrub lizards (#12). Most of the

habitat in this area consists of turkey oak sandhill succeeding to xeric

hammock.

A known locality listed as 6.5 mi. NNW of the town of Lake Placid

may be an oak/hickory hammock on the W side of US 27, 0.375-0.525 mi. N

of Lake Josephine Rd. along the E shore of Lake Josephine (#14). A

scrub lizard was seen here despite the poor habitat. On the S side of

Lake Josephine Dr., 0.05-0.1 mi. W of Josephine Cr., scrub lizards were

observed in ca. 6 ha of sand pine scrub vegetation (#13). A scrub

lizard was collected in 1956 along Josephine Cr., probably where it






32


crosses SR-17 (FNAI). This entire area is now citrus groves, except for

ca. 1 ha of disturbed sand live oak/hickory hammock on the E side of

SR-17, N of the creek (#16). This locality still contains scrub lizards

despite the limited area. To the W, Josephine Creek crosses US-27.

Scrub lizards were seen S of the creek on both sides of the highway.

Clearing of scrub (probably for citrus production, since the land is

owned by Lykes Brothers Inc.) on the E side of US-27 has resulted in ca.

90% exposure of sand (#15a). On the W side of US-27, the 1.7 ha of

rosemary scrub are for sale (#15b).

A new lizard locality was discovered in disturbed sand pine scrub

SW of Lake Josephine, N of the intersection of Lake Josephine Dr. and

Henscratch Rd. (#11). Another new locality was found 3.2 mi. S of the

above locality in sand pine scrub on the E side of Henscratch Rd. (#18).

This locality is on undeveloped land at the W end of Leisure Lakes

subdivision, which encompasses a large area NW of Lake June in Winter

and contains numerous roads but few houses, except on the E end. At the

N end of Leisure Lakes, Schultz (FNAI) saw scrub lizards at 2 sites in

the vicinity of Lake Hill, which is surrounded by sand pine, oak, and

rosemary scrub. During this survey, scrub lizards were seen at 4 sites

within a 0.6-mi. radius of Lake Hill (#17a,b,c,d).

To the SE, on the N shore of Lake June in Winter and W of Lake

Henry, scrub lizards were seen in a suitable-looking scrub with heavy

ORV disturbance. This new locality is 2.1-2.2 mi. W of US-27 between

CR-621 (Miller Ave.) on the S and citrus groves on the N; the S part is

for sale as a business lot and the N part is owned by Consolidated-

Tomoka Land Co. (#19). East of Lake Henry, scrub habitat extends

0.4-1.35 mi. NW of the SCL Railroad overpass along the W side of US-27.


_I~






33


Scrub lizards were first recorded at this locality in 1972 (FNAI); they

were seen at 3 sites during this status survey (#20a,b,c). Much of the

scrub is owned by Consolidated-Tomoka Land Co. and has been cleared for

Tomoka Heights, a retirement community.

Schultz (FNAI) noted 6 scrub lizards in 32 ha of scrub on the W

side of Lake June in Winter. The locality probably is 1.3 mi. S of

CR-621 on the E side of Daffodil St; however, no scrub lizards were seen

here during this survey in neither the scrubby flatwoods near the road

nor in the sand pine scrub further E (#21). Scrub lizards were seen ca.

1 mi further S along the W side of Lake June in Winter at another of

Schultz's (FNAI) localities. The lizards were observed along a sand

road that runs N and S through open slash pine scrub 0.6-0.725 mi. N of

Lake June Rd (#27). Schultz (FNAI) claims that there are ca. 40 ha of

scrub here, but this estimate appears too high, since scrubby flatwoods

occur to the S and flatwoods and a bayhead occur to the N of the area

where the lizards were observed. These 2 localities are on agricultural

land that Consolidated-Tomoka Land Co. leases for hunting.

West of Lake Istokpoga along the E edge of the Lake Wales Ridge is

scrub habitat, much of which is part of the mostly unpopulated Highlands

Park subdivision. A new locality was found on the W side of Childs Fish

Camp Rd., a northern extension of Virginia Ave., 0.7-0.925 mi. N of a

sharp jog in the road (#22). The locality consists of a strip of

scrubby flatwoods ca. 100 m wide between the road and flatwoods further

W; it is poor scrub lizard habitat except for a narrow firebreak along

the fence. The vegetation eventually will be cleared for citrus

production, according to the landowner's son. Scrub lizards were not

seen in oak scrub 0.325-0.525 mi. N of the jog in the road. In the N


_11~1~ ~






34


part of Highlands Park, ca. 2.3 mi. SSW of the above locality, another

new locality was found in ca. 36 ha of good-looking sand pine scrub

along Lincoln Blvd., 0.6-1.05 mi. NW of Virginia Ave (#23). East of

Lake Clay is hilly sand pine, oak, and rosemary scrub that once totalled

ca. 64 ha but now is intersected by roads and contains houses in many

areas. The scrub extends along Virginia Ave. 0.15-0.75 mi. N of CR-621;

scrub lizards were seen at 2 sites in the N part of the locality, E of

Virginia Ave (#24a,b). East of this locality, 0.85 mi. N of CR-621 on

the W side of CR-619 (Highlands Lake Dr.), is a new locality near the E

scarp of the ridge (#25). Scrub lizards probably occur in suitable

habitat between the latter 2 localities.

Scrub lizards were observed at 3 sites in a new locality S of

CR-621. Two of these sites are along CR-619 on relict dunes along the

Wicomico Shoreline (about 31 m above sea level) at the E edge of the

ridge. Scrub habitat occurs on the W side of CR-619 along the entire

2.05-mi. stretch S of CR-621 and N of CR-29, but the 1.4-mi. stretch at

the S end has better-looking scrub lizard habitat (lower density sand

pine and greater sand exposure) than at the N end. The scrub lizard

site on the W side of CR-619 is in oak scrub 0.85-0.9 mi. S of CR-621

(#33b). Scrub habitat occurs intermittently on the E side of CR-619;

some areas are cleared of scrub vegetation. The scrub lizard site on

the E side of CR-619 is in partially cleared oak scrub 1.45-1.5 mi. S of

CR-621 (#33c). The third site at this locality is on the E side of

Holmes Ave., which is 1.0 mi. W of CR-619 along the E shore of Lake

Huntley. A scrub lizard was seen here (#33a) 1.25 mi. S of CR-621 along

a narrow dirt road in dense oak scrub, which was 1 of the few suitable

places to hunt scrub lizards in the stretch of scrubby flatwoods and oak


I~~------_LII_ -III_--~






35


scrub that extends 0-1.35 mi. S of CR-621 along the E side of Holmes

Ave. The 2 sites between CR-619 and Holmes Ave. are part of the

undeveloped N end of a subdivision called Sun 'n Lakes Estates, whereas

the site on the E side of CR-619 is on a large tract of agricultural

land.

Southwest of Lake June in Winter, scrub lizards were seen in

rosemary scrub on Consolidated-Tomoka Land Co. property at 1 of

Schultz's (FNAI) localities. They were observed in ca. 28 ha of open

slash pine scrub on the N side of Lake June Rd. 0.875-0.975 mi. W. of

Jefferson Ave. (#26), which is the major road running S from Lake June

in Winter in Placid Lakes subdivision. On the S side of Lake June Rd.,

ca. 0.2 mi. W of the above site, a scrub lizard was seen in sand pine

scrub on vacant lots at the N end of Placid Lakes (#28). Sand pine

scrub extends W of Jefferson Ave. for 0.7-1.1 mi. on the N side of Lake

June Rd. and 0.7-1.25 mi. on the S side.

Scrub lizards were not observed at several sites in hilly scrub

habitat along the NW shore of Lake Placid, SW of Mirror Lake. In Placid

Lakes subdivision, on the E side of Jefferson Ave. ca. 1.55 mi. S of

Lake June Rd., is a new lizard locality in ca. 12 ha of rosemary scrub

subdivided by roads and containing a few houses (#29a). Another

locality is ca. 0.3 mi. SW of this one along Grant Parkway (a divided

road W of Jefferson Ave) (#29b). The latter site may be close to 1 of

Jackson's (1972) collection sites. Sand pine scrub extends 0.3 mi. W of

Jefferson Ave. on the N and S sides of Grant Parkway.

Placid View Dr. runs along the W shore of Lake Placid in Placid

Lakes subdivision. On the W side of Placid View Dr. are Third Ave. NE

and Ninth Ave. NE, which are 2.275 and 2.75 mi. N of SR-70,


__






36


respectively. On the N and S sides of Ninth Ave. NE, sand pine scrub

extends W for 1.1 mi. to Jefferson Ave. and then ca. another 0.1 mi.

further W. This scrub contains some houses and a few areas with slash

pines; roads are numerous, especially on the S side of Ninth Ave. NE.

Most of the scrub is grassy; the best-looking scrub lizard habitat

occurs along the roads in the form of sand swaths vegetated by rosemary.

In 1983, Cooper et al. (FNAI) observed that scrub lizards were common

2.6 mi. N of SR-70 and ca. 275 m W of Placid View Dr. Near this

locality, scrub lizards were seen up to 0.3 mi. W of Placid View Dr. at

3 sites between Third Ave. NE and Ninth Ave. NE (#30a,b,c). Two new

lizard localities were found in an oak scrub extending 1.5-1.75 mi. N of

SR-70 on the W side of Placid View Dr. (#31) and in a small scrub

between 2 creeks SW of Lake Placid, 0.825-0.85 mi. N of SR-70 on the E

side of Placid View Dr. (#32). Both of these localities are owned by

the Lake Placid Holding Co. and show signs of cattle grazing.

An oak/hickory scrub W of Grassy Lake extends ca. 0.9 mi. S of

CR-29 on the E side of US-27; the southern 0.4 mi. is interrupted by

Lake Ridge Estates, Hickory Hills, and Lake Placid Campground. Scrub

lizards were seen at 2 sites in this locality. One site is on YMCA Camp

of Florida land 0.2-0.25 mi. S of CR-29 (#34a), and the other site is

0.525-0.575 mi. S of CR-29 on 11.6 ha of private land (#34b).

On the E side of US-27, S of Grassy Lake, are some areas with

oak/hickory scrub. A scrub lizard was seen in 1 of these areas 1.15-1.2

mi. N of SR-70 (#36). Scrub lizards were found at 8 sites E of this new

locality in Sun 'n Lakes Estates and Sun 'n Lakes Estates Acres, SE of

Grassy Lake and N of SR-70. There are extensive areas of oak/hickory

scrub in these subdivisions, which have relatively few houses. The 2






37


major running N and S are Highlands Blvd. and Citrus Ave., which are

1.25 and 1.5 mi. E of SR-70, respectively. The only sand pines in these

subdivisions occur along the E and W sides of Highlands Blvd.,

0.675-0.875 and 0.675-0.975 mi. N of SR-70, respectively. Scrub lizards

were seen here in sand pine scrub on the E side of Highlands Blvd., N

and S of Orange St. (#38b), which is 0.775 mi. N of SR-70. A scrub

lizard was seen on a ridge of oak scrub on the N side of Orange St.

0.125-0.15 mi. W of Highlands Blvd (#38a). More scrub habitat occurs

along Citrus Ave. than along Highlands Blvd. Scrub lizards were seen

along Citrus Ave. 0-0.05 (#39b), 0.45 (#38d), 0.725-0.775 (#38c),

1.275-1.3 (#35b), and 1.725-1.775 mi. N of SR-70 (#35a). Another site

with scrub lizards is a ridge on the N side of SR-70 0.15-0.2 mi. E of

Citrus Ave (#39a). A scrub lizard was seen on a relict dune of

disturbed oak scrub on the S side of SR-70 0.425-0.475 mi. E of Citrus

Ave (#39c).

Schultz (FNAI) saw a scrub lizard ca. 1.1-1.6 mi. SSW of the last

site in ca. 40 ha of hilly oak/hickory scrub surrounded by citrus and

pasture (#44). This locality, which is owned by Consolidated-Tomoka

Land Co., could not be accessed during this survey due to concerns over

citrus canker contamination.

A scrub lizard was seen during this survey in disturbed oak/hickory

scrub on the S side of SR-70, 0.2-0.3 mi. W of US-27, N and W of

Douglass Fertilizer and Chemical (#40). South of Lake Placid, Schultz

(FNAI)observed scrub lizards in ca. 80 ha of oak scrub on the N side of

SR-70, ca. 2.0 mi. W of US-27 (#37). No scrub lizards were seen here

during this survey; the property is an unsubdivided portion of Placid

Lakes.






38


On the S side of SR-70, scrub lizards have been recorded from the

Lake Annie Tract, particularly S and W of the lake (#42). This land is

owned by Archbold Expeditions, Inc., a private non-profit biological

research organization that owns ca. 1676 ha of land S of SR-70 in the

vicinity of SR-17 ("Old 8"). Scrub lizards were not seen along the N

shore of Lake Annie in a strip of rosemary scrub. The entrance road to

ABS is on the W side of SR-17 1.85 mi. S of SR-70. Scrub lizards were

seen on Archbold property along firelanes inside the fence on the W side

of SR-17 0.75-0.85 (#41a), 0.25-0.4 (#41b), and 0.15-0.175 mi. N of the

entrance road (#41c). Three scrub lizard sites occur on the E side of

SR-17 in the vicinity of a loop road leading to a firetower opposite the

ABS entrance road. Scrub lizards were seen along SR-17 0.15-0.175 mi. N

of the loop road (#43c) and on the S side of the loop road along wide

firelanes through tall, dense oak/hickory scrub 0.075 (#43b) and 0.6 mi.

E of Old SR-8 (#43a). This area, called Red Hill, is 1 of Jackson's

(1972) collection localities.

Scrub lizards occur elsewhere on Archbold property, but sites off

the main highway were not checked because a 4-wheel drive vehicle would

have been necessary. The Station is located ca. 7 mi. from the southern

terminus of the Lake Wales Ridge; the 3 principal xeric vegetative types

on the ridge at Archbold are sand pine scrub, scrubby flatwoods, and

southern ridge sandhill associations (south Florida slash pine and

turkey oak). Beneficial disturbances include numerous road shoulders

and firelanes; all but 420 ha are periodically burned.

A scrub lizard was collected by Woolfenden (FNAI) in 1969 at

Hicoria ca. 4 mi. S of SR-70 along SR-17. During this survey, scrub

lizards were seen along a ridge of oak and rosemary scrub along the SCL






39


Railroad on the E side of SR-17, 0.675-0.725 mi. S of the railroad

crossing at Hicoria (#45).

In 1970, Jackson collected (FNAI) 31 scrub lizards from scrub N and

S of Gould Rd., which is ca. 6 mi. S of SR-70 on the E side of US-27.

Schultz (FNAI) observed 2 individuals here in 1983; during this survey,

scrub lizards were seen 0.125-0.175 mi. N of Gould Rd. on the E side of

US-27 (#46). Scrub habitat extends 0.1-1.15 mi. N of Gould Rd. and

0.1-0.225 mi. E of US-27 along Gould Rd. (the rest is citrus). A patch

of scrub still remains S of Gould Rd. on the E side of US-27. On the W

side of US-27, scrub lizards were not seen in sand pine scrub extending

0.275-1.525 mi. N of Gould Rd., but they were seen 0.05-0.15 mi. S of

Gould Rd (#47). On the W side of US-27, scrub extends 0.075-0.65 mi. S

of Bald Hill Rd. (Bloomburg Rd.), which is ca. 0.45 mi. S of Gould Rd.

Schultz (FNAI) saw a scrub lizard at this locality in ca. 12 ha of hilly

rosemary bald; scrub lizards were seen during this survey 0.075-0.15

(#48a) and 0.55-0.65 mi. S of Bald Hill Rd (#48b). In the future, this

locality will be developed into Placid Highlands Commercial Park and, at

the S end, Venus Farm subdivision.

To the SE, 8 mi. S of SR-70 on the E side of US-27, is a dirt road

leading to the Hendrie Ranch on the E edge of the Lake Wales Ridge.

Scrub lizards were seen along the dirt road in cattle-disturbed oak

scrub 0.55-0.6 mi. in a straight line E of US-27 (#50). Scrub lizards

also were seen at 2 sites in a large area of scrub 1.0-1.35 mi. in a

straight line E of US-27 (#49a,b). The main body of the scrub is on the

N side of the road and is bordered on the W by a homestead, on the E by

a bayhead, and on the S by scrubby flatwoods. The largest pure rosemary






40


bald in Highlands Co. occurs here and represents the southernmost

locality for this plant community on the central ridge.


3. Distribution Survey of the Atlantic Coast

All known Florida scrub lizard localities with suitable habitat and

all new localities along the Atlantic Coast are listed in Table 3.

Scrub lizards were observed during this survey at 78 sites (56

localities) in Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach, and

Broward Counties.

a. Brevard County

A total of 47 sites were searched for scrub lizards in Brevard Co.

Scrub lizards were observed at 16 sites in 9 localities, of which 3

localities were already known. Along the Atlantic Coast, Jackson (1972)

was unable to find scrub lizards in counties N of Brevard Co. or E of

the Intracoastal Waterway (Indian River) on Merritt Island and Canaveral

Peninsula During this survey, the northernmost scrub searched was ca.

2 mi. N of Mims. R. Labisky (pers. comm.) reported seeing scrub lizards

on the N part of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, but this sighting was

not confirmed despite searches at 9 sites. Suitable-looking scrub

lizard habitat occurs here; the best habitat is an oak/rosemary scrub on

the W side of Cape Rd. ca. 2.2 mi. S of the Kennedy Space Center

boundary.

The furthest N that scrub lizards were found was on the S side of

Titusville. Scrub lizards were seen at 4 sites in this new locality,

which is S of SR-50. Two sites are in oak/hickory scrub with

low-density sand pine on vacant lots in Sun Valley subdivision, 0.15-0.2

mi. S of SR-50 on the E side of Barna Ave. (#la) and 0.8-0.9 mi. S of






41


SR-50 on the W side of Barna Ave (#lb). Another site is in low-density

sand pine scrub along the roadcut on the NE side of SR-405, 0.9-1.25 mi.

SE of SR-50, on vacant lots mostly owned by Capital Real Estate Co. of

Tallahassee, Inc (#1c). Scrub lizards also were seen in oak scrub on

the SE side of SR-405, 0.9-1.0 mi. SE of SR-50, on property owned by

Marbello Investment Inc. in the large, undeveloped Titusville Fruit and

Farm Land Co. subdivision (#ld).

Further E, scrub lizards were observed at 2 sites (#2a,b) in a new

locality that consists of open slash pine scrub with a dense scrub oak

understory extending at least 1.2 mi. N of SR-405 on the W side of

Riveredge Dr., which runs along the Intracoastal Waterway.

A known locality (Jackson 1972) NW of Bellwood on the E side of

Space Center Executive Airport (formerly Ti-Co or Titusville-Cocoa

Airport) still has scrub lizards. Sand pine scrub extends along both

sides of US-1 from ca. 0.05 mi. S of SR-405 to Golden Knights Blvd., the

airport entrance road. Scrub lizards were seen along ORV trails in sand

pine scrub on vacant industrial land on the N side of Golden Knights

Blvd. 0.2-0.3 mi. W of US-1 (#2a). Scrub lizards also were seen

opposite this site 0-0.1 mi. S of the boulevard on the N and W sides of

a borrow pit in sand pine scrub and hammock habitat (#2b). Some sand

pine scrub in the vicinity of this locality has been cleared, and

numerous real-estate-for-sale signs are present.

Scrub lizards were seen in sand pine scrub at a new locality on

both sides of US-1 S of CR-515. One site is in ca. 1 ha of

severely-disturbed scrub on the W side of US-1, 0.4 mi. S of CR-515

(#3a). The site on the E side of US-1 is 0.325-0.425 mi. S of CR-515

(#3b).


~~~BCls~






42


A known scrub lizard locality occurs ca. 3.1 mi. S of the previous

one in sand pine scrub just S of City Point. Jackson (FNAI) collected

13 specimens here in 1968 and 14 specimens in 1970. During this survey,

scrub lizards were observed along ORV trails N of SR-528 (Bee Line

Expressway), just SW of City Point Sub Station, on the highway

right-of-way and on vacant industrial land owned by Florida East Coast

(FEC) Railroad (#4a). Scrub lizards also were noted 0.1 mi. to the SW

on the S side of SR-524, 0.3-0.4 mi. W of US-1, on vacant commercial

land with substantial ORV disturbances (#4b). Sand pine scrub extends

0.8 mi. W of US-1 along the S side of SR-528; much of the rest of the

area has been developed, leaving a few patches of scrub with extensive

ORV disturbances.

Jackson (FNAI) collected 12 scrub lizards in 1968 and 10 in 1970 at

a locality listed as 0.3 mi. S of Pineda. The headquarters of Florida

Today and U.S.A. Today is situated 0.3 mi. S of Pineda Ave. on the W

side of US-1, and a trailer court lies to the S. West of these

developed areas is an open slash pine scrub with poor to marginal scrub

lizard habitat, indicating this may not be the location of Jackson's

site. North of Pineda, sand pine scrub of variable suitability for

scrub lizards occurs on the W side of US-1 from 2.6-4.6 mi. N of SR-404

except for a stretch occupied by Florida Memorial Gardens, which is

3.1-3.5 mi. N of SR-404 and E of the railroad. Scrub lizards were seen

2.725-2.775 mi. N of SR-404 in marginal habitat along the E side of the

railroad (#6); much of the area is cut up by bulldozed roads, and there

is a sand mine W of the railroad. Scrub lizards also were seen on the E

side of the railroad 3.7-3.8 mi. N of SR-404 on a 17.6-ha tract of

vacant agricultural land (#5).






43


Scrub lizards were not observed at 4 scrub sites in the Melbourne

area, but some were observed further S along a powerline corridor

through sand pine scrub owned by Harris Computer Corp. on the W side of

US-1, 1.0 mi. N of Valkaria Rd.

on Harris Computer Corp. land (#7). The scrub extends 0.925-1.175 mi. N

of Valkaria Rd.

Another new scrub lizard locality is N of Micco. Scrub lizards

were seen along a Florida Power and Light easement through dense sand

pine scrub on vacant agricultural land on the S side of Senne Rd., W of

the FEC Railroad on the W side of US-1 (#8).

b. Indian River County

Scrub lizards were observed at 7 of 12 sites searched in Indian

River Co. These sites represented 2 of 3 known localities and 4 new

localities for scrub lizards.

In the N part of the county, sand pine scrub extends S of CR-505

(Roseland Rd.) for 0.875 mi. on the E side of US-1 (to Sebastian

Cemetery) and for 1.025 mi. on the W side of US-1. Scrub lizards were

common in an undisturbed sand pine/rosemary scrub on the E side of US-1,

ca. 0.15 mi. S of CR-505 (#1). This is near the locality where Myers

(FNAI) collected 2 specimens in 1977. Scrub lizards also were common in

a pristine sand pine/rosemary scrub on the W side of US-1 ca. 0.9 mi. S

of CR-505 (#2). Another scrub lizard locality on the W side of US-1 is

2.45-2.5 mi. S of CR-505 on a ridge of sand pine scrub with ORV

disturbances (#3). One of the latter 2 localities probably is where

Jackson (FNAI) collected 11 specimens in 1968 and may be where scrub

lizards were observed in the 1930's (FNAI).


_~111~1_1_


l-st-~1--P






44


On the S side of Winter Beach, a new scrub lizard locality was

discovered on a ridge of sand pine scrub W of the FEC Railroad and

between CR-632 (S. Winter Beach Rd.) on the N and North Relief Canal on

the S. Scrub lizards were seen along the W side of the railroad at a

site with heavy ORV use on the S side of CR-632 (#4a) and to the SSE at

a site 0.2 mi. N of the canal (#4b). At the latter site, major land

moving is in progress to the S and ca. 0.25 mi. to the W.

A historic locality listed as Vero Beach could not be located

(Jackson 1972).

Scrub lizards were common along an AT & T easement through sand

pine scrub on the N side of Oslo Rd. 0.1-0.15 mi. W of SR-605 (Old Dixie

Hwy.) (#5). Scrub lizards also were seen along an ORV trail 0.25 mi. N

of the St. Lucie Co. line and 0.175 mi. W of SR-605 in the Florida Ridge

subdivision (#6). Aerial photographs indicate suitable scrub lizard

habitat extends W of this subdivision to the Lateral J Canal and NW from

the county line for ca. 0.55 mi.

c. St. Lucie County

In St. Lucie Co., scrub lizards were observed at 13 of 17 sites

searched; these sites represented 2 known localities and 11 new ones.

From the Indian River Co. line S to Fort Pierce, US-1 and SR-605

run along a ridge, ca. 0.3 mi. wide, that probably once was vegetated by

uninterrupted scrub habitat. Now only patches of scrub habitat remain;

therefore, all sites along this ridge are considered as different

localities due to isolation by highways or vegetative clearing. Scrub

lizards were abundant at these localities. The first such locality is

on the E side of US-1, 0.05 mi. N of SR-713, between sand pine scrub on

the N and oak/hickory scrub on the S (#1). The second locality is on






45


the W side of US-1, 0.8-0.825 mi. S of SR-713, in oak/hickory scrub with

scattered cabbage palms (#2). Similar habitat to the previous locality

exists at the next 2 localities, which are on the W side of SR-605,

0.4-0.5 mi. N of Indrio Rd. (#3) and 0.15-0.25 mi. S of Indrio Rd (#4).

The latter locality is at or near the one where Jackson (FNAI) collected

19 specimens from 1968-1970 and Myers (FNAI) collected 1 in 1977. In

1967, Jackson (FNAI) collected a scrub lizard in St. Lucie, which may

be the locality (#5) searched during this study where scrub lizards were

abundant along ORV trails in sand pine scrub between US-1 and SR-605,

1.2-1.3 mi. N of St. Lucie Blvd. (an E extension of SR-605).

On the N side of Fort Pierce, scrub vegetation extends 0.4-0.7 mi.

N of Taylor Cr. (Belcher Canal) along the E side of US-1. Scrub lizards

were abundant 0.45-0.5 mi. N of the creek along ORV trails in

oak/hickory scrub with scattered sand and longleaf pines (#6). In Fort

Pierce, scrub lizards were seen in oak and sand pine scrub 0.1-0.2 mi. W

of US-1 on the S side of Ave. 0, which is ).55 mi. N of SR-A1A (#7).

From the southern end of Fort Pierce S to the county line is a

ridge of scrub between the Intracoastal Waterway and a linear marsh to

the W. The FEC Railroad runs along this ridge, and SR-707 closely

parallels the coastline. Due to houses lining the W side of SR-707,

access to scrub on the ridge primarily is restricted to several short

roads. The first such road is Savannah Rd., 2.6 mi. N of SR-712 (White

City Rd.), where scrub lizards were observed 0.2-0.35 mi. W of SR-707

along the NW side of the W fork (Glades Cutoff) of the railroad (#8).

This hill of oak/rosemary scrub with scattered sand pines was heavily

used by ORV's. Further S is another new scrub lizard locality 0.05-0.1

mi. W of the end of Rio Vista Dr., 1.8 mi. N of SR-712, and E of the


_I _I~






46


railroad in coastal strand vegetation with ORV trails (#9). The next

locality is 0.05-0.1 mi. W of SR-707 along the N side of SR-712 in ca. 1

ha of severly-disturbed coastal strand vegetation on FEC Railroad

property (#10).

South of SR-712, some of the xeric ridge vegetation is included in

Savannahs State Preserve, which extends S past the county line. Scrub

lizards were observed 1.8-1.825 mi. N of Walton Rd. on both sides of the

railroad (#lla,b). This area of sand pine scrub, which extends

continuously at least 0.25 mi. N and 0.1 mi. S, was accessed by walking

W from SR-707 through a vacant, cleared lot. Scrub vegetation occurs on

the N and S sides of Walton Rd., 0.05-0.25 mi. W of SR-707. Scrub

lizards were observed here in oak scrub W of the railroad on the N side

of Walton Rd. (#12a) and in oak scrub/coastal strand vegetation on both

sides of the railroad S of Walton Rd. (#12b).

e. Martin County

Scrub lizards were observed at 16 of 26 sites searched in Martin

Co. One historic locality is now a subdivision, but scrub lizards are

present at the other 3 known localities (not including Jonathon

Dickinson State Park) and at 11 new localities. Although Martin Co. has

extensive scrub habitat, much of it is owned by developers. Large areas

of scrub are preserved in the S part of the county in Jonathon Dickinson

State Park and Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge.

North of Stuart, scrub lizards were observed 0.2-0.275 mi. S of

CR-732 (Jensen Beach Blvd.), ca. 0.4 mi. W of SR-707 (#1). This

locality contains ca. 36 ha of sand pine scrub surrounded by

subdivisions and trailer parks. The site hunted was on the W side of a

large ORV "pit" on land slated for trailer-park development in Ocean


_I~






47


Breeze Park. This may be the Jensen Beach locality where Werner (FNAI)

collected a specimen in 1976. To the SSW, near Rio, there are large

areas of scrub on both sides of CR-723 between SR-707 and CR-707A.

Scrub lizards were seen along ORV trails in open slash pine scrub on the

SE side of CR-723 0.1-0.2 (#2b) and 0.55 mi. NE of SR-707 (#2a).

Southeast of Port Salerno, scrub habitat extends 0.15-0.75 mi. E of

SR-AIA on the S side of CR-722 (Cove Rd.) and is bisected by a stream.

In 1979, Moler (FNAI) collected 2 specimens here 0.5 mi. E of SR-A1A,

and this may be Auffenberg's (FNAI) 1965 locality listed as Port

Salerno. During this survey, scrub lizards were seen in oak scrub with

ORV use 0.3-0.35 mi. E of SR-A1A (#4a) and in sand pine scrub 0.7 mi. E

of SR-A1A (#4b). To the SE, 0.65-1.4 mi. SE of CR-722 along the E side

of SR-A1A, is oak scrub that probably is connected to the previous

locality. Scrub lizards were seen along ORV trails at this new

locality, 1.15-1.2 mi. SE of CR-722, on land owned by Sea Branch Corp.

(#3). On the E side of SR-A1A, relatively pristine sand pine scrub

begins again S of the FEC Railroad crossing at Fruita and extends to

0.65 mi. N of Miller St. before becoming open slash pine scrub, which

terminates ca. 1.1 mi. S of Miller St. Scrub lizards were seen at a new

locality (#5) 0.825 mi. N of Miller St. on Sea Branch Corp. land but

were not seen, although 2 lizards were heard that sounded like scrub

lizards, 0.3-0.325 mi. N of Miller St. in burned slash pine scrub.

Despite good-looking habitat, scrub lizards also were not seen in open

slash pine scrub 0.4-0.5 mi. S of Miller St. However, scrub lizards

were common in open sand pine scrub 0-0.15 mi. S of Miller St. along

Gomez Ave., a trashy, sand road 0.35 mi. E of SR-A1A (#6).






48


Sand pine scrub, interrupted by 2 freshwater prairies, extends

along the W side of US-1 1.85-3.25 mi. N of CR-708 in the town of Hobe

Sound. Scrub lizards were seen here in open sand pine scrub ca. 1.9 mi.

N of CR-708, W of Gomez (#7). Another new scrub lizard locality is ca.

0.45 mi. to the SE on the W side of SR-A1A in oak/hickory scrub with

scattered sand pine and patches of rosemary, 1.6-1.75 mi. N of CR-708

(#8). Scrub lizards also were seen on the W side of SR-A1A in

marginal-looking sand pine scrub habitat, 0.2-0.3 mi. N of CR-708 (#9).

On the W side of US-1, a strip of almost continuous scrub

vegetation extends S of CR-708 for ca. 7.0 mi. to the Palm Beach Co.

line. Along this stretch of scrub, scrub lizards were seen in sand

pine/rosemary scrub on an E-W ridge 0.5-0.575 mi. S of CR-708 on land

owned by Hobe Sound Water Co. (#11). Another scrub lizard locality is

on vacant ORV-disturbed lots in Papaya Village, 0.05-0.1 mi. N of the

junction of CR-A1A (#10). Jonathan Dickinson State Park starts 0.3 mi.

SE of the CR-A1A junction and extends S for ca. 3.9 mi. along the W side

of US-1. Scrub lizards occur in the extensive sand pine and oak scrub

habitats within the park, but very little searching was conducted here

since it is a known locality (FNAI) with protected habitat. Scrub

habitat extends for 1.3 mi. along the main entrance road in the park.

The 1.4-mi. stretch of scrub between the S boundary of the park and the

county line could not be searched due to the presence of a chain link

fence around Jupiter Hills Club and Jupiter Hill Village; areas of scrub

W of the fence have been cleared for buildings and lawns. Tequesta City

Park is situated on 16.4 ha of land at the SW corner of Jupiter Hills

Club, 0.2-0.4 mi. W of US-1 on the N side of County Line Rd. A scrub

lizard was seen in the park within the first 30 seconds of searching






49


disturbed sand pine scrub habitat 0.3 mi. W of US-1 (#14). In 1956,

Christianson (FNAI) collected 2 specimens along County Line Rd. 0.5 mi.

W of Old Dixie Hwy (ca. 0.6 mi. W of the last locality); this area is

now a subdivision with houses.

On the E side of US-1, scrub habitat extends for ca. 1.05 mi. from

0.55 mi. S of CR-708 to 0.2 mi. S of CR-A1A. A scrub lizard was seen at

the N end of this strip of scrub along an E-W ridge (#12) opposite a

previous locality (#11). This locality (#12) is on Hobe Sound Water Co.

land in ORV-disturbed sand pine scrub. Scrub habitat also occurs along

the E side of US-1 from 2.3 mi. N to 0.5 mi. S of the Jonathan Dickinson

State Park entrance road, which is 2.45 mi. N of the county line. Scrub

lizards were seen 1.6 mi. N of the park entrance in suitable-looking

undisturbed oak/rosemary scrub with scattered sand pines along the

Intracoastal Waterway on Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge property

(#13).

f. Palm Beach County

Scrub lizards were observed at 22 of 32 sites searched in Palm

Beach Co., which only has ca. 2% of its scrub remaining. Scrub lizards

were seen at 5 of 6 known localities and at 8 new localities. The

future of most of these localities is poor because they are owned by

developers.

One of Jackson's (1972) localities, which is supposed to be several

miles W of West Palm Beach, and a historic locality (Jackson 1972) in

Lake Worth could not be located.

A scrub lizard was seen in ORV-disturbed sand pine and oak scrub

0.25-0.6 mi. S of the county line on the W side of the FEC Railroad,






50


which is W of Old Dixie Highway (#1). Scrub on the E side of Old Dixie

Highway, 0.3-0.8 mi. S of the county line, was not searched.

Scrub lizards were seen on the N edge of a sand pine scrub that

extends 0.25 mi. N of SR-707 (Alt. A1A Branch Rd. or Beach Rd.) and 0.25

mi. E of US-1, N of the Loxahatchee River (#2a). The U.S. Air Force

Jupiter Missile Data Collecting Annex is situated in the center of the

20 ha of federal property. More sand pine scrub owned by the federal

government extends ca. 0.1 mi. S of SR-707 and 0.05-0.25 mi. E of US-1;

scrub lizards also occur at this second site (#2b). East of this scrub

is Jupiter Inlet U.S. Coast Guard Station, and to the S is Jupiter

Lighthouse Park.

In Jupiter, sand pine scrub extends 0.05-0.5 mi. S of SR-706

(Indiantown Rd.) on the W side of US-1 along the strip of land between

the highway and Lake Worth Creek. In an ORV-disturbed sand pine scrub

0.2-0.3 mi. S of SR-706, more scrub lizards were seen (28 in 20 min.)

than at any other site during this survey (#3). This property recently

has been purchased by Alandco, a land investment corporation.

Scrub habitat extends 1.0-1.8 mi. S of SR-706 along the W side of

US-1 and 1.7-2.2 mi. S of SR-706 along the E side of US-1. On the W

side of US-1, scrub lizards were seen 1.2 mi. S of SR-706 along an edge

between open sand pine scrub and burned oak scrub (#4a) and ca. 1.8 mi.

S of SR-706 along a powerline disturbance in sand pine scrub (#4b).

This stretch of scrub, which is owned by various developers, probably

encompasses the following 2 known localities. Jackson (FNAI) collected

21 specimens from 1968-1970 along US-1, 1 mi. S of SR-706, and Moler

(FNAI) saw scrub lizards ca. 2.5 mi. S of Jupiter on the W side of US-1.


~I____






51


Oak scrub occurs on both sides of US-1 0.3-0.7 mi. N of Donald Ross

Rd. in Juno Beach. Scrub lizards were observed along ORV trails on both

sides of US-1 in the northern 0.1-mi. stretch of this scrub (#5a,b).

This may be a historic locality listed as Juno Beach (FNAI). A new

locality with 2 sites was discovered along the E side of Ellison-Wilson

Rd., which is ca. 0.5 mi. W of US-1, S of Juno Beach. Scrub lizards

were seen here in oak scrub 0-0.3 mi. N of Rolling Green Rd. (#6a),

which is 1.7 mi. N of SR-786, and 0-0.2 mi. S of Rolling Green Rd. up to

0.35 mi. E of Ellison-Wilson Rd. (#6b).

A new locality was discovered on a ridge of sand pine scrub with

heavy ORV use W of Lake Park, 0.6-0.7 mi. S of SR-850 on the SW side of

Old Dixie Highway (#7). In 1956, King (FNAI) collected a scrub lizard

at the N end of West Palm Beach at a locality ca. 2.8 mi. SSE of the

previous one. These 2 localities are on the same ridge and probably

once were connected by continuous scrub vegetation that has since been

cleared for residential and commercial developments. The latter

locality, which still contains areas of sand pine scrub with scrub

lizards, is 0-0.45 mi. N of SR-702 and 0-0.35 mi. W of Old Dixie Highway

in the vicinity of St. Marys Hospital, E of an industrial park (#8).

Scrub lizards were discovered in marginal-looking sand pine scrub

habitat along both sides of High Ridge Rd., 0.05-0.1 mi. N of NW 22nd

Ave., on land owned by Riteco Development Corp. (#9a,b). High Ridge Rd.

is 0.3 mi. W of 1-95 at the N end of Boynton Beach. Sand pine scrub at

this locality extends along the N side of NW 22nd Ave. from 1-95 to ca.

0.4 mi. W of High Ridge Rd. Scrub extends 0-0.45 mi. N of NW 22nd Ave.

on the W side of High Ridge Rd. and 0-0.2 and 0.6-0.7 mi. N on the E






52


side. Another new scrub lizard locality is in oak scrub ca. 0.4 mi. to

the SE on the E side of 1-95, SE of Rolling Green City Park (#10).

According to Barnett (FNAI) in a 1984 regional impact assessment

report for the proposed development of Kovens Commerce Center, scrub

lizards occur throughout most of the Yamato scrub. Remnants of this

scrub are located at the N end of Boca Raton between 1-95 on the E and

El Rio Canal on the W and up to ca. 1.5 mi. N of SR-794 (Yamato Rd.).

At the N end of this locality, scrub lizards were common along an old

sand road, 1.8 mi. S of SR-782 (Linton Blvd.), lined with tires and

other trash (#llb). This area of open sand pine scrub extends ca. 0.2

mi. NE of El Rio Canal along the SE side of Congress Ave. and ca. 0.15

mi. S; slash pine scrub and xeric hammock extend ca. 0.25 mi. further S

to a small canal (scrub lizards also were present in these atypical

habitats). To the E, a scrub lizard was seen along the W side of SCL

Railroad, W of 1-95 and 0.625-0.65 mi. N of the overpass for Clint Moore

Rd (#lla). Scrub vegetation extends along the W side of 1-95 from 0.675

mi. N of the Clint Moore Rd. overpass to SR-794 (in most places, this

1.5-mi. long stretch of scrub consists merely of a strip along the

railroad). Scrub lizards also were seen along 1-95, 0.25 mi. N of the

overpass (#lld). They were observed at the edge of a narrow strip of

dense vegetation along the highway cut, which consisted of loamy sand,

stones, grass and weeds. Scrub lizards were seen in the E half of a

0.4-mi. stretch of scrub NW of the railroad along the NE side of Clint

Moore Rd. (#11c). The lizards were observed along a firebreak

surrounding an oak scrub that had been burned in late January of 1986.

At those sites N of Clint Moore Rd., scrub lizards were seen in poor to

marginal disturbed habitat along the railroad and 1-95 and, to the W, on






53


larger tracts with better habitat that are owned by Boca Commerce Center

Association, which already has developed large areas. Much of the land

between Clint Moore Rd. and Yamato Rd. has been cleared for Arvida Park

of Commerce. Sand pine scrub still remains ca. 0-0.15 mi. S of Clint

Moore Rd. along the W side of 1-95 and extends 0-0.4 mi. W. Scrub

lizards were seen along the 1-95 roadcut at the start of the exit ramp

to Yamato Rd (#lle); suitable-looking scrub lizard habitat on the E side

of 1-95 around the exit and entrance ramps to Yamato Rd. was not

searched.

A new scrub lizard locality was discovered to the E in

ORV-disturbed sand pine and oak scrub 0-0.1 mi. W of the FEC Railroad on

the W side of SR-811 (Old Dixie Highway) and 0.025-0.175 mi. S of Hidden

Valley Blvd (#12). A 0.2-mi. long stretch of scrub to the S is being

cleared, but a 0.2-mi. long stretch of mature sand pine scrub further S

is still intact.

A locality N of Boca Raton Cemetery, where Jackson (FNAI) collected

22 scrub lizards from 1968-1970, has been drastically reduced in size

and apparently no longer supports scrub lizards. A 50-m wide strip of

mature sand pine scrub still remains 0.225-0.35 mi. N of SR-808 and W of

SW 4th Ave. behind Temple Bethel (#13). There are houses to the N and

W, and a recent addition to the temple's parking lot has encroached on

the E side of the scrub. A new scrub lizard locality was found ca. 1

mi. further S on the W side of SR-811 in a strip of sand pine scrub

extending 0-0.2 mi. N of SW 18th St. (#14). An old city dump to the W

is slated for a city park, and the new locality, which contains ca. 17

acres of scrub, is slated for a single-family housing development (trees

are already flagged).


I ~~-~I~-_is~l_






54


g. Broward County

During this survey, scrub lizards were observed at 3 of 11 sites

searched in Broward Co.; 2 of these sites were at a known locality and

the other site was at a new locality. Barbour (1919) reported that

scrub lizards were closely confined to ridges of sand pine scrub, which

were located between Boca Raton and Pompano, below Pompano, and 1 mi. N

of Hallandale. As in the S part of Palm Beach Co., most of the land

along the Atlantic Coast in Broward Co. has been converted into urban

areas, residential developments, condominiums, country clubs, etc.

A new scrub lizard locality was discovered in Deerfield Beach at

the new Tivoli Sand Pine Preserve; when it opens, access will be limited

to guided tours by appointment only and it will be completely surrounded

by a chain link fence. This preserve contains 9.4 ha of sand pine and

oak scrub in an L-shape along the N side of SW 10th St. and the W side

of SW 3rd Ave. (#1). Scrub and scrubby flatwoods occur outside the

preserve, but much of it is being cleared by several developers for

luxury apartments and condominiums in Tivoli Park. The acreage and

quality of habitat within the confines of the preserve appear sufficient

to support a healthy population of scrub lizards.

Jackson (FNAI) collected 7 scrub lizards in 1968 at the Pompano

County Convict Camp, which is 0.5 mi. S of SR-814 (Cypress Creek Rd.) on

the E side of SR-809 (Powerline Rd.). The acreage of this convict camp

has been reduced to 4 ha of landscaped grounds. There is no scrub

habitat in the vicinity; an industrial park now lies E of the convict

camp in former scrub habitat.

A known scrub lizard locality (FNAI) at the N end of Fort

Lauderdale apparently represents the southernmost remaining locality


-LI~






55


along the Atlantic Coast. One of 2 sites where scrub lizards were seen

at this locality is along a wide sand ditch at the edge of sand pine

scrub on the N side of SR-814, 1.15-1.3 mi. W of SR-809 (#2a). The

headquarters of the Computer Systems Division of Harris Corp. occupies

much of the area here, but good-looking scrub habitat still occurs

1.15-1.4 mi. W of SR-809; some of it may be cleared for additional

parking. The second site where scrub lizards were seen was in a strip

of moderately disturbed oak/rosemary scrub on the S side of SR-814,

1.225-1.375 mi. W of SR-809 (#2b). This site is protected in a City of

Fort Lauderdale nature preserve that extends 1.15-1.375 mi. W of

SR-809; Allied Bendix Aerospace, 94th Aero Squadron Restaurant, and Fort

Lauderdale Executive Airport lie to the E, W, and S, respectively.

Barbour (1919) found a few scrub lizards in a small sand pine scrub

ca 1 mi. N of Hallandale; this locality could not be found and

undoubtably no longer exists, since the area is a developed section of

the city of Hollywood.

h. Dade County

A scrub lizard locality listed as Miami (Jackson 1972) was not

searched for due to imprecise locality data; it is assumed to be gone

because of the extensive development in this area of Florida.



4. Distribution Survey of the Southwestern Gulf Coast

Scrub lizards were observed during this survey at only 1 locality

in Collier Co. (Table 3), but they also occur at a locality in Lee Co.

(S. Christman, pers. comm.).


~ ~I_ I_ __






56


a. Lee County

Scrub lizards were not found during this survey at the only

historic locality in Lee Co, which was the N tip of Estero Island

(Bodwitch Point). Stewart (FNAI) collected a scrub lizard here in 1949,

but the area now consists of old spoil piles covered by Australian pines

(Casuarina sp.) instead of scrub vegetation; land to the S of here has

been completely developed as Fort Myers Beach.

Although scrub lizards were not observed during this survey in open

slash pine scrub on the W side of US-41, 0.6-0.9 mi. N of Imperial

River, S. Christman (pers. comm.) observed them here in 1986 (#1).

Scrub lizards also were not observed at a site in scrubby flatwoods S of

Estero and W of Halfway Creek. Coastal strand habitat at Cayo Costa

State Park, which is located on an island W of the N end of Big Pine

Island, was unsuccessfully searched for scrub lizards.

b. Collier County

Scrub lizards were observed during this survey at 1 of 2 known

localities in Collier Co. Jackson (1972) collected scrub lizards from a

site 0.3 mi. N of Naples. During this survey, scrub lizards were not

seen at the only 2 areas of sand pine scrub that could be found in the

vicinity of Naples. One site was a vacant lot with marginal scrub

lizard habitat on the E side of US-41, 0-0.025 mi. S of Cypress Woods

Dr. The other site was on the W side of US-41, 0-0.175 mi. N of Cypress

Woods Dr., and had suitable scrub lizard habitat at the N end. The S

end of the site was severely disturbed by heavy equipment, and the

middle of the site was being developed into The Inn of Naples. These

sites may not be the locality where Jackson collected scrub lizards, or

these sites may be the remnants of Jackson's locality.






57


Jones (1927) first reported the presence of scrub lizards on Marco

Island. In 1968 and 1970, Jackson (FNAI) collected 9 and 4 scrub

lizards, respectively, from near Tommie Barfield School on Marco Island.

During this survey, 3 scrub lizards were seen on 15 April during 60 min.

of searching cleared land S of the school, N and S of SR-92. All the

lizards were found on vacant lots in the 67-m. stretch between Bermuda

Rd. on the N and Tahiti Rd. on the S and up to ca. 46 m W of Sandhill

St. (#1). About 10 years ago, these lots were cleared and utility

hookups were installed; they have been bought by out-of-state

individuals. The only remaining scrub vegetation in this small area

were 3 large south Florida slash pines and a few less than 2 m tall.

Some Australian pines also were present; about half of the sand/shell

substrate was vegetated by grass and forbs. When the site was revisited

on 14 July, no scrub lizards were seen during 10 min. of searching, and

the habitat looked even less suitable for scrub lizards due to increased

groundcover. This scrub lizard population probably will disappear in

the near future.

Scrub lizards were not seen in open slash pine/rosemary scrub on

the W side of US-41, 0.1-0.3 mi. S of the Lee Co. line, nor to the SW

along CR-901, 0-0.3 mi. N of CR-846. Another site without scrub lizards

was SE of Naples in oak scrub 0.8-0.825 mi. W of SR-951 on the S side of

Shell Island Rd. at Rookery Bay National Estuarine Sanctuary.


D. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Status of Species

a. Present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of

its habitat or range






58


The principal threat to Florida scrub lizard populations along the

central ridge is habitat loss for citrus groves and housing

developments. For example, by 1981 on the southern Lake Wales Ridge in

Highlands Co., there had been a 64% loss of xeric vegetative types, with

44% of the loss due to cultivation, 14% to housing development, and 6%

to improved pasture (Peroni and Abrahamson 1985). An additional 10% of

the xeric vegetation had been moderately disturbed, primarily by road

construction for future housing subdivisions. Florida's citrus

production doubled from 1960 to 1978; most of the increase in acreage

for these crops occurred in southern counties (Fernald 1981). This

southward movement of the citrus industry down the Florida peninsula has

accelerated following severe freezes during the winters of 1983-1984 and

1984-1985.

Most historic scrub lizard localities in Lake (except those in

ONF) and northern Polk Counties no longer contain scrub habitat. In

southern Polk and Highlands Counties, large-scale conversion of scrub

habitat to citrus production has fragmented parts of the scrub lizard's

range. However, the species is present in most remaining scrub habitat,

including several large, sparsely populated subdivisions. Much scrub

lizard habitat is presently being converted to other uses or will be

converted in the foreseeable future. At the N end of the central ridge,

scrub lizards are extensively distributed throughout most xeric

communities in ONF, and present forest management practices pose no

threat to their continued existence. Some degree of protection of scrub

lizard habitat is given in southern Polk Co. at the future Lake Arbuckle

State Park and the adjacent Arbuckle and Avon Park WMA's. Habitat

protection also is given in Polk Co. at The Nature Conservancy's Tiger






59


Creek and Saddle Blanket Lakes Preserves and in southern Highlands Co.

at ABS.

Along the Atlantic Coast, scrub habitat has been lost to citrus

production in the past, but further loss for this purpose is unlikely

due to high land prices. The greatest present threats are residential,

commercial, and recreational developments. Although extensive scrub

habitat remains along ridges paralleling the coast, most of it is owned

by developers. Most historic scrub lizard localities in Dade, Broward,

and southern Palm Beach Counties have been lost or will be lost in the

near future. Cox (1984) predicted that the Florida scrub jay sites most

likely to be developed in the near future are in Brevard, Palm Beach,

and Highlands Counties. Large areas of scrub lizard habitat are

protected in southern St. Lucie Co. at The Savannahs State Preserve and

in southern Martin Co. at Jonathan Dickinson State Park and Hobe Sound

National Wildlife Refuge. Small areas of scrub lizard habitat are

protected in Broward Co. at city preserves in Deerfield Beach and Fort

Lauderdale.

The 2 remaining scrub lizard populations along the southwestern

Gulf Coast are either already cleared or on property owned by a

developer.

b. Utilization for commercial, sporting, scientific, or educational

purposes at a level that detrimentally affects it

The Florida scrub lizard is a unique Florida endemic and therefore

is of interest to both amateur and scientific collectors. While

studying population phenetics of the species, Jackson (1972, 1973a)

collected 20 or more specimens from 20 different localities. Often, he

collected about half of the specimens in 1968 and the other half 2 years






60


later, indicating his first collection had not detrimentally affected

the population. Occasionally, specimens are captured for use as pets or

snake food, especially in southern peninsular Florida or along the

Atlantic Coast where the southern fence lizard does not occur. However,

there is no indication that any of these activities have significantly

impacted scrub lizard populations in the past.

c. Disease or predation

Florida scrub lizards occupying habitat near human habitation may

be preyed upon by house cats. Because of their conspicuous use of open

areas on the ground, scrub lizards would be fairly easy prey for

felines. Bowie (1974) found that 35.6% of 489 Florida scrub lizards had

gastrointestinal parasites, chiefly oxyuroid and spiruroid nematodes,

but the presence of parasites had no effect on the weight on the host.

There is no evidence that natural predation or disease constitute

threats to the continued survival of the species.

d. Absence of regulatory mechanisms (State or Federal) adequate to

prevent the decline of the species or degreation of its habitat

The Florida scrub lizard presently is listed as "rare" by the

Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals, which does

not provide it any state or federal protection. The Committee recently

has proposed to change its status to threatened. However, the species

occurs on several state or federal lands that offer some degree of

habitat and, in some cases, species protection. These lands include 1

National Forest, 1 National Wildlife Refuge, 1 state preserve, 2 state

parks, and 2 Wildlife Management Areas. In addition, the species occurs

at 2 Nature Conservancy preserves, 2 city nature preserves, and ABS.






61


e. Other natural or man-made factors affecting its continued existence

Both sand pine scrub and longleaf pine/turkey oak sandhill

communities are dependent on fire to maintain them. Fires generally are

infrequent (at intervals of 20-50 years) in sand pine scrub due to the

large areas of bare sand, evergreen nature of the shrubs, and slow

accumulation of litter. Sandhill communities are dependent on more

frequent fires (at intervals of 1-8 years) to prevent succession. The

presence of scrub lizards in sandhill communities often is dependent on

fires at intervals of 1-2 years or on man-made disturbances providing

areas of bare sand. If fire is suppressed for long periods of time in

sand pine scrub and sandhill communities, they will gradually succeed to

xeric hammock. Scrub lizards can survive in xeric hammocks if openings

in the canopy and areas of exposed sand are present. Man-made

disturbances may substitute for fire in providing these openings and

reducing litter.

The clearcutting and even-age stand management of sand pines in

ONF simulates the natural fire regime of sand pine scrub. Bare sand

resulting from road construction and heavy equipment disturbances during

logging provide favorable microhabitats for scrub lizards. Scrub

lizards tend to have higher population densities in earlier succesional

stages than in dense, mature sand pine scrub (Christman et al. 1979).

In habitats with limited open spaces and sand exposure, scrub lizards

selectively utilize firebreaks, firelanes, roadcuts, and powerline

corridors for foraging and basking.

The majority of scrub lizard sites in open sand pine, oak, and

rosemary scrubs exhibit some degree of ORV use, which includes dirt

bikes, 3- and 4-wheelers, and dune buggies. Particularly heavy ORV






62


usage occurs in scrub on hills and ridges and in rosemary scrub, which

already has a lot of bare sand. Marginal scrub lizard habitat, such as

dense oak scrub, benefits from the increased sand exposure resulting

from ORV use. Scrub lizards often were common in scrubs where ORV use

had created trails 1-2 m deep and restricted scrub vegetation to

isolated hummocks comprising as little as 20% of the total area.

However, scrub lizards tended to avoid deep trails with loose sand and

were present only on the periphery of large areas of bare sand ("pits")

resulting from extremely heavy ORV use. Scrub lizard avoidance of loose

sand may have been due to impairment in running ability and/or reduction

in prey abundance. Ants, which are the primary prey items of scrub

lizards, may be detrimentally affected by excessive ORV use destroying

their colonies. A scrub lizard population may experience increased

mortality as a result of being ran over by vehicles or as a result of

increased predation, particularly avian, due to the reduction in

vegetative cover.

Low-intensity cattle grazing in scrub, scrubby flatwoods, and

sandhill communities does not appear to be detrimental to scrub lizard

populations. Scrub lizards occupying dense scrub habitat are benefitted

by the cattle trails. The removal of grass by cattle probably benefits

scrub lizards, particularly in scrubby flatwoods and sandhills. Roller

chopping is sometimes used to improve oak scrub for cattle grazing; this

practice does not appear to have long-term detrimental effects on scrub

lizard survival.

Young citrus groves have similar vegetative structure to disturbed

oak scrub and may support scrub lizards (Lee 1974). However, grove

habitat must be considered ephemeral in its suitability for scrub






63


lizards; increased grass cover and canopy closure due to tree maturation

will drastically reduce habitat suitability. In addition, the

application of herbicides and pesticides poses a possible threat to both

populations of scrub lizards and their prey.

Scrubs as small as 0.8 ha were found to support scrub lizard

populations, but the limited habitat and relatively small number of

individuals make small scrubs susceptible to man-induced or natural

changes. If these small scrubs are isolated, gradual or sudden

detrimental changes in habitat quality preclude the emigration of scrub

lizards to surrounding areas with suitable habitat and recolonization at

a later date.

Scrub lizard populations do not survive when native vegetation is

cleared and replaced by grassy pastures, lawns, golf courses, sand

mines, asphalt, buildings, etc.



2. Essential Habitat

Localities with Florida scrub lizards are listed in Tables 1-3;

additional locality information is given in Enge et al. (1987). During

this survey, the species was observed at a total of 270 sites (193

localities) in 12 counties.

Preferred habitats include young sand pine, oak, and rosemary

scrubs. Less favorable habitats include open slash pine scrub, sand

live oak/turkey oak scrub, and xeric hammock. Occasionally, scrub

lizards are found in scrubby flatwoods, turkey oak sandhills, and mesic

hammocks if disturbed or natural areas of bare sand are present.

Natural and man-made factors affecting the quality of these habitats for

scrub lizards already have been discussed.


_~I~ _~_I~






64


Exposed areas of sand are utilized by the species as feeding and

basking sites. Shrubs, trees, and fallen logs are used for perch sites

(usually less than 1 m above the ground), for escape cover, and for

shade during the hottest periods of the day. Occasionally, scrub

lizards were observed burrowing under leaf litter to escape detection.

Leaf litter, rotten logs, and hollow trees may be important as refugia

during the nighttime and/or in cold weather.



3. Management and Recovery

The Florida scrub lizard is a tolerant species in terms of size and

quality of habitat. A relatively wide range of xeric vegetative types

can support scrub lizard populations as long as certain requirements are

met, which already have been discussed. This species acts like a

colonizing one in its selective use of disturbed areas and preference

for early successional stages of scrub. However, scrub lizards can

survive at lower population levels in older sand pine scrub even in the

xeric hammock community of taller oaks and scrub hickory that develops

when fire is precluded for a long period of time from scrub. Continued

survival in xeric hammocks requires canopy openings and areas of bare

sand or compacted leaf litter. Populations should be able to recover

from major habitat disturbances, such as fire, clearcutting, roller

chopping, and bush hogging if a nucleus of lizards remains or if there

is a nearby source of lizards for recolonization. In many communities,

post-disturbance population levels soon are higher than pre-disturbance

levels (Lee 1974, Christman et al. 1979). Areas of scrub habitat as

small as 0.8 ha in size can support scrub lizards.






65


The existence of scrub lizards on a tract of land is compatible

with, and often benefitted by, a number of land-use practices.

Clearcutting of sand pines benefits populations in dense pine stands by

opening up the canopy and providing ground-level disturbances. Off-road

vehicle use is beneficial in opening up dense oak scrub; scrub lizards

often were common in scrubs where up to 80% of the area was bare sand,

primarily from ORV use, and the remainder was vegetated by shrubs.

Highest relative densities of scrub lizards normally were recorded in

ORV-disturbed scrubs; however the effect on lizard populations of

continued heavy use by ORV's is unknown. Another activity that appears

to be compatible with the existence of scrub lizards is cattle grazing

at low densities, especially in habitats that normally are unfavorable

for scrub lizards due to heavy groundcover.

Citrus groves were not surveyed, so no determination could be made

concerning the continued survival of scrub lizard populations in this

man-made habitat. Lee (1974) found scrub lizards in young citrus groves

that were frequently disked, thereby maintaining areas of bare sand.

Prescribed burning of small areas of scrub on a rotation basis at

intervals of 20-50 years would be beneficial in always maintaining good

scrub lizard habitat on a large tract of land. Fires every 1 or 2 years

may be necessary to preserve scrub lizard habitat in some sandhill

communities, unless man-made disturbances are used to reduce wiregrass

cover and litter.

Developers of large areas of scrub habitat should be persuaded to

set aside some of the land as a nature preserve, especially in parts of

Florida where scrub habitat is limited. This happened in Broward Co. at

the Tivoli Sand Pine Preserve in Deerfield Beach. Although scrub






66


lizards can survive in patches of scrub 0.8 ha in size, preserves should

be as large as possible to maintain a larger gene pool, more biotic

diversity, and greater protection from catastrophic events. Fire should

not be precluded indefinitely from a preserve; each half of the preserve

(or a mosaic of smaller tracts) should be alternately burned every 20-50

years to maintain a more natural scrub community. Fires at intervals of

about 15 years would prevent sand pine regeneration but would probably

result in conditions more favorable for large scrub lizard populations.

Within subdivisions, the retention of strips of scrub vegetation between

lots and along roads may be sufficient to support scrub lizard

populations.

If the need should arise, the reintroduction of Florida scrub

lizards into former scrub or sandhill habitat probably is feasible.

Abandoned citrus groves in Lake Co. are possible areas where

reintroduction might be considered. Mulching with topsoil from a

natural scrub has been used to restore sand pine scrub on

phosphate-mined land. This reclaimed land probably is suitable in terms

of sand and shrub cover, but prey availability is an unknown variable.



4. Taxonomy

The Florida scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi) was first described by

Stejneger (1918). Its coloration, proportions, and ground-dwelling

tendencies indicate the species is nearer the southwestern members of

the undulatus group than to the southern fence lizard (S. u. undulatus)

(Jackson 1973a). The Florida scrub lizard may be derived from a form

close to S. virgatus or S. u. consobrinus that probably invaded Florida

from the southwestern U.S. or Mexico during the Pliocene (Jackson


~~






67


1973a). The southern fence lizard probably arrived later; the 2 species

hybridize sparingly where their distributions meet (Jackson 1973b).



5. Impact of Federal Activity

Scrub lizards are extensively distributed in sand pine scrub and in

sandhill islands in ONF. The U.S. Forest Service's policy of

fire suppression probably has been offset by its clearcutting in blocks

and even-age management of sand pine stands in the Forest. Clearcutting

approximately mimics the natural situation of infrequent crown fires;

the average size of clearcuts in ONF is 24 ha, and the present policy is

for clearcuts not to exceed 48 ha. Florida scrub lizard populations

probably can exist indefinitely in the resulting juxtaposition of

clearcuts and assorted even-age sand pine stands.

In Martin Co., scrub lizards occur in Hobe Sound National Wildlife

Refuge on a long ridge of good-looking sand pine, oak, and rosemary

scrub between US-1 and the Intracoastal Waterway. Present practices in

the refuge pose no threats to the species. In Palm Beach Co., scrub

lizards occur in sand pine scrub at the U.S.A.F. Jupiter Missile Data

Collecting Annex and the nearby U.S. Government Lighthouse Reservation.

Scrub habitat N of SR-706 is undisturbed, except for an entrance road

and large cleared area in the interior where buildings and

missile-tracking equipment are located. Scrub habitat S of SR-706 is

similar to that N of the road but has more natural openings and human

disturbances in the form of footpaths and trash. The future of these

scrub are unknown.






68


6. Research Needs

It would be interesting to determine actual population densities in

different undisturbed vegetative communities and then test the effects

on lizard densities of various human disturbances in these communities.

It is important to establish the minimum area of different vegetative

communities that is required to indefinitely support scrub lizard

populations and to determine what practices enhance the carrying

capacity of the environment. Within 5 to 10 years, a similar status

survey should be conducted to document the continued existence of

habitat and scrub lizards at known localities. If there has been a

serious loss of scrub habitat, consideration should be given to listing

the species as threatened.


I _X_






69


LITERATURE CITED



Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 1985. Handbook of reptiles and

amphibians of Florida. Part two: lizards, turtles and crocodilians.

Windward Publ., Inc., Miami, Fla. 191pp.

Barbour, T. 1919. Distribution of Sceloporus in southern Florida.

Copeia 1919:48-51.

Bowie, L. A. 1973. Predation on lizards by Sceloporus woodi. J.

Herpetol. 7:318.

1974. Comparative study of the gastrointestinal nematodes of

two sceloporid lizards in Florida. M.S. thesis, Univ. Fla.,

Gainesville. 47pp.

Campbell, H. W., and S. P. Christman. 1982. The herpetofaunal

components of Florida sandhill and sand pine scrub associations.

Pp. 163-171 in N. J. Scott, Jr., ed. Herpetological communities.

U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Wildl. Res. Rep. No. 13.

Cox, J. A. 1984. Distribution, habitat, and social organization of the

Florida scrub jay, with a discussion of the evolution of

cooperative breeding in New World jays. Ph.D. Diss., Univ. Fla.,

Gainesville. 259pp.

Enge, K. M., M. M. Bentzien, and H. F. Percival. 1987. Site

descriptions for three taxa of scrub lizards. Tech. Rep. No. 27.

Fla. Coop. Fish and Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Fla., Gainesville (in

prep.).

Fernald, E. A. 1981. Atlas of Florida. Fla. State Univ. Found., Inc.,

Tallahassee. 276pp.

Fogarty, M. J. 1978. Florida scrub lizard. Pp. 56-57 in R. W.


1111~






70


McDiarmid, ed. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Volume

three: amphibians and reptiles. Univ. Presses Fla., Gainesville.

Funderburg, J. B., and D. S. Lee. 1968. The amphibian and reptile

fauna of pocket gopher (Geomys) mounds. J. Herpetol. 1:99-100.

Harper, R. M. 1927. Natural resources of southern Florida. Fla. Geol.

Surv. Ann. Rep. 18:27-192.

Iverson, J. B. 1974. Eggs and hatchlings of the Florida scrub lizard.

Fla. Sci. 37:169-172.

Jackson, J. F. 1972. The population phenetics and behavioral ecology

of the Florida scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi). Ph.D. Diss., Univ.

Fla., Gainesville. 119pp.

1973a. Distribution and population phenetics of the Florida

scrub lizard, Sceloporus woodi. Copeia 1973:746-761.

1973b. The phenetics and ecology of a narrow hybrid zone.

Evolution 27:58-68.

1974. Utilization of periods of high sensory complexity for

site change in two lizards. Copeia 1974:785-787.

Johnson, A. F. 1981. Scrub endemics of the Central Ridge, Florida.

Report to U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Jacksonville Endangered

Species Field Station.

Jones, J. P. 1927. An extension of the range of Sceloporus woodi

Stejneger. Copeia 1927:181-182.

Laessle, A. M. 1958. The origin and successional relationships of

sandhill vegetation and sand pine scrub. Ecol. Monogr. 28:361-387.

Lee, D. S. 1974. Possible role of fire on population density of the

Florida scrub lizard, Sceloporus woodi Stejneger. Bull. Md.

Herpetol. Soc. 10:20-22.






71


J. B. Funderberg, and L. R. Franz. 1974. Growth and feeding

behavior in the endemic Florida scrub lizard, Sceloporus woodi

Stejneger. Bull. Md. Herpetol. Soc. 10:16-19.

Mount, R. H. 1963. The natural history of the red-tailed skink, Eumeces

egregius. Am. Midl. Nat. 70:356-385.

Peroni, P. A., and W. G. Abrahamson. 1985. A rapid method for

determining losses of native vegetation. Nat. Areas J. 5(1):20-24.

Schoener, T. W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Annu. Rev. Ecol.

and Syst. 2:369-404.

Stejneger, L. 1918. Description of a new snapping turtle and a new

lizard from Florida. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 31:89-92.

Telford, S. R. 1959. A study of the sand skink, Neoseps reynoldsi

Stejneger. Copeia 1959:110-119.

Terhune, F. W., ed. 1982. Florida statistical abstract. Univ. Presses

Fla.

Veno, P. A. 1976. Successional relationships of five Florida plant

communities. Ecology 57:498-508.


I~ -~I~---sI_






72


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



This status survey, Research Work Order No. 31, was funded by the

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Jacksonville Endangered Species Office

through the Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and

the Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences at the University of

Florida. S.P. Christman initially developed and submitted the proposal.

We are grateful to D.R. Jackson and K. NeSmith of The Nature Conservancy

for supplying FNAI information on known lizard localities and to D.

Cronwell for additional localities. The senior author is grateful for

the efforts of A.C. Mace, Jr., L.G. Pearlstine, and the U.S. Department

of Agriculture in extracting him from a difficult situation involving

concerns over citrus canker contamination.


















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